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these research works are to optimize and create between nodes They proposed an algorithm that. efficient energy consumption of mobile node in implemented at data link layer The main aim is to. MANETs Developing and optimizing routing propose a generic solution that can be used by other. protocol for mobile ad hoc networks could be done protocols such as AODV. from any point of views Abdule et al 8 had investigated the effects of. Kim et al proposed R AODV 3 to optimize the pause time setting for AODV routing protocol on. standard AODV routing protocol AODV protocol RPGM mobility model in MANETs The result has. only built a single path for finding the destination shown that the value setting of pause time can be. node in the network If a node that has received RREP affecting the performance of AODV routing protocol. no longer in the line of communication because of The experiments found that the lower pause time give. rapid changes of network topology then the source better performance rather than the higher one. node will established path again from the beginning to Huan et al 9 performed the research to find out. initiate communication with the destination node This what pattern each mobile node will have significant. causes inefficiency in the network R AODV impact on the performance of ad hoc network. algorithm provides a solution by spending the cost of Through analyzing and comparing the performances. flooding the entire network RREP message is of four mobility models such as Random Waypoint. replaced with Route Reverse Request RRREQ RPGM Free Way and Manhattan in sparse ad hoc. message to send back to the source node and networks It indicates that the impact on the. distributed to all neighboring nodes Consequently it performance of networks is remarkably different when. will build multi path towards the source node This the nodes move in different mobility models In order. will reduce the possibility of failed connection in case to realize the effective communication between the. of topology changes because there are some fixed node and mobile nodes in sparse ad hoc. alternative paths for communication networks in a large area they also proposed a chain. Hamidian proposed AODV 4 to cover the mobility model which mobile nodes could move as a. communication problem between ad hoc network and chain and fixed node serves as a relay node The. infrastructure network Gateway module was extended results show that their proposed mobility model is. to standard AODV algorithm The Gateway helps suitable for communication in the sparse ad hoc. nodes in ad hoc network to be able to connect with circumstance. infrastructure network In this scenario several nodes. have ability to act as gateways between ad hoc III OUR CONTRIBUTION. network and infrastructure network A node in ad hoc In this section we present an overview of our. network can be connected to each other and even with proposed protocol A new variant of AODV routing. a node in infrastructure network through these protocol called RAODV 1 AODV routing protocol. gateways only builds one path to find the destination node on. Energy and load are become the most important the network Inefficiencies occur in AODV protocol. factors to support routing protocol in MANET since when the path is lost Source node will repeat the. mobile nodes use wireless communication Ding and process from initial discovery to find the destination. Wan 5 proposed mathematical models which node, concern about sustainable energy consumed energy To solve this weakness Kim et al 3 developed a. and bandwidth estimation Their aim was to improve method of reverse request and proposed R AODV. AODV routing protocol by choose the minimum paths protocol Reverse mechanism provides an alternative. or hops with no problem in energy and bandwidth path when the discovery process is done As the. availability consequence it will build an alternative path of. Khelifa 6 proposed an energy conserving routing communication The path that is used to establish. protocol in mobile ad hoc network called ER AODV communication is the shortest path When one path of. Energy Reverse Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector communication is broken the alternative route will be. routing ER AODV is a reactive routing protocol used directly without reinitiating discovery procedure. based on a policy which combines two mechanisms Our proposed protocol uses this mechanism to. used in the basic AODV protocol First mechanism is improve its communications performance Our. using multiple route replies to cover the problem when proposed protocol also used gateway mode adopted. the route reply could not arrive to the source node from AODV 4 for hybrid environment The. The second mechanism proposes a new adaptive gateway helps nodes in ad hoc network to be able to. approach which seeks to incorporate the metric connect with infrastructure network RREP is replaced. residual energy in the process route selection with RRREQ to build a multi path ways towards the. Indeed the residual energy of mobile nodes were source node If the node receives RREQ which. considered when making routing decisions broadcast to the network then node will check if it. Tolba et al 7 used a variable transmission range ever receives the same RREQ If yes the packet will. in order to save energy and to keep the connectivity. PARAMETER SIMULATIONS, Parameter Value, Mobile Nodes 10. Area Topology 1000 x 800 m, Mobility Model Random Waypoint RPGM. Speed 10 20 30, Fig 1 Network animator for simulation scenario Traffic type CBR. Packet size 512 bytes, be ignored If the node which received the RREQ Time simulation 500 s.
packet is not the destination node then the RREQ will Initial Energy 100 Joules. Tx Power 3 53E 002, be updated and request time will be set and then Rx Power 3 13E 002. forward the RREQ again to all neighboring nodes Idle Power 7 12E 004. If the destination node receives RREQ it will check Sleep Power 1 44E 007. whether the gateway mode on If the gateway mode is. on then the packet will be forwarded to the network. In this simulation we evaluate the energy, infrastructure If the gateway mode is not on more. consumption of proposed protocol with two different. RRREQ will be generated and then it will broadcast to. mobility models The total average energy after, all neighboring nodes to look for the source node If. communication is the total of energy that used in each. RRREQ found the source node the packet, node divide total event during communication For. transmission between nodes will start immediately, total of average energy remaining is difference.
When R RREQ is broadcasted every node will check, between initial energy with total average energy after. again its redundancy If R RREQ has been received, communication The formula to calculate the energy. then the packet will be ignored Otherwise it will be. parameters as follows, forwarded to the next node, In this simulation we evaluate our proposed. protocol in term of energy We use following formula. to calculate the energy parameter, Variables definition. Average used energy at each node, 2 Average remaining energy after.
communication, Average energy remaining, IV SIMULATION AND RESULT. Event All events that occurred during, The simulation is done with network simulation communication between nodes. tools NS 2 version 2 34 The topology is an ad hoc EI first initial energy in each node. hybrid network with contains 10 mobile nodes 2, gateways 2 routers and 2 hosts in an infrastructure The energy consume for each state are as follows. network The topology dimension is 1000 x 800 meter Transmit power Tx Power is 3 53E 002. area Receive power Rx Power is 3 13E 002, We made some scenarios with different number of Idle power is 7 12E 004 and. source nodes speeds and mobility models For these, Sleep power is 1 44E 007.
scenarios we used only random waypoint and RPGM, mobility models We choose these mobility models. Fig 2 3 4 showed that the average remaining, because the movements of mobile node are almost. energy when mobile nodes play as sources which, similar to the real world especially for low speed. transmit cbr packet type under different mobility, mobility like pedestrian We also assume that every. models random waypoint and RPGM and also in, mobile node has the initial energy of 100 Joules.
various speed of mobile node The average remaining. Traffic model used in this simulation is Constant Bit. energy Joules by 2 4 and 6 source nodes when the, Rate CBR with 512 bytes in packet size The. maximum speed is varied as 10 m s 20 m s and 30, simulation time is 500 seconds Table 1 shows the. m s We can observe from the simulation scenarios, parameter simulations Fig 1 shows the network. with different mobility models and different speed. animator nam for the simulation scenario, that RPGM consumed more energy when the speed. Fig 5 Average remaining energy with speeds 10 m s, Fig 1 Average remaining energy with 2 source nodes.
Fig 6 Average remaining energy with speeds 20 m s, number of node communicates with gateway against. average energy remaining in different speed Based on. Fig 2 Average remaining energy with 4 source nodes the graph we can observe that in RPGM the energy. consumption increases when the number of node that. of node increases However our proposed protocol is access gateway increases With RPGM our protocol. stable under random waypoint model in any will consume low energy in condition low speed and. circumstances of speed and number of source node low number of nodes accesses the gateway In contrast. that access the gateway In general almost all mobile with the random waypoint mobility energy. nodes have the same level of remaining energy after consumption becomes stable The energy consumption. 500 seconds of simulation even while in different decreases when the speed of mobility and the number. speeds The ranges of remaining energy of all mobile of node access gateway increases. nodes are 99 75 to 99 85 Joules We can conclude that the energy consumption of. Our modified protocol has more minimum average our modified protocol is lower despite the high speed. energy consumption while using random waypoint and many nodes access gateway when using random. mobility when the speed and the number of source is waypoint mobility model This phenomenon caused. increase In contrast energy consumption of RPGM by the route reverse mechanism which applied in our. with speed bellow 30 m s and less number of sources proposed protocol When the link is broken during. is lower than random waypoint mobility model communication the nodes do not need to perform. Next Fig 5 6 7 showed that the result of discovery mechanism to find new path In that way it. remaining energy from number of mobile node which reduces the energy consumption of each node. act as source node that communicate with gateway at Overall our proposed protocol is suitable for. infrastructure network We will show the effect of the random waypoint mobility model Due to the different. movement models between RWP and RPGM The, movement model in rwp each node move randomly. by its self However the characteristic of rpgm is, nodes move together with same direction and speed in. order to keep distance between each node in one, group It caused the broken link in RPGM more than. when we use RWP mobility models As consequence, when broken link increases the route discovery.
mechanism needs to re perform It can increase the, energy consumption of the protocol communication. Fig 3 Average remaining energy with 6 source nodes. Systems and Mobility in Next Generation Internet ser. NGI 04 Berlin Heidelberg Springer Verlag 2005 pp 189. 201 Online Available http dx doi org 10 1007 978 3 540. 31963 4 14, 5 L Ding and L Wan Improvement suggestions to the aodv. routing protocol in Wireless Networks and Information. Systems 2009 WNIS 09 International Conference on dec. 2009 pp 370 372, 6 Z M M Said Khelifa An energy reverse aodv routing. protocol in ad hoc mobile networks in World Academy of. Science Engineering and Technology 68 2010 2010, 7 F D Tolba D Magoni and P Lorenz Energy saving and. connectivity tradeoff by adaptative transmission range in. 802 11g manets in ICWMC P Dini C hlund C Dini and, Fig 7 Average remaining energy with speeds 30 m s.
E Borcoci Eds IEEE Computer Society 2006 p 45, Online Available. http dblp unitrier de db conf icwmc icwmc2006 htmlTolbaM. V CONCLUSION L06, In this work we evaluate the energy consumption 8 S M Abdule S Hassan O Ghazali and M M Kadhum. Pause time optimal setting for aodv protocol on rpgm. of our proposed protocol We conduct a simulation mobility model in manets in IJACSA International Journal. with NS 2 to find out the energy consumption in ad of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 2010 pp. hoc network scenario with different number of source 1 8. 9 Y Huan J Hong and L Lei Performance analysis of, nodes different maximum speeds and also different mobility models in sparse ad hoc networks in Control. mobility models We use random waypoint and Conference 2008 CCC 2008 27th Chinese july 2008 pp. Reference Point Group Mobility RPGM models in 216 220. order to know our protocol in low speed environment. The simulation result shows that our modified, protocol is more stable in random waypoint mobility. Energy and load are become the most important factors to support routing protocol in MANET since mobile nodes use wireless communication Ding and Wan 5 proposed mathematical models which concern about sustainable energy consumed energy and bandwidth estimation Their aim was to improve AODV routing protocol by choose the minimum paths

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