Glucose Concentration In Capillary Blood Of Dairy Cows-PDF Free Download

Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows
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Mair et al BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12 34 Page 2 of 11. Background which occurs three to 6 weeks after calving in high. Glucose is an essential nutrient for all higher organisms yielding cows where the energy demand in the udder. Certain vitally important cells and tissues like the brain exceeds the capacity of gluconeogenesis Second the. erythrocytes and the mammary gland are dependent on hyperglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic form Type II keto. the energy provided by glucose Hence it is important sis exists which occurs earlier in lactation as a conse. that the concentration of glucose in the blood is kept at quence of overfeeding the animals in the dry period. a physiological level 1 Ruminants and particularly 12 Besides the measurement of the BHBA concen. dairy cows have a special position with respect to the tration analysing the glucose concentration in blood. glucose metabolism because of the massive demand of is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and es. their mammary gland for glucose at the onset of lacta pecially differentiation between these two types of ke. tion and the permanent alteration between pregnancy tosis 13 14 although Herdt 15 described the. and lactation Furthermore most of the glucose is gener glucose concentration as an insensitive measure of. ated by gluconeogenesis using volatile glucogenic pre the energy status of an animal. cursors e g propionate lactate alanine valerate and Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple. isobutyrate 2 blood sampling which is usually done by repeated vene. Oikonomou et al 3 reported a significant influence puncture in cattle This procedure requires handling or. of the glucose concentration on reproductive perform restraining of the animal which may result in stress. ance as glucose is essential as major energy source for induced hyperglycemia 16 In other species new tech. ovarian cyclicity 4 Additionally a study by Galv o et niques have been introduced in which small amounts of. al 5 has shown that cows suffering from uterine infec blood are rapidly analysed for glucose concentrations. tions within the first 3 weeks after parturition had a de using electronic hand held devices 17 19 Applying. creased polymorphonuclear neutrophils PMN glycogen these minimally invasive techniques to obtain capillary. concentration and hence a decrease in PMN functions blood in dairy cattle might be beneficial in generating re. It was reported that the PMN glycogen concentration is liable and valid glucose concentrations. positively associated with the blood glucose concentra The primary objective of this study was to test whether. tion Furthermore Garverick et al 6 found greater capillary blood can be used to determine the glucose. blood glucose concentration in cows that conceived at concentrations in dairy cows using minimally invasive. first insemination in comparison with unsuccessfully techniques A second objective was to evaluate test char. bred cows and hypothesized that blood glucose concen acteristics of three commercially available hand held de. tration within the first 3 weeks after parturition can be vices for determination of blood glucose concentrations. used as predictor for the likelihood of pregnancy after Therefore a capillary blood drop obtained from the skin. first insemination of the exterior vulva was tested with three different. For most tissues the supply and utilization of nutri hand held devices Additionally glucose concentrations. ents is regulated by hormones Also in Ruminants insu in coccygeal blood were analysed in a laboratory to be. lin is a key player in the energy metabolism influencing used as criterion standard 20 and analysed with the. various metabolic processes in muscles adipose tissue hand held devices too to distinguish between the effect. liver and the mammary gland 7 Ruminants are re of the device and the type of blood sample used for the. ported to suffer from insulin resistance IR at the end on site test. of gestation and during early lactation 8 10 The, phenomenon of IR is characterized by a less than normal. biological response to a physiological concentration of Methods. insulin as a result of decreased sensitivity of the tissues The study was approved by the institutional ethics. a decreased responsiveness to insulin or a combination committee of the University of Veterinary Medicine. of both 11 Vienna 04 12 97 2013 date of approval 17 Decem. Insulin resistance at the end of gestation and at ber 2013 according to the Good Scientific Practice. early lactation are considered as physiologic mechan guidelines and the national authority according to. ism to ensure the glucose and hence energy supply 26 of Law for Animal Experiments Tierversuchsge. for the gravid uterus and lactating mammary gland setz 2012 TVG 2012 BMWF GZ 68 205 0007 II. However IR can transgress into a pathologic state 3b 2014 as well as by the Slovakian Regional Veter. leading to ketosis for instance with chronically in inary Food Administration 428 2014 and was con. creased concentrations of hydroxybutyric acid ducted between March and April 2014 A written. BHBA in cows 2 From an aetiological point of informed consent was obtained from the farm owner. view two different types of ketosis exist First the to collect samples and to publish the study results. hypoglycaemic hypoinsulinaemic form Type I ketosis The farm involved in the study adheres to a high. Mair et al BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12 34 Page 3 of 11. standard of veterinary care based on standard operating lactations within 2 weeks ante partum up to 4 weeks. procedures post partum were eligible for enrollment. Animals Sampling procedures, A commercial dairy farm in Slovakia with approxi The sampling procedures are illustrated in Fig 1 To obtain. mately 2700 Holstein Friesian cows and additional capillary blood the skin of the exterior vulva was dry. youngstock was chosen as study site The dairy herd cleaned and punctured with one of three different available. was kept in free stall barns with rubber mats on con lancets in random order The lancets used in the study. crete floors Before calving the cows were moved in Microtainer Contact Activated Lancet MT Becton. a free stall barn with straw beddings A total mixed Dickinson SafetyLancets special SL MED TRUST Han. ration was fed twice per day and pushed up fre delsges m b H MiniCollect Safety Lancets MC Greiner. quently The average energy corrected milk yield Bio One International AG have a penetration depth of. based on 4 0 butterfat and 3 4 protein was 2 mm with differing blade widths between 0 8 SL to. 9165 kg in 2013 1 5 mm MT and MC If the volume of the obtained blood. A sample size calculation type I error 0 05 type drop was insufficient for determination of the glucose con. II error 0 2 was performed to detect a maximum centration another puncture was made The quantity of. irrelevant difference in the glucose concentration of punctures was recorded on a pre assembled data capture. 3 mg dL between the methods evaluated in the study form Three different electronic hand held meters Free. resulting in 182 animals needed To compensate for Style Precision FSP Abbott GmbH Co KG GlucoMen. potential data losses due to necessary exclusions be LX Plus GLX A Menarini GmbH WellionVet GLUCO. cause of pre analytical or analytical problems 240 ani CALEA WGC MED TRUST Handelsges m b H and. mals were enrolled in the study Animals of all the associated electrochemical test strips FreeStyle. Fig 1 Sampling procedures In total 240 dairy cows were enrolled Capillary blood was obtained from the external vulva by using 1of 3 lancet types The. glucose concentrations in the capillary blood drop as well as in a coccygeal blood sample were analyzed each by using 3 different hand held devices. Plasma obtained from the coccygeal blood sample was analyzed for glucose in the laboratory of the University using a wet chemistry analyzer and was. regarded as reference in the study, Mair et al BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12 34 Page 4 of 11. Precision blood glucose Abbott Diabetes Care GlucoMen Centrifuge 5804 Eppendorf AG Supernatant plasma was. LX Sensor A Menarini GmbH WellionVet GLUCO split into two aliquots in microtubes of 2 ml each Micro. CALEA test strips MED TRUST Handelsges m b H tube Sarstedt as reference and back up sample and were. were used in the study to determine the blood glucose con stored at 18 C until further analyses The glucose con. centration The WGC was already validated for use in dogs centration of this plasma sample was analyzed at the Cen. cats and horses by using preprogrammed species specific tral Clinical Pathology Unit CCPU of the University of. chips offered with each batch of test strips Because of best Veterinary Medicine Vienna and was considered as the. possible match in terms of red blood cell parameters the reference value i e the criterion standard in the present. chip initially designed for use in cats was chosen for mea study Plasma was analyzed with an automated wet chem. surements in this study istry analyzer Cobas 6000 c501 Roche Diagnostics. GmbH Vienna Austria using a colorimetric hexokinase. Operating principle of the hand held devices and laboratory method Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glu. analyses cose to glucose 6 phosphate and adenosine diphosphate. The test principle of all 3 hand held devices is based on by ATP This reaction is coupled with an NADP colori. an amperometric biosensor technology The meter sys metric indicator system. tems consist of two components The meter itself pro To evaluate the intra assay variability of the analyses. cesses the data by applying integrated algorithms and performed at the CCPU a subset of 20 aliquots of. presents the results on an integrated display The associ plasma obtained from a blood sample of one cow were. ated biosensor test strips are designated to analyze a randomly placed among the samples obtained from the. small amount of a blood sample i e for the GLX study animals Furthermore intra and inter assay coeffi. 0 3 L WGC 0 5 L FSP 0 6 L by initiating further cients of variations CV were calculated for each spe. enzymatic reactions cific hand held device For this three blood samples. After the application of the blood on the sensor an with different glucose concentrations based on FSP mea. electrochemical reaction starts using either glucose de surements with low 30 mg dL medium 56 mg dL. hydrogenase FSP or glucose oxidase GLX and WGC and high 70 mgl dL glucose concentrations were tested. as catalysator The enzymes are oxidoreductases and ten times with one device intra assay and additionally. oxidize glucose to gluconolactone By this electrons with ten different devices of the same type inter assay. from the glucose are transferred to the oxidized form of. a mediator thereby converting it to the reduced form Statistical analyses. By re oxidation of the mediator electrons are transferred The data were analyzed using SPSS statistics for Win. to the electrode surface The resulting current is moni dows Version 20 0 IBM Deutschland GmbH and BiAS. tored by the meter and directly proportional to the glu for Windows Version 10 06 Epsilon Verlag Data were. cose concentration in the blood sample Using meter tested for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov. specific software algorithms the current is converted Smirnov Test For each tested hand held device descrip. into a measure of the glucose concentration which is tive statistics were estimated for the glucose concentra. displayed as digital value tions analyzed in capillary and coccygeal blood. The sensors of the 3 hand held devices were directly Additionally the Pearson correlation coefficients were. dipped onto the surface of the capillary blood drop calculated between the reference and the glucose con. After approximately 5 s each the blood glucose concen centrations measured with each specific device in capil. trations were presented on the display of the devices lary and coccygeal blood The level of significance for all. Besides the manufacturer s intended and certified use statistical tests was set at 0 05. of testing capillary blood the devices were used off A Passing Bablok regression 21 was performed to. label for measuring the glucose concentration in venous compare the glucose concentration in the reference sam. and or arterial blood For this an additional blood sam ple with the concentrations measured with the three. ple was drawn from a coccygeal vessel using a blood hand held devices in capillary and coccygeal blood For. collection tube system Vacuette Greiner Bio One this the slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines. GmbH consisting of a Sodium Fluorid vacuum tube and their 95 confidence intervals were determined. Vacuette FX Sodium Fluoride Greiner Bio One The intercept a reflects the constant differences and. GmbH and a 20 gauge needle Vacuette 0 9 38 mm the slope b the proportional differences between the. Greiner Bio One GmbH Blood obtained from the coc two methods If the confidence interval for the intercept. cygeal vessel was tested as well with all three devices as includes the value 0 no constant difference between the. previously described Approximately 2 h after collection two methods exists If the interval for the slope includes. the coccygeal blood samples were centrifuged at 2200 g the value 1 no proportional difference occurs If neither. at a temperature of 18 C for 5 min Eppendorf a constant nor a proportional difference could be. Mair et al BMC Veterinary Research 2016 12 34 Page 5 of. standard of veterinary care based on standard operating procedures Animals A commercial dairy farm in Slovakia with approxi mately 2700 Holstein Friesian cows and

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