117 132 No 15 Weekly Epidemiological Record Relev-PDF Free Download

117 132 No 15 Weekly epidemiological record Relev
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were those most affected in the final week of the report de la derni re semaine de cette p riode Comme dans les semai. ing period As in the preceding weeks Katsina and nes pr c dentes les tats de Katsina et Jigawa sont galement. Jigawa states are seriously affected as well tr s affect s. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens have tested positive for Des chantillons de liquide c phalorachidien ont donn des. N meningitidis serogroup A by latex test and or culture r sultats positifs pour le s rogroupe A de N meningitidis au. A mass vaccination strategy has been implemented by test au latex et ou la culture Le Minist re f d ral de la Sant. the Federal Ministry of Health with the support of M a mis en place une campagne de vaccination de masse avec. decins Sans Fronti res MSF UNICEF and WHO Al l appui de M decins Sans Fronti res MSF de l UNICEF et de. though this strategy across states varies WHO has rec l OMS Bien que la strat gie vaccinale varie d un tat l autre. ommended a standardized strategy and the rational use l OMS a fait des recommandations pour une standardisation de. of vaccine cette strat gie et un usage rationnel des vaccins. WHO support Appui de l OMS, WHO is supporting the Nigerian Federal and National L OMS soutient le Minist re f d ral de la Sant du Nig ria pour. Ministry of Health to strengthen disease surveillance renforcer la surveillance de la maladie le diagnostic dans les. laboratory diagnosis and case management and in de laboratoires la prise en charge des cas et la d termination de. fining adapted vaccination strategies Technical experts strat gies vaccinales adapt es Des experts techniques de l OMS. from WHO have been supporting the Federal Ministry pr tent main forte au Minist re depuis la mi f vrier 2009. of Health in Nigeria since mid February 2009, The International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Pro Le Groupe international de coordination pour l approvisionne. vision for Epidemic Meningitis Control ICG has re ment en vaccin antim ningococcique GIC a distribu. leased 2 3 million doses of polysaccharide vaccines to 2 3 millions de doses de vaccin polyosidique pour le Nig ria et. Nigeria and 1 9 million doses of vaccine to Niger ICG 1 9 millions de doses pour le Niger Les partenaires du GIC. partners include WHO the International Federation of sont l OMS la F d ration internationale des Soci t s de la. Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies UNICEF and Croix Rouge et du Croissant Rouge l UNICEF et MSF Les. MSF The ICG s stockpile for this epidemic season was r serves du GIC en vaccins pour cette saison pid mique avaient. set at 12 97 million doses The emergency stockpile has t fix es 12 97 millions de doses La r serve d urgence a t. been established with the support of the GAVI Alliance constitu e avec l appui de l Alliance GAVI et l Office humani. and the European Commission s Humanitarian Aid taire de la Communaut europ enne. Human papillomavirus vaccines Vaccins anti papillomavirus humain. WHO position paper Note d information de l OMS, In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Conform ment son mandat qui est de fournir des conseils. Member States on health policy matters WHO issues a aux Etats Membres sur les questions relatives aux politiques de. series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines sant l OMS publie une s rie de notes d information r guli re. and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an ment actualis es sur les vaccins et les associations vaccinales. international public health impact These papers which contre les maladies qui ont des r percussions sur la sant publi. are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in que internationale Ces notes d information qui portent essen. large scale immunization programmes summarize es tiellement sur l utilisation des vaccins dans le cadre de program. sential background information on their respective dis mes de vaccination grande chelle r sument les consid rations. eases and vaccines and conclude with the current WHO g n rales essentielles sur les maladies et vaccins respectifs et. position concerning their use in the global context The pr sentent en conclusion la position actuelle de l OMS concer. papers have been reviewed by a number of experts nant leur utilisation dans le contexte mondial Ces notes ont. within and outside WHO and since April 2006 they t soumises un certain nombre de sp cialistes l OMS et. have been reviewed and endorsed by WHO s Strategic l ext rieur et depuis avril 2006 sont examin es et approuv es. Advisory Group of Experts SAGE on vaccines and im par le Groupe strat gique consultatif d experts de la vaccination. munization The position papers are designed for use SAGE de l OMS Elles sont principalement destin es aux. mainly by national public health officials and managers responsables nationaux de la sant publique et aux administra. of immunization programmes However they may also teurs des programmes de vaccination Toutefois elles peuvent. be of interest to international funding agencies the vac galement pr senter un int r t pour les organismes internatio. cine manufacturing industry the medical community naux de financement les fabricants de vaccins la communaut. scientific media and the public m dicale les m dias scientifiques et le grand public. This is the first WHO position paper on vaccines against Il s agit ici de la premi re note d information de l OMS sur les. diseases caused by human papillomaviruses HPVs To vaccins contre les maladies dues au papillomavirus humain. complement the text and the selected references offered PVH Pour compl ter ce texte et les r f rences bibliographiques. in this document a comprehensive WHO background choisies pr sent es dans ce document un document de travail. 118 WEEKLY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RECORD NO 15 10 APRIL 2009. paper provides additional information and references complet de l OMS fournit des renseignements et des r f rences. reflecting evidence available to the end of September compl mentaires t moignant des donn es disponibles la fin. 2008 1 The final section of this position paper provides septembre 2008 1 La derni re section de cette note d information. links to 5 grading tables for scientific evidence and their offre des liens avec 5 tableaux de cotation des donn es scientifi. accompanying references ques et avec les r f rences qui les accompagnent. Background G n ralit s, The epidemiology of HPV and HPV related diseases L pid miologie des maladies PVH ou li es au PVH. Genital HPV infections are primarily transmitted by Les infections g nitales PVH sont principalement transmises. sexual contact predominantly but not exclusively par contact sexuel le plus souvent mais pas exclusivement lors. through penetrative intercourse HPVs are highly trans d un rapport avec p n tration Les PVH sont hautement trans. missible and most sexually active men and women will missibles et la plupart des hommes et des femmes sexuellement. acquire an HPV infection at some time in their lives actifs contracteront une infection PVH un moment ou un. Whereas most HPV infections are transient and benign autre de leur vie Tandis que la plupart des infections PVH. persistent genital infection with certain viral genotypes sont transitoires et b nignes une infection g nitale persistante. can lead to the development of anogenital precancers par certains g notypes viraux peut conduire au d veloppement. and cancers de l sions pr canc reuses et de cancers ano g nitaux. Diseases caused by HPVs include cancers of the cervix Parmi les maladies dues au PVH on peut citer les cancers du. vagina vulva penis and anus a subset of head and neck col ut rin du vagin de la vulve du p nis et de l anus un sous. cancers anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory groupe de cancers de la t te et du cou des condylomes ano. papillomatosis In 2005 there were about 500 000 cases g nitaux et une papillomatose respiratoire r currente En 2005. of cervical cancer and 260 000 related deaths worldwide il y a eu dans le monde pr s de 500 000 cas de cancer du col. Cervical cancer incidence rates vary from 1 50 per ut rin et 260 000 d c s associ s L incidence du cancer du col. 100 000 females rates are highest in Latin America and se situe entre 1 et 50 100 000 femmes c est en Am rique latine. the Caribbean sub Saharan Africa Melanesia and et aux Cara bes en Afrique subsaharienne en M lan sie dans. south central and South East Asia Most cases of cervi le sud de l Asie centrale et en Asie du Sud Est qu elle est la plus. cal cancer are diagnosed in women aged 40 years 2 lev e La plupart des cas du cancer du col sont diagnostiqu s. chez des femmes g es de 40 ans 2, Countries with well organized programmes to detect Les pays qui disposent de programmes bien organis s pour.
and treat precancerous abnormalities and early stage d pister et traiter les anomalies pr canc reuses du col ut rin. cervical cancer can prevent up to 80 of these cancers et le stade pr coce du cancer du col peuvent pr venir jusqu. However effective screening programmes and follow up 80 de ces cancers Cependant des programmes efficaces de. of women with abnormal screening tests have been dif d pistage et de suivi des femmes pr sentant des tests anormaux. ficult to implement in low resource and middle resource ont t difficiles mettre en uvre dans les pays disposant de. settings Mortality rates from cervical cancer are there peu de moyens financiers ou de moyens mod r s Les taux de. fore much higher in the developing world mortalit par cancer du col ut rin sont de ce fait bien plus. lev s dans le monde en d veloppement, Vulvar vaginal penile and anal cancers and precancer Les cancers vulvaires vaginaux p niens et anaux et les l sions. ous lesions are relatively rare and most of these cancers pr canc reuses sont relativement rares et la plupart d entre eux. occur in adults aged 50 years HPVs are estimated to apparaissent chez des adultes de 50 ans On estime que les. cause at least 80 of anal cancer and at least 40 60 PVH sont l origine d au moins 80 des cancers de l anus et. of vulvar vaginal and penile cancers d au moins 40 60 des cancers vulvaires vaginaux et. Genital warts are common among sexually active people Les condylomes g nitaux sont courants chez les gens sexuellement. and usually first occur in adolescence or young adult actifs et apparaissent habituellement pour la premi re fois l ado. hood Estimates of the global incidence of anogenital lescence ou au d but de l ge adulte On ne dispose pas d estima. warts are not available but prevalence is believed to be tions relatives l incidence mondiale des condylomes ano g ni. high in all parts of the world especially in people in taux mais l on pense que leur pr valence est lev e partout dans. fected with HIV le monde surtout chez les sujets infect s par le VIH. The viruses Les virus, HPVs are non enveloped double stranded deoxyribo Les PVH sont des virus non envelopp s acide d soxyribonu. nucleic acid DNA viruses in the family of Papilloma cl ique ADN double brin qui appartiennent la famille des. Human papillomavirus HPV vaccine Background paper September 2008 Geneva 1. Human papillomavirus HPV vaccine Background paper September 2008 Geneva WHO 2008. WHO 2008 http www who int immunization documents positionpapers en in http www who int immunization documents positionpapers en index html consult le 24 mars. dex html accessed 24 March 2009 2009, Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccines technical information for policy makers 2. Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccines technical information for policy makers and health. and health professionals Geneva WHO 2007 http whqlibdoc who int hq 2007 professionals Geneva WHO 2007 http whqlibdoc who int hq 2007 WHO IVB 07 05 eng. WHO IVB 07 05 eng pdf accessed 25 September 2008 pdf consult le 25 septembre 2008. RELEVE EPIDEMIOLOGIQUE HEBDOMADAIRE No 15 10 AVRIL 2009 119. viridae The HPV genome is enclosed in a capsid shell papillomavirid s Le g nome du PVH est enferm dans une. comprising major L1 and minor L2 structural pro capside constitu e de prot ines structurelles majeures L1 et. teins mineures L2, More than 100 HPV genotypes are known Certain HPV On conna t plus de 100 g notypes PVH Certains sont associ s. genotypes are associated with cell immortalization and une immortalisation et une transformation des cellules li es. transformation related to carcinogenesis Of these at la canc rogen se Parmi eux au moins 13 sont susceptibles. least 13 may cause cervical cancer or are associated with de provoquer un cancer du col ou sont associ s d autres. other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers HPV cancers ano g nitaux et oropharyngiens Les PVH de type 16. types 16 and 18 cause about 70 of all cases of invasive et 18 sont l origine de pr s de 70 de tous les cas de cancer. cervical cancer worldwide with type 16 having the du col invasif dans le monde le type 16 ayant le potentiel onco. greatest oncogenic potential The distribution of HPV g ne le plus important La r partition des types de PVH varie. types varies among geographical regions but the dom selon les r gions g ographiques mais le type oncog ne domi. inant oncogenic type in all regions is HPV 16 3 Some nant dans l ensemble des r gions est le PVH 16 3 Certains g no. genotypes rarely cause cancer but may cause benign or types sont rarement l origine de cancers mais peuvent provo. low grade changes in cervical cells that may be indis quer des modifications b nignes ou de bas grade des cellules. tinguishable by cytology or histology from those caused du col ut rin qui peuvent tre impossibles distinguer la. by HPV types with higher oncogenic potential The low cytologie ou l histologie de celles dues aux types de PVH ayant. Diseases caused by HPVs include cancers of the cervix vagina vulva penis and anus a subset of head and neck cancers anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis In 2005 there were about 500 000 cases of cervical cancer and 260 000 related deaths worldwide Cervical cancer incidence rates vary from 1 50 per 100 000 females rates are highest in Latin America and the

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