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Governance as Theory Practice and Dilemma
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2 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE, and effects that define current patterns of give parents greater choice charter schools. governing In addition the relationship of voucher systems. state and society changed significantly in Another distinctive feature of governance. the late twentieth century New practices of is that it is multijurisdictional and often tran. governance find political actors increasingly snational Current patterns of governance. constrained by mobilized and organized combine people and institutions across dif. elements in society States and international ferent policy sectors and different levels. organizations increasingly share the activity of government local regional national and. of governing with societal actors including international Examples include varied. private firms non governmental organiza efforts to regulate food standards and safety. tions and non profit service providers The International food safety standards are set in. new relationship between state and society Rome by Codex Alimentarius a joint body. admits of considerable variation but it is an of the World Health Organization and the. international phenomenon New practices of United Nation s Food and Agriculture. governance extend across the developed and Organization however if the USA imports. developing world and they are prominent fish from China the presumption is that. among strategies to regulate transnational Chinese officials at the national and local. flows and govern the global commons level enforce these standards The practice of. Finally current public problems rarely fall regulating food safety operates simultane. neatly in the jurisdictions of specific agen ously at international national and local. cies or even states Governance thus poses levels, dilemmas that require new governing strate A third distinctive feature of governance. gies to span jurisdictions link people across is the increasing range and plurality of. levels of government and mobilize a variety stakeholders Interest groups of various sorts. of stakeholders have long been present in the policymaking. Governance draws attention to the com process Nonetheless a wider variety of non. plex processes and interactions that consti governmental organizations are becoming. tute patterns of rule It replaces a focus on the active participants in governing One reason. formal institutions of states and governments for the pluralization of stakeholders is an. with recognition of the diverse activities that explosion of advocacy groups during the last. often blur the boundary of state and society third of the twentieth century Another reason. Governance as theory practice and dilemma is the increasing use of third party organiza. highlights phenomena that are hybrid and tions to deliver state services Arguably yet. multijurisdictional with plural stakeholders another reason is the expansion of philan. who come together in networks thropists and philanthropic organizations. Many of the ideas activities and designs both of which are becoming as prominent. of governance appear unconventional A dis as they were in the nineteenth century For. tinctive feature of the new governance is that it example the Gates Foundation has both. combines established administrative arrange mounted a multicity effort to reform urban. ments with features of the market Governance school districts and embarked on a massive. arrangements are often hybrid practices com public health campaign in developing coun. bining administrative systems with market tries The increasing range and variety of. mechanisms and non profit organizations stakeholders has led to the emergence and. Novel forms of mixed public private or active promotion of new practices and insti. entirely private forms of regulation are devel tutional designs including public private. oping For example school reform often now partnerships and collaborative governance. combines elder administrative arrangements Yet another distinguishing feature of. school districts ministries of education governance reflects and responds to the fact. with quasi market strategies that are meant to that governing is an increasingly hybrid. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 2 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 3. multijurisdictional and plural phenomenon of that topic to the theories practices and. Scholars have called attention to the way that dilemmas of governance For example the. governing arrangements different levels of chapters in the first section on theories of. governance and multiple stakeholders are governance concentrate on how these theo. linked together in networks Environmental ries illuminate new practices of governance. scientists have shown how natural areas like and or how they have been modified in. watersheds or estuaries are often governed response to the dilemmas posed by the new. by networks of stakeholders and government governance. agencies Scholars of urban politics have The very organization of the Handbook of. called attention to the way urban suburban Governance reflects an emphasis on the con. and exurban areas get organized in broader nections between governance as theory prac. regional networks International relations tice and dilemma Few scholars sufficiently. scholars have noted the increasing promi recognize the extent to which the new gov. nence of inter ministerial networks as ways ernance is a product of new formal and folk. of governing the global commons More theories that led people to see and act differ. recently policymakers often influenced by ently The first section of the Handbook. theories from the social sciences have begun focuses on those theories in the social sci. actively to foster networks in the belief that ences that arose and prospered in the twenti. they provide a uniquely appropriate institu eth century transforming our understanding. tional design with which to grapple with of society and politics Many of these theo. the new governance Joined up governance ries challenged the older idea of the state as a. and whole of government approaches are natural and unified expression of a nation. widespread in states such as Australia and based on common ethnic cultural and lin. Britain in policy sectors such as Homeland guistic ties and possessing a common good. Security and in transnational and interna Many of them made people more aware of. tional efforts to address problems such as the role of pressure groups self interest and. failed states social networks in the policy process Later. So the Handbook of Governance concen toward the end of the twentieth century some. trates on the theories practices and dilem of these theories then inspired attempts to. mas associated with recognition of the extent reform the public sector and develop new. to which governing processes are hybrid and policy instruments Certainly the new public. multijurisdictional linking plural stakehold management owed a debt to rational choice. ers in complex networks A concern with the and especially principal agent theory while. new theories practices and dilemmas of joined up governance drew on developments. governance informs the main themes that in organizational and institutional theory. recur throughout the individual chapters The The second section of the Handbook exam. contributors generally focus on ines the changing practices of governance. Public sector reforms have transformed prac, The new theories of coordination that have drawn tices of governance across diverse levels and. attention to the presence or possibility of markets in diverse territories The reforms have given. and networks as means of coordination rise to complex new practices that rarely cor. The new practices of rule that have risen since,respond to the intentions of the reformers.
the 1970s especially the apparent growth of,markets and networks. What does the state now look like What role, The dilemmas of managing and reforming hybrid do non governmental organizations play in. patterns of rule that combine aspects of market the formation and implementation of policies. network and hierarchy and the delivery of services The final sec. tion of the Handbook explores some of the, Even when a chapter title refers to a broader dilemmas that this new governance poses for. topic the essay itself focuses on the relation practitioners. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 3 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,4 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. GOVERNANCE AS THEORY impacts governance Policy network theory. rose out of an earlier pluralism with its, The twentieth century witnessed the rise of attempts to disaggregate the state and focus.
all kinds of new and often formal approaches on groups Some policy network theorists. to social science These theories led people to have recently adopted anti foundational. see the world differently and then to remake nominalist perspectives that have led them. the world No doubt few people bother to to pay more attention to meanings and to. think about social life in terms of the formal decenter even the concept of a group. models of rational choice But a folk recogni Networks appear as undifferentiated parts of. tion of the largely self interested nature of a social life characterized by contests of. action even the action of public officials belief as they inform diverse actions Enroth. spread far more widely Moreover as it presses forward with this nominalist perspec. spread so political actors increasingly tried tive asking how it modifies our grasp of. to introduce reforms to deal with self interest interdependence coordination and pluralism. to mitigate its adverse consequences to The dramatic rise of rational choice theory. regulate it and keep it within limits or to har provided another powerful challenge to elder. ness it to improve efficiency In this way new reified concepts of the state In Chapter 3. theories inspired both the recognition and the Keith Dowding discusses the ways rational. active formation of apparently new features choice influenced both the understanding. of governance Equally of course social sci and practice of governance Rational choice. ence theories have often struggled to catch theory is an organizing perspective or meth. up with some of the apparently improvised odology that builds models of how people. changes in governance The reader might would act if they did so in accord with prefer. even want mentally to rearrange the Handbook ences having a certain formal structure This. to trace a progression not from theoretical perspective gave rise to theories about the. innovations to the practices these theories non predictability of politics the problems. inspired but from the rise of the new govern of commitment the hazards of principal. ance to attempts to comprehend it in theo agent relations and conflicts in democracies. retical terms that is from Sections III and II Dowding shows how these rational choice. to I rather than from I to II and III theories inspired worries about the welfare. So the chapters in Section I on Theories of state Public choice in particular then inspired. Governance play a dual role on the one some of the managerial reforms associated. hand they introduce the reader to some of with the new governance Interestingly. the general ways of thinking that have helped Dowding also suggests that rational choice. to inspire the recognition and formation of provides a critical perspective on just those. the new governance on the other they show reforms Contemporary practices of govern. how theories that may have been designed ance rely too greatly on the superficial. for other uses have since been modified to support public choice theory gave to choice. accommodate the new governance and markets Policy actors should pay more. Pluralists have long challenged reified attention to rational choice analyses of the. concepts of the state Empirically they point chaos and instability associated with weak. to the complex interactions processes and institutions. networks that contribute to governing In Chapter 4 looks at interpretive theories of. addition more radical and normative plural governance Interpretive theories reject the. ists challenge mainstream concepts of sover lingering positivism of most other approaches. eignty and argue for a greater dispersal of to governance Social life is inherently mean. authority to diverse social organizations ingful People are intentional agents capable. In Chapter 2 Henrik Enroth discusses the of acting for reasons Indeed social scientists. pluralism of policy network theory as it cannot properly grasp or explain actions. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 4 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 5. apart from in relation to the beliefs of the Voluntaristic macro level theories focus on. actors Many interpretive theorists conclude collective action. that social explanations necessarily involve In Chapter 6 Guy Peters discusses three. recovering beliefs and locating them in the institutionalist theories of governance. context of the wider webs of meaning of Normative institutionalism focuses on the. which they are a part Governmentality post role of values symbols and myths in defin. Marxism and social humanism all share a ing appropriate actions for individuals and. concern with meanings and their contexts thereby shaping institutions Rational choice. Typically these interpretive theories lead to institutionalism uses the assumptions of. a more decentered view of governance rational choice theory to understand institu. Governance consists of contingent practices tions and to design better ones Historical. that emerge from the competing actions and institutionalism stresses the persistence of. beliefs of different people responding to path dependent rules and modes of behavior. various dilemmas against the background of Institutionalists have pondered the dilemmas. conflicting traditions Similarly interpretive of entrenching the new governance that. theory often challenges the idea of a set of increasingly relies on networks to link public. tools for managing governance Interpretive sector and other actors They have drawn. theorists are more likely to appeal to story attention to the importance of institutional. telling Practitioners orientate themselves to izing a new network by developing its culture. the world by discussing illustrative cases and and inner functioning And they have high. past experiences They use stories to explore lighted the need for a new network to develop. various possible actions and how they might effective relationships with its political envi. lead the future to unfold ronment Institutionalists have also tried. Robert Christensen and Mary Tschirhart to explain the rise of the new governance. look in Chapter 5 at organization theory Institutions can be treated here as dependent. They distinguish four broad categories of or independent variables Typically as depend. organizational theories depending on whether ent variables institutions appear as for exam. they concern the micro or macro level and ple responses to dilemmas and challenges. whether they are deterministic or volunt in a changing environment As independent. aristic Micro level theories concentrate on variables different institutions might help. individual organizations Voluntaristic micro explain for example varied patterns of gov. level theories focus on strategic choices They ernance decision making and even good. treat action as constructed autonomous and decisions Yet Peters argues that a fuller. enacted They generally explain the behavior account of how institutions explain aspects. of an organization in terms that echo the of governance must evoke a micro theory. micro level views of rational choice and such as that associated with either rational. interpretive theory as examined in the previ choice or interpretive theory. ous two chapters In contrast other forms Anders Esmark uses Chapter 7 to discuss. of organizational theory either avoid clear systems theory Systems theorists conceive. micro level assumptions or take a much of coordination as a property of systems. more deterministic view of behavior These General systems theory explores the abstract. forms of organizational theory overlap with principles of organized complexity asking. the institutional and systems theories consid how systems produce or exhibit order and. ered in the next two chapters Deterministic coordination at the level of the whole Social. micro level theories inspire system structural systems theory uses the language and ideas. views Macro level approaches concentrate of general systems theory to study interac. on populations or communities of organiza tions organizations and societies Typically. tions The more deterministic macro level systems theorists locate the rise of the new. theories take a natural selection view governance within a more general narrative. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 5 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,6 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. about modernity Modernity consists of Work on governance often shows how the. increased functional differentiation over state now rules with and through social. time society increasingly develops discrete actors Sometimes it also presents a disag. organizations to fulfill ever more specialized gregated image of the state as composed of. functions The new governance of markets diverse actors meanings and practices across. and networks consists of ever increasingly various spatial and functional domains. specialized and differentiated organizations Sellers then draws attention to some new. performing discrete tasks These specialized analyses of state society relations associated. organizations are often autopoietic or self with the study of governance Analyses of the. governing Systems theory characteristically state often highlight local multilevel and. explores issues of metagovernance such as if transnational practices Analyses of society. it is possible to govern these self governing often rely on a bottom up perspective that. organizations how states try to do so and highlights the agency of social groups in. how we might do so community initiatives and the way firms and. In Chapter 8 Bob Jessop argues that the other groups treat the state as a resource So. theory and practice of metagovernance the interactions between state and society are. emerged as a response to governance failure increasingly complex and diverse Instead. The failings of hierarchy led to public sector of the older dichotomy between state and. reforms intended to advance marketization society studies of the new governance high. The failings of these reforms then led to an light issues such as subnational and sectoral. expansion of networks But networks too variation multilevel and transnational con. fail especially if communication among figurations the impact of specific institutions. the relevant actors is distorted So on one and policy instruments and the feedback. level metagovernance consists of appropri effects of policy outcomes. ate responses to the characteristic failings of In Chapter 10 Patrick Le Gal s explores. the different modes of governance It responds policy instruments Policy instruments are. to bureaucratic failure with meta control the techniques or mechanisms by which. and meta coordination to market failure actors seek to rule The new governance con. with meta exchange and to network failure sists of a shift in policy instruments away. with meta heterarchy On another level how from planning and command and control. ever metagovernance involves rearticulating towards contractual relations standards per. the nature and balance of different modes of formance indicators and regulation Work on. governance It relies on institutional design governance often traces this shift in policy. and the governmentality of subjectivities to instruments or advocates specific policy. create and sustain particular modes of gov instruments as solutions to current dilemmas. ernance Jessop concludes by suggesting that Much of it treats policy instruments as natu. metagovernance itself is necessarily incom ral debating their relative effectiveness under. plete and subject to failure Policy actors varied circumstances In contrast Le Gal s. should adopt a satisficing approach deliber highlights a broader sociological approach to. ately cultivating a flexible set of responses a policy instruments Max Weber Michel. critical self reflexive awareness of their goals Foucault and other social theorists have long. and projects and a willingness to aim at suc interested themselves in the nature causes. cess while knowing failure is more likely and effects of rationalities and technologies. Jeff Sellers looks at governance in the con of governing Policy instruments are techni. text of state society relations in Chapter 9 cal means of organizing social relations by. The new governance poses dilemmas for entrenching meanings beliefs and knowl. older approaches that treat state and society edge For example legislative and regulatory. as mutually exclusive categories and the state instruments generally promote the relations. in particular as monolithic and integrated associated with a guardian state economic. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 6 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 7. and fiscal instruments entrench a redistribu Freedom House s Gastil index Polity Project s. tive state and incentive based instruments approach to constitutional democracy and. promote a mobilizing state New rationalities the World Bank s own governance indicators. and technologies inform new practices of One way to assess these lite measurements. governance is to compare them with independently gen. Phyllis Pomerantz devotes Chapter 11 to erated measurements including mass public. debates on governance in development opinion polls Norris herself compares them. theory Governance often refers to the rise of with citizen s opinions as revealed by the. markets and networks in the public sector World Values Survey 2005 7 She concludes. The contrast is between bureaucratic or hier by advocating a pluralist recognition that. archic institutions and governance conceived different measurements may be suited to. as markets and networks Development theo different purposes. rists use governance somewhat differently to,discuss the importance of political institu. tions for economic growth where these, political institutions include older forms of GOVERNANCE AS PRACTICE.
the state as well as networks Their contrast, is between the market and governance con Theories have little meaning apart from prac. ceived as political institutions As Pomerantz tices Typically theories are attempts to make. shows discussions of governance reflect sense of practices and guides to the actions. a consensus that development depends on by which we forge practices Section II. state and market not just market The key explores governance as practice New public. theoretical innovation here was the new sector reforms and patterns of rule have been. institutional economics Neoliberalism the the main topics of discussion in works on. Washington Consensus and structural adjust governance They have inspired the shifts in. ment created new practices but these prac theorizing explored in Section I Equally. tices failed to deliver the intended prosperity however the reforms and resulting patterns. The new institutional economics helped of rule emerged in part precisely because. explain this failure by highlighting the impor people acted on beliefs such as those associ. tance of political institutions to growth ated with rational choice theory Scholars. and even the proper operation of markets have noted the role of neoclassical econom. Governance thus emerged as a development ics in inspiring the greater reliance on market. agenda based on promoting things such as structures and the role of principal agent. the rule of law government capacity decen theory in inspiring aspects of the new public. tralization accountability and democracy management Yet many of the beliefs and. Increasingly public sector reforms are traditions embedded in the reforms are less. responsive to governance indicators Pippa formal and less tied to grand theories or. Norris discusses the theory and practice of schemes Folk versions of the new theories. measuring democratic governance in Chapter appeared in business and other areas of soci. 12 Governance indicators should be valid ety inspiring new practices and ad hoc. reliable and legitimate Validity depends on responses to all kinds of issues and public. their accurately reflecting the concepts to sector reform often then borrowed piecemeal. which they relate Reliability requires that from these other areas of society Reformers. they are consistent and that they use replica appeared to be and perhaps felt themselves. ble data sources Legitimacy depends on to be less driven by a clear set of theoretical. their construction being transparent and done commitments than groping for plausible. with the involvement of relevant stakehold responses to apparently new constraints and. ers Norris then looks at the leading measure dilemmas Nonetheless of course their con. ments of democratic governance including ception of the constraints and dilemmas. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 7 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,8 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. their instincts as to what did and did not same old ends The state concentrates now on. constitute an appropriate response and the metagovernance an umbrella concept that. examples found in other areas of society all describes the characteristic role and policy. reflected their prior theories instruments of the state in contemporary. Much of the current interest in the idea of governance Rhodes and I then go on to. a new governance stems from the impact challenge these first two waves of govern. of public sector reforms since the 1980s ance by appealing to a third wave based on. Neoliberal reforms spread markets and new interpretive theory We argue governance is. managerial practices fragmenting service constructed differently by many actors. delivery and creating quasi markets and working against the background of diverse. hybrid organizations Later reforms have traditions We challenge the state as a. often been attempts to address the dilemmas bewitching reification that simplifies and. thrown up by marketization and managerial obscures the diversity and contingency of. ism without returning to an elder hierarchic concrete political activity. bureaucracy The chapters in Section II typi In Chapter 14 Laurence Lynn discusses. cally explore the nature extent diversity and the persistence of hierarchy Whereas there. consequences of these varied public sector have been changes in the state we should be. reforms cautious of overstating the extent to which. Public sector reforms have given rise to a new practices of governance have spread or. host of new designs and practices from even the extent to which when they spread. privatization through public private partner they displace older hierarchic structures As. ships to global public policy networks The Lynn shows discussions of new practices. spread of these practices inspires questions often draw heavily on the spread of new. about the relationship between state and soci theories about markets networks delibera. ety Some scholars see new governance as a tive democracy and e governance These. result or a cause of the decline of the state theories generally combine conceptual. Others see it as an adaptation of the state to empirical and normative elements Empirical. increasing societal complexity What is the claims about changes need to be distin. scope and limits of the state s authority guished from conceptual arguments about. What role does the voluntary sector play the nature of governance The empirical evi. How does governance occur in areas where dence offers a kaleidoscopic picture of. the state lacks effective control or where diverse practices changing in complex and. there is no state contested ways It offers little support to. Together with Rod Rhodes I review the grand claims about a social logic driving. changing state in Chapter 13 We trace three a more or less uniform transformation in. waves of governance and the oscillating for governance Hierarchy remains pervasive. tunes of the state therein The first wave of not only in bureaucratic institutions but also. governance evoked a world in which state within newer institutional forms Hierarchy. power is dispersed among a vast array of persists in part because of its importance for. spatially and functionally distinct networks accountability and so liberal representative. composed of all kinds of public voluntary democracy. and private organizations with which the Steven Cohen and William Eimicke dis. center interacts The state appeared to be cuss contracting out in Chapter 15 There is. being hollowed out The second wave of gov nothing intrinsically new about public sector. ernance accepted the shift from bureaucracy organizations entering contracts with non. to markets and networks but disputed it led to governmental actors However the dramatic. any significant dispersal of state authority spread of contracting out is one of the most. The state has simply changed the way it exer noticed features of the new governance The. cises its authority adopting new tools for the new governance has seen contracting out. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 8 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 9. arise not only as a means of delivering serv Anthony Cheung looks specifically at. ices but also as a means of building complex budgeting and finance in Chapter 17 Cheung. networks of actors Contracting out can traces the rise of new practices from the. enable public sector organizations to get planning programming budgeting system. goods services and expertise that their in favored by many Keynesian welfare states in. house staff cannot provide However as the 1960s and 1970s to cutback management. Cohen and Eimicke argue the spread of con in the 1980s and budgeting for results since. tracting out reflected the rise of ideologies and the 1990s The new practices were responses. theories that were overtly anti government to a range of dilemmas that preoccupied. and pro market Contracting out is also a policy actors in the 1970s dilemmas such. response to dilemmas associated with infor as fiscal stress declining production and. mation technology flexible production and government overload The main features of. globalization The spread of contracting now the reforms included devolution of authority. in turn poses dilemmas for the theory and on line budgets freedom to manage central. practice of governance Here Cohen and targets multi year budgeting public service. Eimicke consider the dilemmas of eliciting agreements and of course various forms of. bids framing contracts in suitable language commercialization such as contracting out. monitoring and managing performance and and user charging Cheung traces the pattern. maintaining ethical standards and clear lines of reform across OECD and Asian states The. of accountability reforms were bold but implementing them. Chapter 16 turns to public management proved difficult In practice budgetary deci. Carolyn Heinrich begins by discussing the sions are often divorced from performance. gradual and confused emergence of a distinc evaluation and so dominated by political bar. tion between public administration and public gaining central budgeting agencies have. management Public management reflects often tried to retain control thereby thwarting. the impact of new theories highlighting the devolution and legislative scrutiny remains. informal processes and activities in organiza focused on inputs Hybrid budgeting regimes. tions Public management is the process of now cloak older forms of central control. allocating and using public resources The concerns with distributional effects and. study of public management recognizes the fiscal stability in managerialist garb. enduring importance of laws and structures Like contracting out public private part. but it also examines informal cultures and nerships transform the interplay between. the craft or skilled practice by which cul the state business and civil society In. tures processes and structures are steered Chapter 18 Gunnar Schuppert explains that. In many ways governance draws on this shift these partnerships rely on horizontal modes. toward public management In particular the of cooperation for the collaborative provision. new public management NPM encouraged on public services Typically partnerships. new practices of governance NPM tried to differ from contracting out in that they. make the culture of the public sector more embody joint decision making and produc. like that of private companies by changing tion not a principal agent relationship Yet. structures incentives and norms It embraced while partnerships are a type of network the. marketization and also things such as per literature on partnerships gives a more dis. formance pay customer service and output tinctly managerial focus to discussions of. based budgeting NPM thus contributed governance as and through networks This. greatly to the broad shift from direct service managerial focus may reflect the reasons. provision by government to more complex why states establish public private partner. patterns of governance incorporating mar ships within their territory Domestic partner. kets networks and private and voluntary ships are all about reducing public spending. sector actors They are ways of ensuring cutbacks and. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 9 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,10 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. seeking efficiency In contrast transnational challenges Denters illustrates the variety by. partnerships often have more normative ori studying the cases of Sweden the Netherlands. gins Transnational and international partner Germany the USA the UK and France. ships often seek to promote trade justice Chapter 21 explores the role of non. and a sustainable environment governmental organizations NGOs in the. Andy Smith looks at multijurisdictional new governance Shamsul Haque defines. regulation in Chapter 19 The new practices NGOs as legally constructed and recognized. of governance often cover different levels groups with durable and formal structures. policy domains and actors No doubt we incorporating paid staff NGOs are broadly. have been made increasingly aware of multi autonomous from both the state and the pri. jurisdictional coordination by the rise of the vate sector They aim to serve the public. ories about networks Yet policy actors have interest through a non profit orientation. also deliberately fostered such multijurisdic towards humanitarian purposes Scholars. tional patterns of policymaking and regula disagree on whether NGOs typically collabo. tion to address transnational and wicked rate or compete with the state and on whether. problems The European Union exemplifies the state is dominant NGOs are dominant. the rise of new ways of regulating trans or the two are co equal Despite these dif. national issues Joined up governance and ferent viewpoints most scholars agree that. whole of government agendas exemplify the NGOs have become increasingly important. turn to multijurisdictional practices as a way because of the rise of the new governance. to address wicked problems such as welfare Marketization and contracting out created an. dependency and aid to fragile states Smith increased demand for NGOs to play a role in. tracks the ideas that have inspired these prac governance New NGOs appeared and older. tices and by which people have then tried to ones expanded and changed Generally NGOs. and made sense of them He traces and did not merely spread they also became more. extends a shift from discussions of multilevel commercial in their activities and outlooks. to multijurisdictional governance and from The growing role of NGOs in governance has. coordination to regulation been both lauded and condemned Advocates. In Chapter 20 Bas Denters looks at of NGOs have long associated them with. changing practices and dilemmas of local social inclusion and participation Critics. governance Local governance like the new argue they have proved ineffective and are. governance more generally has become often corrupt and undemocratic. increasingly polycentric involving a greater Non governmental organizations play a. variety of policy actors The changing nature role in many transnational networks Anne. of local governance typically poses demo Marie Slaughter and Thomas Hale examine. cratic and functional challenges From a transnational and transgovernmental networks. democratic perspective a more polycentric in Chapter 22 These networks sustain regu. system can restrict the leading historical lar and purposive interactions among policy. forms of representation From a functional or actors from diverse states thus often spanning. managerial perspective a more polycentric domestic and international spheres Many. system restricts the scope for hierarchic allow domestic policy actors to relate directly. coordination and control Nonetheless the to their counterparts in other states without. reforms of local governance have differed having to pass through older diplomatic chan. from country to country Systems of local nels They facilitate the exchange of informa. government vary in their capacity autonomy tion the enforcement of international treaties. and size generally according to their rela and rules and the standardization of regula. tionship to other levels of governance and tory and other norms and laws Slaughter and. this variety influences the extent to which Hale suggest that transgovernmental networks. they confront democratic and functional have spread in response to dilemmas posed. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 10 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 11.
by increasing transnational flows and by the world may need to change Policy actors. globalization Transgovernmental networks and citizens may need to devise new actions. provide an important alternative or supple and perhaps ideals to deal with modes of. ment to older approaches to international governance that are increasingly hybrid and. affairs They expand the state s ability to multijurisdictional linking plural stakehold. address transnational issues especially tech ers in complex networks I can put the same. nical issues that require an expertise rarely point differently by observing that the inter. found in foreign ministries They are also action of theory and practice continues apace. generally more flexible and responsive than changes in the theories challenge our estab. are diplomatic exchanges and international lished ways of doing things prompting us to. institutions adopt new actions in an attempt to remake. Ian Hall and I turn to global governance the world and changes in the practices often. more generally in Chapter 23 The term require us to rethink our beliefs and theories. global governance flourished belatedly in the so as to make sense of the new worlds in. wake of discussions about governance and which we find ourselves Governance is in. the changing nature of the state Global gov this respect a very practical concern It is. ernance is associated with a shift of focus about activity how people act and how. towards processes and activities It focuses they might act more effectively and more. on the role of diverse social actors as well as justly The ideas and actions by which people. states in securing international order and it respond to dilemmas are the sources of new. allows that patterns of rule can arise without theories and new practices The new theories. hierarchic institutions let alone an interna and new practices create other dilemmas that. tional sovereign power Yet this novel focus lead people again to revise their ideas and. can appear as a confusing mix of theoretical actions The practical activity of governing is. and empirical claims A general theoretical continuous as therefore is the process of. orientation to processes and activities involv reform Governance is about the constantly. ing diverse actors gets confused with a more shifting and contingent nature of practical. specific empirical claim about the changing political activity. nature of international relations since the late Currently governance presents us with. twentieth century The empirical claim sug a number of managerial and democratic. gests that while earlier ages had weak inter dilemmas From a managerial perspective. national institutions and strong sovereign hybrid organizations with plural stakeholders. states the late twentieth century saw the rise in networks rarely exhibit the clear chains. of new times in which new actors and mech of command of hierarchic bureaucracies. anisms became increasingly prominent Hall Policymakers and others have struggled to. and I argue that the theoretical lens empiri find effective ways of acting in new settings. cal claims and consequent agendas of global The fragmentation of governing can appear. governance are all connected to one another to make control steering and coordination. They all emerged historically as the postwar increasingly elusive Several of the chapters. era gave way to both neoliberal markets and in Section III explore such issues the ways. new approaches to planning and networks practitioners have responded to them and the. ways in which practitioners might better,respond to them The chapters ask How. should public officials and citizens operate, GOVERNANCE AS DILEMMA in the new environment of non hierarchical. interlaced state society interactions Other, The changing nature of governance poses dilemmas associated with governance are. dilemmas for many older theories and prac more obviously normative ones relating. tices As the world changes so responses to to democratic theory and social justice. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 11 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,12 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. The involvement of non state actors in policy which state actors can achieve policy goals in. making and service delivery raises the partnership with stakeholders and the public. question of whether the result is to deepen and especially by encouraging the public. democracy or entrench private government actively to involve themselves in the policy. Accountability has become a widespread process Typically it emphasizes shared. concern for new institutions and modes of negotiated and deliberative decision making. participation How have people responded to Bingham shows how collaborative govern. worries about ethics legitimacy inclusion ance might operate throughout the policy. and justice How might they better respond stream Upstream in the policy process col. to such worries laboration overlaps with deliberative and. In Chapter 24 Kamran Ali Afzal and Mark participatory democracy Midstream in the. Considine tackle accountability and the more policy process it overlaps with network. general issue of legitimacy The nature of management and engagement with civil soci. legitimacy depends in part on how a society ety and the stakeholders within it Downstream. conceives of it Democratic societies histori in the enforcement of policy collaborative. cally have conceived legitimacy as entwined governance overlaps with innovations deriv. with accountability Bureaucrats are respon ing from alternative forms of resolving dis. sible to elected politicians who in turn must putes and conflict Bingham concludes by. give an account of themselves to citizens drawing attention to the importance of design. The legitimacy of the public sector thereby ing appropriate institutions and building legal. derives from its being ultimately an expres infrastructures in order further to develop. sion of the will of the people or at least collaborative approaches to governance. answerable to the people Public sector Peter McLaverty uses Chapter 26 to. officials can be answerable in terms of legal consider upstream innovations in political. rules professional norms and personal participation He suggests that the rise of. moralities The new practices of governance governance alongside the decline of public. generally appear to pose dilemmas for participation in historic forms of politics has. accountability and legitimacy so conceived contributed to scholars and practitioners. Markets and networks break up clear lines experimenting with other forms of participa. of accountability The complex patterns of tion These forms of participation supple. the new governance make it difficult to ment those associated with representative. determine who is responsible for what let institutions They include deliberative mech. alone to hold them accountable Afzal and anisms and co governance initiatives as well. Considine explore these dilemmas and as consultation exercises The deliberative. responses to them They highlight an agenda mechanisms cover citizens juries consensus. in which legitimacy depends on assigned conferences deliberative opinion polls and. goals and standards transparent outcomes deliberative mapping Typically they aim to. knowable consequences practices of review improve the quality of public opinion They. answerability for failure and the revision of generally generate advice for policymakers. programs not decisions In contrast co governance, Democracy is of course as much about initiatives typically give citizens a direct.
participation as legitimacy Indeed participa and structured input into decision making. tion may be essential to legitimacy and even They include participatory budgeting appoint. accountability As Lisa Bingham argues in ing citizens to partnership boards citizens. Chapter 25 while collaborative governance assemblies and referenda Finally consulta. is a vague term it includes most attempts to tion exercises include public meetings opinion. enhance effective participation within the new surveys planning for real and standing forums. governance Collaborative governance focuses McLaverty argues that while these forms. on the dilemmas of promoting practices in of participation can improve democracy. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 12 5 18 2010 2 21 01 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 13. they may get captured by unrepresentative by means of a series of overlapping activities. lites and they may pose challenges for other they activate people and resources they. democratic values such as equality frame roles and issues they mobilize people. Chapters 27 and 28 shift attention to the and specific behaviors and they synthesize. problems and innovations facing collabora the results No single individual need per. tive governance midstream in the policy form all these activities in linear succession. process In Chapter 27 Janet and Robert Rather these activities normally depend on. Denhardt explore the dilemmas that the new various people who sustain the relevant proc. governance poses for leadership Public offi esses over time to sustain and modify the. cials need new theories and practices of network, leadership Historically leadership has been Many of our democratic values relate not. conceived in hierarchical terms that rely at only to participation but also to justice and. least tacitly on the possibility of coercion In inclusion As Petri Koikkalainen argues in. hierarchies leadership generally depends on Chapter 29 social inclusion overlaps not. power and position leaders use their power only with justice but also with community. and position to develop organizational and cohesiveness After World War II many. visions manage operations exert control states promoted social inclusion by expand. and overcome resistance to change Now the ing welfare services In the 1970s the crisis. new governance poses dilemmas for this of the state cast doubt on both the viability. approach to leadership Today we need new and desirability of the welfare state The new. concepts and practices of leadership better governance emerged in tandem with a range. suited to the requirements of network gov of new theories and policies designed to. ernance In the new governance leaders address issues of social inclusion Neoliberals. increasingly find themselves having to turned to markets even arguing that employ. manage and sustain cooperative relations and ment was the key way by which people. common purposes across multiple organiza became responsible and involved in society. tions over some of which they may have little Institutionalists respond by appealing to par. authority New imperatives of leadership ticipation in social and economic networks. include fostering collaboration building based on trust Their theories helped to inspire. resilience and adaptive capacity resolving policies designed to activate people and con. ethical concerns through dialogue and nect them in partnerships often involving. engaging citizens public sector actors Communitarians empha. Michael McGuire tackles the specific prob sized the importance of adherence to a shared. lems of network management in Chapter 28 set of core values embodied in a way of life. He focuses on institutional and organiza Their theories led to attempts to transform. tional perspectives Network management is the grassroots of governance in families. the attempt to influence other actors and thus neighborhoods schools and towns. the network Diverse policy actors may need In Chapter 30 Angelina Yuen Tsang. or try to manage networks They may want to and Hok Bun Ku look at capacity building. promote their individual goals or the goals They note the breadth and vagueness of the. of their home organizations or simply to concept of capacity building and the varied. enhance the general effectiveness or intrinsic contexts in which it is used Capacity build. value of the network and its processes ing typically refers to attempts to foster. Network management is usually directed democratic and accountable governance by. towards one of a range of features of net strengthening civil society and especially. works including more effective decision the knowledge abilities and relationships. making the promotion of trust and the among citizens The concept of capacity. distribution of power Network managers building rose out of liberation theology and. usually influence decisions trust and power Marxist theories of literacy To some extent. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 13 5 18 2010 2 21 02 PM,14 THEORIES OF GOVERNANCE. these roots encouraged a problem centered that these different types of decentralization. approach attempts to build capacity focused foster legitimacy and efficiency only as part. on overcoming the obstacles people confront of a larger reform agenda including socio. Today however there is a greater focus on economic reform. building on the strengths people already In Chapter 32 Wai Fung Lam discusses. have The general aim is to empower people the particular problem of governing the com. by working with micro and mezzo level mons Garret Hardin described the problem. institutions Sometimes this aim is itself seen memorably He postulated a common field. as a route to development Here the idea is on which ranchers graze cattle The ranchers. that enhancing the capabilities of citizens and all have an interest in restricting grazing to. their local organizations might ensure that maintain the fertility of the field But each. socioeconomic policies are more inclusive individual rancher hopes that the others. and appropriate Yuen Tsang and Ku illus restrict grazing while they themselves add. trate the nature and advantages of a capacity further animals Each rancher seeks to avoid. building approach by reference to commu the shared costs of restricting grazing while. nity development work in a Chinese village reaping the individualized benefits of adding. in Yunnan province more animals The result is a tragedy of the. Fumihiko Saito examines the role and commons the field loses fertility Lam traces. prospects of decentralization in Chapter 31 the changing response to the problem of. Decentralization appeals across the political managing common pool resources Initially. spectrum as a possible response to various scholars and practitioners emphasized the. dilemmas that have become increasingly importance of benevolent state action Later. prominent since the 1970s One dilemma is they turned to market approaches based. the problem of legitimacy discussed by Afzal on various systems of property rights Yet. and Considine see Chapter 24 Other dilem Lam argues the dichotomy of bureaucratic. mas include the greater demands that citizens state or free market proved unhelpful. make of governments the heterogeneous Ethnographic and interpretive studies of. nature of these demands transnational flows practice combined with theories of bounded. and globalization Decentralization offers the rationality to open up new perspectives In. promise of greater legitimacy and efficiency particular new approaches to institutional. Decentralized institutions may encourage design turned from panaceas to studies of. participation and foster ethnic harmony and what rules worked well in what settings. national unity They may get better informa These approaches typically promote things. tion be more responsive and find it easier to like connections between individual and. raise revenues All these benefits however collective interests forms of interdepend. are open to doubt Moreover as Saito argues ence shared mental models effective use of. decentralization can take different forms information and multilevel approaches to. Typologies of decentralization distinguish problem solving. for example between deconcentration devo As public managers increasingly find. lution and delegation Deconcentration themselves managing networks rather than. involves transferring service delivery from hierarchic bureaucracies so the state increas. central agencies to local offices Devolution ingly seeks legal control through regulation. involves transferring power decision making In Chapter 33 Marian D hler explores the. and financial responsibility from central rise of regulation as a mode of governance. governments to subnational ones Delegation Historically regulation was used to correct. can have a closer association with NPM perceived market failures In the 1960s. referring to the transfer of administrative and 1970s regulation was used to promote. responsibilities to private and voluntary competition and the interests of consumers. sector actors Empirical research suggests in industrial sectors such as air traffic and. 5419 Bevir Chap 01 indd 14 5 18 2010 2 21 02 PM,GOVERNANCE AS THEORY PRACTICE AND DILEMMA 15. telecommunications Yet the rise of the new CONCLUSION. governance included new theories and prac, tices of regulation For example the Chicago The term governance has risen to promi.
School used economic reasoning to point to nence in the last 30 years as a way of describ. the apparent shortcomings of regulation and ing and explaining changes in our world It. helped to inspire neoliberals to call for has become a prominent topic across the. reduced regulation and a rolling back of the social sciences and a major concern for. state Equally however the attempt to roll political and non profit actors Typically the. back the state led to an expansion of net new governance refers to changes in the. works and transnational interactions many nature and role of the state since the last. of which seemed to need regulation The quarter of the twentieth century The state has. result is an expanded realm of regulation become increasingly dependent on organiza. that addresses not only particular industrial tions in civil society and more constrained by. sectors but also problems that cut across international linkages On the one hand the. sectors Some commentators even talk of a public sector in many states has shifted away. new regulatory state from bureaucratic hierarchy and toward mar. The Handbook of Governance concludes kets and networks governance thus captures. with Chapter 34 by James Meadowcroft the ways in which patterns of rule operate in. on sustainable development Sustainable and through groups within the voluntary and. development denotes a cluster of normative private sector On the other hand states have. concerns including the protection of the become increasingly embroiled with transna. natural environment public participation in tional and international settings as a result of. environmental decision making the needs of the internationalization of industrial and. the poor and justice to future generations financial transactions the rise of regional. Sustainability and governance are con blocks and concerns over problems such as. ceptually and historically entwined Rising terrorism and the environment governance. worries about sustainability inspire and thus captures the formal and informal ways. require new theories of governance The in which states have attempted to respond to. environmental movement pioneered several the changing global order. of the policy instruments most closely asso A vast literature has arisen on governance. ciated with the practice of the new govern and the changing nature of the state and other. ance Today sustainable development poses forms of rule The literature includes contri. many of the main dilemmas of government in butions from the leading theories in the con. an especially acute form How can we simul temporary social sciences including rational. taneously build integration measurement choice institutionalism and interpretive. partnerships and reflexivity in policymaking theory The literature describes explains and. In addition the advocates of sustainable devel evaluates trends in public sector reform. opment often remind us of the continuing including marketization public management. importance of hierarchic state authorities and multijurisdictional coordination The. intervening to redistribute wealth and regu literature explores the effect of these trends. late social action Meadowcroft argues that on diverse practices of rule including local. approaches to sustainable development nota government the changing state and global. bly the transition approach and the adaptive governance The literature raises practical. management perspective often focus on policy issues about how practitioners can mange. and process We might pay more attention to these changing patterns of rule What types. the socioeconomic and political context of of leadership are appropriate How can poli. sustainability moving beyond an expansion cymakers manage networks How can we. ist economy rethinking the welfare state and act collectively to preserve common goods. reforming representative democracy Finally the literature raises ethical and.

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