Inuit Spring Hunting Techniques And Local Knowledge Of The-PDF Free Download

Inuit spring hunting techniques and local knowledge of the
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Fig 1 Map of the Canadian Arctic showing the study area Light grey shaded area in insert shows the specific study area in the. land fast ice of Admiralty Inlet from Arctic Bay to Lancaster Sound. e g Gunn et al 1988 Ferguson et al 1998 They the Northwest Territories as of 1999 it is within. observe animals while while hunting and travel the boundaries of the new terrirory Nunavut The. ling over seasonal and geographical distributions study was conducted concurrently with a study. rarely matched by scientists e g Hall 1864 Boas of ringed seal ecology in the region see Furgal. 1888 1907 Norton et al 1987 Gunn et al 1988 et al 1996 The objective of this study was to. Additionally indigenous people can provide data gather local hunters knowledge on the biology. on specific stocks of animals from knowledge of the ringed seal Phoca hispida and to directly. that has been orally transmitted for hundreds of observe and document Inuit seal hunting tech. years e g Hall 1864 Boas 1907 Manning 1944 niques during the spring season in the vicinity. Osherenko 1988 This information can provide of Arctic Bay. knowledge to future generations and comple, ment scientific data sets Riewe Amsden 1979. Thomsen 1993 Condon et al 1995, Many studies have documented observations. of Inuit seal hunting activities e g Hall 1864 Study site. Kumlien 1879 Boas 1888 1907 Murdoch 1893, Degerb l 1935 Nelson 1969 Riewe Amsden This study was conducted in and around Arctic. 1979 Wenzel 1991 However few investigations Bay 73 02 N 85 10 W on Baffin Island. have presented such information in association Canada This small Inuit hamlet located in the. with hunter knowledge or the broader scientific north west quarter of Baffin Island is home to. literature regarding the distribution and behav approximately 540 people Fig 1 Historically. iour of these Arctic marine mammals This Inuit in the Arctic Bay area lived in outposts. study was initiated at the request of the Arctic surrounding nearby Admiralty Inlet Lancaster. Bay Hunters and Trappers Organization HTO Sound and Adams Sound The Hudson s Bay. Arctic Bay Ikpiarjuk Canada At the time of the Company established a post in Arctic Bay in. research Arctic Bay was included in the area of 1926 which closed the following year It was. 2 Inuit spring hunting techniques and local knowledge of the ringed seal. subsequently re established in 1936 when Inuit a series of hunting trips between 7 April and 3. originally from Pangnirtung and Cape Dorset June 1993 Hunting expeditions were subdivided. relocated from the unsuccessful post at Dundas into time spent searching and time spent using. Harbour As was the case for many other Baffin a specific hunting technique Seal structures. communities Arctic Bay experienced the intro located by the hunter were classified as breathing. duction of pension plans government support holes haul out lairs or pup lairs as in Furgal et. payments and unemployment insurance in the al 1996 Hunting success was documented and. 1940s and 1950s Government housing initiatives prey was classified as being a pup subadult adult. encouraged Inuit to settle into this and other female or adult male e g McLaren 1958 Smith. communities in the 1960s Brody 1976 Oakes Stirling 1975 On a few occasions N 10. 1987 Soubli re 1998 The mine at Nanisivik hunting techniques used by other Inuit were also. opened in the late 1960s Pan Arctic oil explora observed when one or more hunters accompa. tion began in 1971 and associated wage based nied the principal hunter or when other hunters. employment became a major influence within were encountered while out on the land fast ice. the community However land based subsistence, activities have always been important to Arctic Data analysis. Bay Inuit Most men and many women still take, part in some form of hunting fishing and col A Model II one way analysis of variance.
lecting activities at different times of the year ANOVA Sokal Rohlf 1981 was used to. These activities are associated with the various test for differences between structure and. wildlife species in the region which include habitat characteristics and location and hunt. caribou Rangifer tarandus ringed seal bearded ing techniques Assumptions of normality and. seal Erignathus barbatus narwhal Monodon homogeneity of variance were tested by graphical. monocerus Arctic fox Alopex lagopus polar analysis of the residuals Sokal Rohlf 1981. bear Ursus maritimus Arctic hare Lepus arcti All variables with the exception of the time spent. cus and Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus The searching for structures or basking seals and the. ringed seal is still used for clothing Oakes 1987 time spent in a hunting technique were ln trans. and plays an important role in the diet of many formed to improve normality and homogeneity. north Baffin communities today Kuhnlein et al of variance Sokal Rohlf 1981 For statisti. 2000 including Arctic Bay cal analyses the maximum accepted probability. Nearby Admiralty Inlet only some 10 20 km for type 1 errors was set at 0 05 Means are. away is a common hunting area for the communi shown as X 1 s d unless otherwise stated. ties of Arctic Bay and Nanisivik It has a complex, coastline with deep fjords and sounds that freeze Hunter knowledge survey. each year in late autumn and remain frozen until, early July Lindsay 1977 This land fast ice is To complement the data obtained through field. broken and rafted by winds and currents during observations interviews concerning knowledge. consolidation Additionally persistent cracks of ringed seals were conducted with hunters from. occur across the inlet and the openings to deep Arctic Bay between 31 January and 10 February. bays due largely to tidal fluctuations Ringed seal 1994 Interview topics regarding the general biol. lairs and breathing holes are often associated ogy and distribution of seals within the land fast. with the resultant ice formations due to snow ice as well as the techniques used to hunt them. accumulation at these sites e g McLaren 1958 were prepared in consultation with the HTO prior. Smith Hammill 1981 Lydersen Gjertz 1986 to interviews Table 1 Twenty three active or. Lydersen et al 1990 Lydersen Ryg 1991 Smith experienced seal hunters and community elders. et al 1991 Furgal et al 1996 Residents of Arctic were recommended by the HTO as candidates for. Bay and the nearby community of Nanisivik hunt interviews These individuals were identified as. this species the year round being experienced or very knowledgeable regard. ing seals and the techniques used to hunt them, Hunting observations in the region All recommended persons were. contacted and willing participants were then, Direct observations by CF were made of a interviewed individually in their homes or in the. skilled ringed seal hunter from Arctic Bay on Hamlet Office The outline purpose and intent. Furgal et al 2002 Polar Research 21 1 1 16 3, of the study were explained prior to interviews lar responses to individual topics discussed i e.
and each participant provided written consent to similar methods and cues used to locate ringed. acknowledge their understanding and involvement seal structures similar times when ringed seals. in the study Interview questions were posed in an are thought to migrate into Admiralty Inlet was. open ended manner and were often followed by used to organize the data collected in interviews. suggestions for specification to clarify responses Miles Huberman 1984 Marshall Rossman. e g Patton 1990 Creswell 1994 Questions 1989 Tesch 1990 Once developed groups or. were structured to avoid lengthy translation into categories were then reviewed and revised when. Inuktitut They were focused primarily on gen necessary to account for all responses given All. eral ringed seal biology and behaviour as well as interview transcripts were then manually coded. on temporal and spatial trends in body condition using these categories and the information was. seal distribution and hunting techniques used by summarized into tabular form Although the fre. Inuit to catch seals Interviews were conducted in quencies of similar responses to interview topics. Inuktitut through sequential translation with the are reported in some cases here they are used for. aid of an interpreter Written notes were taken summary purposes only and are not indicative of. during interviews and interviews were taped statistical significance Increased frequency of a. when the participant gave permission to do so specific category of information may indicate the. Notes and tapes were reviewed for clarification prevalence of that view among a group of partici. and participants were contacted again if neces pants however consideration was given for the. sary to clarify answers or provide further detail complete text of all responses. A process of iteratively reviewing the textual, data and developing groups or categories of simi. Results and discussion, Approximately 80 hours of searching and hunt. Table 1 Discussion topics for hunter knowledge survey on ing were observed during 31 hunting days in the. ringed seal Phoca hispida biology and Inuit hunting tech spring of 1993 Two hundred and forty six ringed. niques in Arctic Bay, seal breathing holes or lairs were found and 34. 1 Temporal changes in ringed seals in Admiralty Inlet and. kills were made during the study A total of, adjoining fjords and bays 1150 km was travelled in an area of 4115 km 2 An. relative abundances average of 38 1 23 5 km was travelled searching. tissue differences eg liver texture taste colour white for ringed seals and structures per day A total of. 168 lairs and breathing holes were found and 78, 2 Spatial differences of ringed seals in Admiralty Inlet and.
adjoining fjords and bays basking seals were sighted at holes Table 2. behaviour Between 31 January and 10 February 1994 17. size in north and south Admiralty individuals were interviewed to document their. taste differences, knowledge of ringed seal biology and hunting. 3 Temporal patterns of ringed seals in Admiralty Inlet and. adjoining fjords and bays, The duration of the interviews ranged from 40. migration into inlet to 120 min and averaged 1 h The mean age of. when respondents was 52 8 years and they had an, 4 Ringed seal pups average of 39 14 years of hunting experience in. decription of habitat used by pups the Arctic Bay area Approximately half 8 17 of. behavioural differences observed when hunting white. pups vs more yellow coloured pups the respondents had dog teams which they used. hunting techniques how where clues to locate on an occasional basis but none relied exclusively. relationship between female and male seal behavioural on them for hunting Most hunting was performed. and with respect to distance to male used breathing. holes and lairs, using snowmobiles, 5 Techniques used to hunt basking seals. 6 Male ringed seals tiggak Ringed seal ecology in Admiralty Inlet. when do they start smelling, how big are they when they do The ringed seal is the smallest and most abundant.
when is the odour associated with male seals from of the northern phocids Smith et al 1991 It is. when until when, circumpolar in its distribution occupying areas. 7 Uses and importance of seals in Arctic Bay, of stable land fast and pack ice from 50 N to the. 4 Inuit spring hunting techniques and local knowledge of the ringed seal. North Pole Smith Stirling 1975 Frost Lowry abnormal weather conditions or other factors that. 1981 King 1983 Heide J rgensen Lydersen specifically influence local ringed seal population. 1998 Rough population estimates suggest the density e g Smith et al 1978 Lydersen Ryg. North Atlantic and eastern Canadian Arctic 1991 Smith Lydersen 1991 For example a. population to be 1300 000 animals NAMMCO February rain that melted much of the snow and. 1997 When discussing temporal trends in the created a thick cover of ice over breathing holes. ringed seal population in the Arctic Bay area was given as an explanation for low availability. hunters indicated time periods when ringed and catches of ringed seals by one individual. seals had been scarce and they suggested various interviewed Documented decreases in local. habitat related climatic and human related ringed seal densities in the south eastern Beau. factors that may have been the cause of these fort Sea from 1974 77 have been attributed to. shortages Several hunters indicated that they very heavy ice conditions in 1974 Stirling et. had experienced times when ringed seals were al 1982 Fluctuations in seal densities repro. so scarce that they went for a period with little ductive rates and body conditions in Amundsen. or no successful hunting Hunters reported that Gulf are reported by Smith 1987 He suggests. these incidences occurred in 1947 in the Cape that differences in ringed seal abundance within. Strathcona area in the mid 1950s in the area this region may be related to annual variations in. of Cape Crauford at the north end of Admiralty ice or snow conditions or to oceanographic fea. Inlet or at times between the early 1950s and tures that influence the distribution of seals The. early 1960s in various locations within Admiralty demonstrated potential for ringed seals to migrate. Inlet Some respondents explained these times of long distances and perhaps shift to more favour. short supply as being due to a period of illness able wintering and feeding areas in response. hunting techniques used by other Inuit were also observed when one or more hunters accompa nied the principal hunter or when other hunters were encountered while out on the land fast ice Data analysis A Model II one way analysis of variance ANOVA Sokal amp Rohlf 1981 was used to test for differences between structure and

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