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A TEXTBOOK OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
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A TEXTBOOK OF, MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, Manufacturing Processes. By the Same Author, l Thermal Engineering, l Engineering Thermodynamics. l Applied Thermodynamics, l Internal Combustion Engines. l Automobile Engineering, l Power Plant Engineering. l Elements of Mechanical Engineering, l Steam Tables and Mollier Diagram SI Units.
A TEXTBOOK OF, MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, Manufacturing Processes. For B E B Tech A M I E Section B and Competitive Examinations. Er R K RAJPUT, M E Hons Gold Medallist Grad Mech Engg Elect Engg. M I E India M S E S I M I S T E C E India, Recipient of. Best Teacher Academic Award, Distinguished Author Award. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Gold Medal, for an outstanding research paper.
Institution of Engineers India, Principal Formerly. l Thapar Polytechnic College, l Punjab College of Information Technology. LAXMI PUBLICATI, PUBLICATIONS P L, An ISO 9001 2008 Company. BENGALURU l CHENNAI l COCHIN l GUWAHATI l HYDERABAD. JALANDHAR l KOLKATA l LUCKNOW l MUMBAI l RANCHI l NEW DELHI. BOSTON USA l ACCRA GHANA l NAIROBI KENYA, A TEXTBOOK OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY. by Author and Publisher, All rights reserved including those of translation into other languages In accordance with the Copyright Amendment Act 2012.
no part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic. mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise Any such act or scanning uploading and or electronic sharing of any part of this. book without the permission of the publisher constitutes unlawful piracy and theft of the copyright holder s intellectual property If. you would like to use material from the book other than for review purposes prior written permission must be obtained from the. publishers, Printed and bound in India, Typeset at Goswami Associates Delhi. First Edition 2007 Second Edition 2015, ISBN 978 81 318 0244 1. Limits of Liability Disclaimer of Warranty The publisher and the author make no representation or warranties with respect to the. accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and speci cally disclaim all warranties The advice strategies and activities. contained herein may not be suitable for every situation In performing activities adult supervision must be sought Likewise common. sense and care are essential to the conduct of any and all activities whether described in this book or otherwise Neither the publisher. nor the author shall be liable or assumes any responsibility for any injuries or damages arising here from The fact that an organization. or Website if referred to in this work as a citation and or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or. the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make Further readers. must be aware that the Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written. and when it is read, All trademarks logos or any other mark such as Vibgyor USP Amanda Golden Bells Firewall Media Mercury Trinity Laxmi. appearing in this work are trademarks and intellectual property owned by or licensed to Laxmi Publications its subsidiaries or. af liates Notwithstanding this disclaimer all other names and marks mentioned in this work are the trade names trademarks or. service marks of their respective owners, Bengaluru 080 26 75 69 30. Chennai 044 24 34 47 26 24 35 95 07, Cochin 0484 237 70 04 405 13 03.
Guwahati 0361 254 36 69 251 38 81, Hyderabad 040 27 55 53 83 27 55 53 93. Jalandhar 0181 222 12 72, Published in India by Kolkata 033 22 27 43 84. Lucknow 0522 220 99 16, Mumbai 022 24 91 54 15 24 92 78 69. Laxmi Publications P Ltd Ranchi 0651 220 44 64, An ISO 9001 2008 Company. 113 GOLDEN HOUSE DARYAGANJ, NEW DELHI 110002 INDIA.
Telephone 91 11 4353 2500 4353 2501, Fax 91 11 2325 2572 4353 2528 C 9791 015 02. www laxmipublications com info laxmipublications com Printed at Ajit Printing Press Delhi. Chapter Pages, 1 CONCEPT OF MANUFACTURING 1 38, 1 1 Introduction 1. 1 2 Manufacturing System 1, 1 2 1 General aspects 1. 1 2 2 Classification of manufacturing processes 2, 1 2 3 Selection of a manufacturing process 3. 1 2 4 Process planning 4, 1 2 5 Analysis of manufacturing system 4.
1 3 Types of Production 5, 1 4 Control Systems 6, 1 4 1 Introduction 6. 1 4 2 System 6, 1 4 3 Control system 6, 1 4 4 Classification of control systems 7. 1 4 5 Open loop control systems Non feedback systems 8. 1 4 6 Closed loop control system Feedback control system 9. 1 4 7 Automatic control systems 10, 1 5 Organisation Administration and Management 11. 1 6 Plant Organisation 11, 1 7 Scientific Management 15. 1 7 1 Definition 15, 1 7 2 Principles 15, 1 7 3 Aims 15.
1 8 Functions of Management 16, 1 9 Plant Location 16. 1 10 Plant Layout 16, 1 11 Production Planning and Control PPC 20. 1 11 1 Definitions 20, 1 11 2 Functions of PPC 20, 1 11 3 Advantages of production control 20. 1 11 4 Constituents of production control 20, Questions with Answers 23. Highlights 34, Objective Type Questions 35, Theoretical Questions 37.
Chapter Pages, 2 CASTING PROCESSES 39 139, 2 1 Introduction 39. 2 2 Patterns 40, 2 2 1 Definition 40, 2 2 2 Requirements of a good pattern 40. 2 2 3 Pattern materials 40, 2 2 4 Types of patterns 42. 2 2 5 Pattern allowances 46, 2 3 Mould Making 48, 2 3 1 General aspects 48. 2 3 2 Types of moulds 49, 2 3 3 Moulding processes 49.
2 3 4 Types of sand moulding 50, 2 4 Core 52, 2 4 1 Core making 53. 2 4 2 Types of cores 53, 2 4 3 Core prints 56, 2 4 4 Core box 56. 2 5 Moulding Sand 57, 2 5 1 Properties of moulding sand 57. 2 5 2 Types of moulding sand 58, 2 5 3 Composition of the green sand 59. 2 5 4 Sand testing 60, 2 6 Melting Equipment 63, 2 6 1 Crucible furnace 63.
2 6 2 Reverberatory or air furnace 64, 2 6 3 Open hearth furnace 65. 2 6 4 Electric furnace 65, 2 6 5 Cupola furnace 67. 2 7 Melting and Pouring 72, 2 7 1 Melting 72, 2 7 2 Pouring 73. 2 8 Gating System 74, 2 9 Cooling and Solidification 82. 2 10 Casting 91, 2 11 Advantages and Disadvantages of Casting Process 91.
2 12 Preparation of a Casting 92, 2 13 Basic Rules for Good Casting Design 92. 2 14 Casting Processes 93, 2 14 1 Sand casting 93, 2 14 2 Shell mould casting 94. 2 14 3 Plaster mould casting 95, 2 14 4 Ceramic mould casting 96. 2 14 5 Vacuum casting 97, 2 14 6 Evaporative pattern casting lost foam 97. 2 14 7 Investment casting, precision casting process or lost wax casting process 98.
Chapter Pages, 2 14 8 Slush casting 100, 2 14 9 Pressure casting 100. 2 14 10 Die casting 100, 2 14 11 Centrifugal casting 102. 2 14 12 Squeeze casting 104, 2 14 13 Semisolid metal forming 104. 2 14 14 Continuous casting 104, 2 15 Defects in Castings 105. 2 16 Cleaning of Castings 108, 2 17 Inspection of Castings 110.
Questions with Answers 110, Highlights 136, Objective Type Questions 137. Theoretical Questions 138, 3 METAL FORMING PROCESSES 140 218. 3 1 Introduction 140, 3 2 Cold and Hot Working 141. 3 2 1 Cold working 141, 3 2 2 Hot working 142, 3 2 3 Comparison of cold working and hot working processes 144. 3 3 Rolling 145, 3 3 1 Principle and mechanism of rolling 145.
3 3 2 Rolling stand arrangement 149, 3 3 3 Defects in rolling 151. 3 4 Forging 152, 3 4 1 Introduction 152, 3 4 2 Advantages and disadvantages of forging 152. 3 4 3 Classification of forging 152, 3 4 4 Basic categories of forging 156. 3 4 5 Methods of forging 158, 3 4 6 Other forging processes 161. 3 4 7 Defects in forging 165, 3 4 8 Cleaning and finishing of forgings 166.
3 4 9 Heat treatment of forgings 166, 3 4 10 Design considerations 166. 3 5 Extrusion 167, 3 5 1 Introduction 167, 3 5 2 Advantages limitations and applications of extrusion process 168. 3 5 3 Classification of extrusion processes 168, 3 5 4 Hot extrusion processes 169. 3 5 5 Cold extrusion processes 170, 3 5 6 Extrusion force 172. 3 5 7 Extrusion equipment 173, 3 5 8 Extrusion defects 173.
Chapter Pages, 3 6 Wire Drawing 174, 3 7 Tube Drawing 176. 3 8 Tube Making By rotary piercing 177, 3 9 Metal Stamping and Forming 177. 3 9 1 Introduction 177, 3 9 2 Bending 178, 3 9 3 Deep drawing 179. 3 9 4 Stretch forming 180, 3 9 5 Metal spinning 180. 3 9 6 Shear forming and flow forming 182, 3 9 7 Blanking 183.
3 9 8 Piercing 184, 3 9 9 Embossing and coining 184. 3 9 10 Roll forming 185, 3 9 11 Rubber press forming 185. 3 9 12 Hydromechanical forming 186, 3 9 13 Defects in sheet metal formed parts 186. 3 10 Shot Peening 186, 3 11 Types of Dies 187, 3 11 1 Classification of dies 187. 3 11 2 Causes of failure of dies in metal working operations 189. 3 12 Presses 189, 3 12 1 Classification of presses 189.
3 12 2 Cutting forces and energy in press work 192. 3 13 Comparison of Metal Forming Processes 192, Questions with Answers 194. Highlights 216, Objective Type Questions 216, Theoretical Questions 217. 4 POWDER METALLURGY 219 232, 4 1 Definition 219, 4 2 Advantages Disadvantages Limitations of Powder Metallurgy 219. 4 3 Applications of Powder Metallurgy 220, 4 4 Manufacture of Parts by Powder Metallurgy 220. 4 4 1 Production of metal powders 220, 4 4 2 Blending of metal powders 221.
4 4 3 Pressing or compaction of metal powders 222, 4 4 4 Sintering 223. 4 4 5 Finishing operations 225, 4 5 Design Considerations for Powder Metallurgy 225. Questions with Answers 226, Highlights 231, Objective Type Questions 231. Theoretical Questions 231, Chapter Pages, 5 PROCESSING OF PLASTICS 233 259. 5 1 Introduction to Plastics 233, 5 1 1 Definition of plastic 233.
5 1 2 Classification of plastics 233, 5 1 3 Characteristics properties of plastics 235. 5 1 4 Compounding materials 236, 5 1 5 Fiber glass reinforced plastics 237. 5 1 6 Trade names and typical applications of, some important plastics 237. 5 2 Processing of Plastics 238, 5 2 1 General aspects 238. 5 2 2 Plastic processing methods 239, 5 2 3 Compression moulding 239.
5 2 4 Transfer moulding 240, 5 2 5 Injection moulding 241. 5 2 6 Expandable bead moulding 242, 5 2 7 Rotomoulding 242. 5 2 8 Blow moulding 243, 5 2 9 Extrusion 244, 5 2 10 Thermoforming 245. 5 2 11 Calendering 245, 5 2 12 Casting 246, 5 3 Machining of Plastics 246. 5 4 Joining of Thermoplastics 248, 5 5 Plastic Design Rules 249.
Questions with Answers 250, Highlights 258, Objective Type Questions 258. Theoretical Questions 259, 6 CERAMIC AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS THEIR STRUCTURE. PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING 260 291, 6 1 Introduction to Ceramic Materials 260. 6 2 Classification of Ceramics 260, 6 3 Advantages of Ceramic Materials 261. 6 4 Applications of Ceramics 262, 6 5 Properties of Ceramic Materials 262.
6 6 Structure of Crystalline Ceramics 264, 6 7 Silicate Structures 265. 6 7 1 Types of silicate structures 265, 6 8 Polymorphism 267. 6 9 Glass 268, 6 9 1 Definition and structure 268, 6 9 2 Constituents of glass and their functions 268. 6 9 3 Properties of glass 269, 6 9 4 Glass furnaces 271. Chapter Pages, 6 9 5 Fabrication of glass 272, 6 9 6 Classification of glass 273.
6 9 7 Uses of glass 276, 6 9 8 The glass industry in India 276. 6 10 Advanced Ceramics 276, 6 11 Processing of Ceramics 278. 6 11 1 General aspects 278, 6 11 2 Shaping processes 278. 6 11 3 Drying and firing 279, 6 11 4 Finishing operations 279. 6 12 Design Considerations for Ceramics 279, 6 13 Introduction to Composite Materials 280.
6 14 Classification 281, 6 14 1 Particle reinforced composite 281. 6 14 2 Fibre reinforced composites 282, 6 14 3 Structural composites 283. 6 15 Production of Composite Structures 284, Questions with Answers 285. Highlights 289, Objective Type Questions 289, Theoretical Questions 290. 7 WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES 292 361, 7 1 Introduction 292.
7 2 Advantages Disadvantages and Applications of Welding 293. 7 3 Classification of Welding Processes 294, 7 4 Forge Welding 295. 7 5 Resistance Electric Welding 296, 7 5 1 General aspects 296. 7 5 2 Resistance spot welding 297, 7 5 3 Resistance seam welding 298. 7 5 4 Resistance projection welding 299, 7 5 5 Resistance butt welding 299. 7 6 Gas Welding 301, 7 6 1 Fusion welding General aspects 301.
7 6 2 Advantages and disadvantages of gas welding 301. 7 6 3 Applications of gas welding 302, 7 6 4 Oxy acetylene welding 302. 7 7 Electric Arc Welding 306, 7 7 1 Introduction 306. 7 7 2 Advantages and limitations 306, 7 7 3 Metallic arc welding 306. 7 7 4 Carbon arc welding 307, 7 7 5 Atomic hydrogen welding 308. 7 7 6 Shielded arc welding 308, 7 7 7 Arc blow 309.
Chapter Pages, 7 7 8 Comparison between A C and D C arc welding 309. 7 7 9 Types of welded joints 310, 7 8 Thermit Welding 313. 7 9 Tungsten Inert Gas TIG Welding 314, 7 10 Metal Inert Gas MIG Welding 314. 7 10 1 Differences between TIG and MIG welding processes 315. 7 11 Submerged Arc Welding 315, 7 12 Electro slag and Electro gas Welding 317. 7 12 1 Electro slag welding 317, 7 12 2 Electro gas welding 317.
7 13 Electron beam Welding 318, 7 14 Ultrasonic Welding 319. MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY Manufacturing Processes By the Same Author Thermal Engineering Engineering Thermodynamics Applied Thermodynamics Internal Combustion Engines Automobile Engineering Power Plant Engineering Elements of Mechanical Engineering Steam Tables and Mollier Diagram SI Units LAXMI PUBLICATIONS P LTD An ISO 9001 2008 Company BENGALURU CHENNAI COCHIN GUWAHATI HYDERABAD

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