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DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A HOUSEHOLD
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VOL 15 NO 1 JANUARY 2020 ISSN 1819 6608, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2006 2020 Asian Research Publishing Network ARPN All rights reserved. www arpnjournals com, The machine members and or elements as shown b Sustainability of the materials for the working. in Table 1 were selected based on the following factors condition in service For example whether corrosion. which include 4 9 11 is involved or not, a The physical and mechanical properties Physical c Cost durability and availability of materials and. properties include properties such as density, coefficient of linear expansion thermal conductivity d Manufacturing requirements. melting point etc Mechanical properties include, properties such as strength stiffness elasticity.
ductility shear stress toughness yield strength etc. Table 1 The component parts and materials used, S No MACHINE PARTS REASONS. RECOMMENDED, 1 Stand Stainless Steel Rigidity and high load bearing capacity. Does not discolor food good corrosion, 2 Presser Rack Stainless Steel. resistance and non toxic metals, Resistance to pitting does not discolor food. 3 Juicer Filter Stainless Steel, and non toxic metal.
It possesses high strength and good, corrosion resistance with high rigidity It. 4 Juicer Arm Stainless Steel, does not discolor food and is easily. 5 Base Stainless Steel Rigidity and good corrosion resistance. It has good corrosion resistance and it does, 6 Juice Collector Stainless Steel. not discolor food, 7 Pinion Cast Iron High strength and rigidity. Good corrosion resistance nontoxic metal, 8 Connector Stainless Steel.
and high strength, 2 2 Experimental design linear motion The pinion which is the circular gear. The experimental design was based on engages the rack which is the teeth on the linear gear bar. this rack then moves relative to the pinion as a result of the. a The density of steel is 7800kg m3 and g 10m s2 applied rotational motion thereby a linear motion is form. b The diameter of orange is 2 7 to 3 0 inches from the translational movement of the pinion. c The diameter of the lemon is 1 8 to 2 9 inches In the case of the manual juicer the rotation of. d The diameter of lime is 1 2 to 2 4 inches the juicer arm rotates the pinion which then translates to. the downward movement of the rack arm resting on the. 2 3 Principle of operation of the manually operated strainer perforated sieve causing the fruit to be squeezed. citrus juice extracting machine and filtered by the strainer the squeezed juice is deposited. The manual juice extractor functions on the in the collection cup the 3D model of the machine is. principle of rack and pinion technique Rack and pinion depicted in Figure1a and the stress analysis of the model is. have been described as a linear actuator comprising of a shown in Figure 1b. pair of gears that is capable of converting rotational into. VOL 15 NO 1 JANUARY 2020 ISSN 1819 6608, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2006 2020 Asian Research Publishing Network ARPN All rights reserved. www arpnjournals com, Figure 1 a 3D Model of citrus juice extractor b Stress analysis of machine c the machine. base d the presser arm rack e model of the connector f 3D CAD model of the juicer arm. g 3D CAD model of the pinion, 2 4 Machine parts and functions C Strainer Perforated sieve filter The juice strainer. The Geometric model of the juicer was simulated which the fruit rests on when being extracted also. virtually to loading conditions using a finite element serves as a filter which removes seeds and excessive. analysis software ANSYS and there appears to be pulp from the extracted juice. insignificant stress that could cause the failure of the juicer D Presser Rack The presser is a shaft which comes. due to the operation intended for its design This is clearly down on the fruit when the juicer arm is rotated. shown in Figure 1b The following are the description of When the juicer arm is rotated the rack translates into. the parts downward motion causing the presser arm rack to. squeeze the fruit on the strainer The rack acts as a. A Stand The stand is a shaft attached to the base which linear gear A 3D CAD model of the presser arm. holds and supports the juice presser arm and the rack is shown in Figure 1d. juicer holder E Connector the connector is a metal part which holds. B Base The base provides support to the entire machine up the presser arm houses the pinion gear and is. and balances to the stand connector and presser arm connected to the stand A 3D CAD model of the. rack The stand shaft is welded to the base A 3D connector is shown in Figure 1e. CAD model of the base is shown in Figure 1c F Juice collector The juice collector is where the juice. is deposited after extraction and filtering is complete. VOL 15 NO 1 JANUARY 2020 ISSN 1819 6608, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
2006 2020 Asian Research Publishing Network ARPN All rights reserved. www arpnjournals com, Juicer arm The juicer arm is rotated to cause the. pinion to translate the rotation to the downward 2 5 3 Sample preparation and performance evaluation. motion of the presser arm rack A 3D image of the of the machine. juicer arm is shown in Figure 1f Citrus fruits orange lemon and lime were. G Pinion the pinion is a gear housed in the connector procured from Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti. which translates the rotational motion provided by the ABUAD farms in Ado Ekiti Ekiti state Nigeria The. juicer arm to vertical motion of the presser arm rack fruits were firstly cleaned from dirt and foreign materials. the pinion gear is in mesh with the teeth of the rack A and then sorted the fruits then categorized into two the. 3D image of the pinion is shown in Figure 1g first which is for peeled category while the second for the. unpeeled category The performance evaluation was then. 2 5 Design analysis carried out on the fabricated machine by feeding known. mass of peeled fruit cut in halves into the strainer where. 2 5 1 Power requirements the extraction is performed the fabricated machine was. It was expected that a teenager of above 12 years operated until the sample size was completely extracted. of age will be able to conveniently and comfortably for the fruit The times are taken for extraction the mass. operate the machine The average power that will be of fruit fed into the machine the mass of juice extracted. required to operate the manual fruit juice extractor was and mass of waste was recorded The following indices. estimated to be 0 075 kW 5 Equation 1 depicted the described 3 6 and reported 7 9 were used to. expression for the required compressive power calculate juice yield extraction efficiency and extraction. loss of the machine, Juice yield JY 2, Where P is the required power T is the turning moment. estimated to 121 50 Nm and N is the speed 45 rpm 100. Extraction efficiency 3, 2 5 2 Design of the components. The base is made of cast iron and is divided into 100. 2 equal rectangles of length 150 mm and breadth 50 mm Extraction loss 4. and 1 square of length 50 mm The total surface area of the. base was designed to be 17500 mm2 The stand on the Where. other hand is a stainless steel shaft and has a length of Mje mass of juice extracted in grams. 200 mm and a diameter of 20 mm Its surface area and Mrw mass of residual waste in grams. volume were calculated to be 1319 46 mm2 and 62831 Mfs mass of fed samples in grams. mm3 respectively X juice constant, The presser arm is made of a steel shaft and has a. conical base which is of made of stainless steel which has 2 5 4 Machine design evaluation. a length of 170 mm and a diameter of 18 mm The circular A Base The base supports the entire machine The total. base of the arm is made of stainless steel and has an weights carried by the base are. internal diameter of 80 mm and an external diameter of 80 a The weight of the stand. mm and a height of 50 mm The total surface area of the b The weight of the presser arm rack. presser arm was calculated to be 23194 95 mm2 The c The weight of the connector. perforated sieve is made of stainless steel its function is to d The weight of the pinion. filter out seeds and excess pulp from the juice stainless. steel was chosen because of its good corrosion resistance Stainless steel 2 by 2 of 2mm thickness was. the perforations are of 1mm in order for the excess pulp used to construct the base of the machine. and seeds to be filtered from the juice, The connector is a mechanical part made of cast B Stand The stand is made of 2mm thick stainless steel.
iron and is made up of 2 hollow cylinders for the shaft shaft of diameter 20mm the stand shaft was made by. stand and the presser arm and a rectangular cuboid turning operations on the lathe machine. between to join them together The length of the connector C Presser arm rack The presser arm is made of 2mm. is 90 mm the cuboid has a length of 70mm breadth of 20 thick stainless steel shaft of diameter 18mm the. mm and depth of 20 mm the stand shaft cylinder has an presser arm shaft was made by turning operations on. external diameter of 22 mm and an internal diameter of 20 the lathe machine. mm and height of 50 mm the presser arm cylinder has an D Connector The connector was made of stainless. external diameter of 30 mm an internal diameter of 20 steel it has a total surface area of 56255 216mm2 as. mm and a height of 70 mm The total surface area of the calculated in section 3 5 the connector houses the. connector is the sum of the surface areas of the cuboid and pinion gear connects the stand and base to the presser. the two cylinders as shown in Figure 1 It was calculated arm. as 56255 216 mm2 E Juicer arm the juicer arm is made of 2mm thick. stainless steel shaft of diameter 18mm the juicer arm. VOL 15 NO 1 JANUARY 2020 ISSN 1819 6608, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2006 2020 Asian Research Publishing Network ARPN All rights reserved. www arpnjournals com, rotates the pinion translating which translates the 96 6 96 9 as well as 94 3 respectively for peeled. rotational motion to linear motion of the rack watermelon pineapples as well as oranges while the. F Pinion The pinion is made of cast iron it was made extraction efficiency values for unpeeled watermelon. using the milling machine It has an external diameter pineapples as well as oranges are 97 1 83 6 as well. of 18mm and an internal diameter of 15mm as 84 2 respectively It worth mentioning that the 2 1. is extraction loss for peeled orange while 2 5 is for. 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS unpeeled orange also the extraction loss for unpeeled. The sieve diameter used for the extraction watermelon was recorded to be 2 6 while the peeled one. process is 1 0 mm From Table 2 the highest juice yield was 2 9 this reduction may be as a result of the. for peeled as well as unpeeled orange is 54 5 and 55 9 mechanized multipurpose juicer employed. respectively for peeled and unpeeled lemon maximum However the fabrication of portable motorized. juice yield is 53 4 and 59 5 and for peeled and unpeeled pineapple juicer 10 has been investigated and it was. lime maximum juice yield is 61 5 and 66 3 respectively found that 87 5 was recorded for extraction efficiency. The optimum extraction efficiency for peeled and while 12 5 was measured for extraction loss In the. unpeeled orange is 59 2 and 69 5 respectively for peeled same vein fabrication of motorized leaf protein extraction. and unpeeled lemon optimum extraction efficiency is 57 5 machine 11 in this report 97 9 were recorded for. and 66 respectively and for peeled and unpeeled lime extraction efficiency for leaf while that of protein was. optimum extraction efficiency is 55 3 and 61 7 found to be 98 9 In the fabrication and evaluation of. respectively The extraction loss of peeled and unpeeled small scale orange juicer 41 6 was measured to be for. orange is 10 9 and 1 73 respectively the extraction juice yield while that of extraction efficiency was 57 4. losses of peeled and unpeeled lemon are 9 7 and 3 8 2 Similar study was investigated on multipurpose juice. respectively and the extraction loss of peeled and unpeeled extractor machinery and it was evaluated that the value for. lime is 8 8 and 4 2 respectively maximum juice yield for grape it was 83 3 with. It was observed that extraction efficiency and the extraction efficiency of 95 2 and 56 extraction loss. juice extractor are much smaller than the findings 8 for for watermelon it was 96 with extraction efficiency of. the multipurpose juicer in which its percentage juice yield 98 and 55 4 extraction loss while for orange fruit it. is 77 79 1 and 68 1 are respectively for peeled was 76 with extraction efficiency of 86 3 and 34. watermelon pineapple as well as oranges whereas the extraction loss likewise for pineapples was 71 4 with. following values 89 7 69 2 and 89 5 are extraction efficiency of 81 3 and 10 15 extraction. respectively for unpeeled watermelon pineapples as well loss and lastly for tangerine it was 82 with extraction. as oranges The values for extraction efficiency are efficiency of 94 1 and 53 14 extraction loss 11. Table 2 Machines performance index for the citrus fruits tested for both peeled and unpeeled. ORANGE LEMON LIME, Peeled Unpeeled Peeled Unpeeled Peeled Unpeeled. Juice Yield, 54 5 55 9 53 4 59 5 61 5 66 5, Extraction. 59 2 69 5 57 5 66 1 55 3 61 7, efficiency, Extraction.
10 9 1 73 9 7 3 8 8 8 4 2, Figure 2 shows the machine performance index. VOL 15 NO 1 J ANUARY 20 20 ISSN 1819 6608 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Sha Tin N T HKSAR 4Department of Mechanical Engineering Covenant University Ota Nigeria E Mail ikumapayi omolayo gmail com ABSTRACT A manually operated citrus juice extractor for home use was designed fab ricated and its performance evaluation was conducted on three different citrus

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