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PEARSON EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL A LEVEL ECONOMICS COPY
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Published by Pearson Education Limited 80 Strand London WC2R 0RL Pressmaster Shutterstock 108 bl Shutterstock Rainer Plendl Shutterstock 110. 123RF HONGQI ZHANG 123RF 111 Shutterstock Michaeljung Shutterstock. www pearsonglobalschools com 113 Getty Images Hero Images Getty Images 114 Shutterstock Jacob Lund. Shutterstock 119 Shutterstock Langstrup Shutterstock 121 ml Pearson. Copies of official specifications for all Pearson Edexcel qualifications may be found Education Ltd Jules Selmes Pearson Education Ltd 121 bl Shutterstock. on the website https qualifications pearson com DW labs Incorporated Shutterstock 125 123RF Rainer Plendl 123RF 130. tl Shutterstock Andrey Arkusha Shutterstock 130 123RF 123RF 130. Text Pearson Education Limited 2019 tr Shutterstock Vankad Shutterstock 130 mr Shutterstock Rob Byron. Designed by Pearson Education Limited 2019 Shutterstock 134 123RF Derege 123RF 136 ml Shutterstock Heiko. Typeset by Evolution Design Digital Ltd Kent Kueverling Shutterstock 136 bl Shutterstock Eyeidea Shutterstock 138 123RF. Original illustrations Pearson Education Limited 2019 Kzenon 123RF 139 123RF Mark Bowden 123RF 140 Getty Images RoBeDeRo. Edited by Andrea Davison Judith Shaw and Steph White E Getty Images 149 123RF Somsak Sudthangtum 123RF 157 Getty Images. Cover design by Pearson Education Limited 2019 Nisa and Ulli Maier Photography Moment Getty Images 164 tl Shutterstock. Picture research by Integra Dmitry Kalinovsky Shutterstock 164 br Shutterstock Rzoze19 Shutterstock 165. Cover photo Thomas Winz Lonely Planet Images Getty Images 123RF Natalia Bratslavsky 123RF 175 Shutterstock Vacclav Shutterstock 176. Inside front cover photo Shutterstock Dmitry Lobanov Getty Images Anucha sirivisansuwan Moment Getty Images 181 Shutterstock. Senk Shutterstock 184 Pearson Education Ltd Studio 8 Pearson Education. The rights of Karen Borrington and Tracey Joad to be identified as authors of this Ltd 187 Shutterstock Dmitry Kalinovsky Shutterstock 193 Shutterstock. work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright Designs and Samot Shutterstock 199 Shutterstock Siriwat sriphojaroen Shutterstock 200. Patents Act 1988 Shutterstock 54115341 Shutterstock 209 Shutterstock Delpixel Shutterstock. 211 Shutterstock Donvictorio Shutterstock 222 Getty Images Thitivong. First published 2019 iStock Getty Images Plus Getty Images 227 Shutterstock Paul Cowan. Shutterstock 230 Shutterstock Patrick Foto Shutterstock 231 Shutterstock. 22 21 20 19 Orhan Cam Shutterstock 232 Shutterstock Mark Van Overmeire Shutterstock. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 237 Shutterstock Pavel Shlykov Shutterstock 240 Shutterstock Pavel Ilyukhin. Shutterstock 242 Shutterstock Javarman Shutterstock 243 Shutterstock. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Mentatdgt Shutterstock 246 Shutterstock Photoinnovation Shutterstock 248. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Shutterstock Vladimir Korostyshevskiy Shutterstock 251 Shutterstock Graja. Shutterstock 261 Getty Images Puneet Vikram Singh Nature and Concept. ISBN 978 1 29223 918 7 photographer Moment Getty Images 266 Shutterstock Lazyllama Shutterstock. 269 Shutterstock TheFinalMiracle Shutterstock 272 Shutterstock Jose Miguel. Copyright notice Hernandez Leon Shutterstock 280 Shutterstock Wong yu liang Shutterstock. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by 281 Shutterstock Luciano Mortula LGM Shutterstock 282 Getty Images. any means including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means Anucha sirivisansuwan Moment Getty Images 289 Shutterstock Andrey Popov. and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication Shutterstock 309 Shutterstock Bolarzeal Shutterstock 313 Shutterstock. without the written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with Sunsinger Shutterstock 314 Shutterstock VictoryX21 Shutterstock 317. the provisions of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms Pearson Education Ltd Sophie Bluy Pearson Education Ltd 322 Shutterstock. of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Barnard s Inn 86 Fetter Orhan Cam Shutterstock 323 123RF Rawpixel 123RF 326 Shutterstock Rafal. Lane London EC4A 1EN www cla co uk Applications for the copyright owner s. Cichawa Shutterstock 328 Shutterstock Norman Chan Shutterstock 329 Getty. written permission should be addressed to the publisher Images Miguel Navarro DigitalVision Getty Images 334 Shutterstock Cbpix. Shutterstock 337 Shutterstock Fiona Ayerst Shutterstock 346 Shutterstock. Printed by Neografia in Slovakia Zhu difeng Shutterstock 348 Shutterstock Szefei Shutterstock 357. Shutterstock Toonman Shutterstock 362 123RF Valery Shanin 123RF. Acknowledgements All other images Pearson Education. We d like to thank our teacher reviewers for their contribution to this book Clive. Agent Alain Anderton Sonali Dassanayake Tony Gray Colin Leith Harrison For acknowledgements of text materials in this textbook please see the inside. Mwangi and YK Yam back cover of the book, The publisher would like to thank the following individuals and organisations for. Endorsement statement, permission to reproduce photographs. In order to ensure that this resource offers high quality support for the associated. Key b bottom c centre l left r right t top Pearson qualification it has been through a review process by the awarding. body This process confirms that this resource fully covers the teaching and. 2 Getty Images Studio 642 Getty Images 4 tr Shutterstock IJeab learning content of the specification at which it is aimed It also confirms that it. Shutterstock 4 br 123RF Belchonock 123RF 10 123RF Kzenon 123RF demonstrates an appropriate balance between the development of subject skills. 13 ml Shutterstock JMiks Shutterstock 13 br Shutterstock ANURAK knowledge and understanding in addition to preparation for assessment. PONGPATIMET Shutterstock 19 Alamy Stock Photo Greg Balfour Evans Alamy. Stock Photo 22 Getty Images Dana Lazarus Casd EyeEm Getty Images 26 Endorsement does not cover any guidance on assessment activities or processes. Shutterstock Alex Babashov Shutterstock 27 Shutterstock Jean Schweitzer e g practice questions or advice on how to answer assessment questions. Shutterstock 35 123RF Petro Perutskyi 123RF 37 Pearson Education Ltd Mark included in the resource nor does it prescribe any particular approach to the. Bassett Pearson Education Ltd 43 Shutterstock Iam Anupong Shutterstock teaching or delivery of a related course. 45 123RF Sean Pavone 123RF 52 Shutterstock Perfect Lazybones. Shutterstock 53 Shutterstock SimonHS Shutterstock 54 Getty Images While the publishers have made every attempt to ensure that advice on the. FotoVoyager iStock Getty Images 56 Shutterstock Jayakumar Shutterstock qualification and its assessment is accurate the official specification and. 59 Shutterstock Gustavo Frazao Shutterstock 60 Shutterstock Chuyuss associated assessment guidance materials are the only authoritative source of. Shutterstock 61 Shutterstock Valeriy Velikov Shutterstock 64 tl 123RF information and should always be referred to for definitive guidance. George Tsartsianidis 12RF 64 ml Shutterstock Tobkatrina Shutterstock 64 tr. Shutterstock Alex Hubenov Shutterstock 64 mr Shutterstock Lunamarina Pearson examiners have not contributed to any sections in this resource relevant to. Shutterstock 68 Shutterstock Darren Baker Shutterstock 70 Shutterstock examination papers for which they have responsibility. Bo1982 Shutterstock 71 Shutterstock Fotokostic Shutterstock 76 Shutterstock. John Carnemolla Shutterstock 78 Shutterstock Tati Nova photo Mexico Examiners will not use endorsed resources as a source of material for any. Shutterstock 83 Shutterstock Zhu difeng Shutterstock 84 Shutterstock assessment set by Pearson Endorsement of a resource does not mean that the. Kzenon Shutterstock 85 Shutterstock Labrador Photo Video Shutterstock resource is required to achieve this Pearson qualification nor does it mean that it. 89 mr 123RF Bjoern Wylezich 123RF 89 br Shutterstock Masekesam is the only suitable material available to support the qualification and any resource. Shutterstock 94 Shutterstock Pius Lee Shutterstock 96 Shutterstock Jirapol lists produced by the awarding body shall include this and other appropriate. Konroo Shutterstock 107 123RF Michael Simons 123RF 108 ml Shutterstock resources. F01 IASL ECON 39194 PRE i ix indd 2 01 05 2019 10 16. CONTENTS iii, COURSE STRUCTURE IV, ABOUT THIS BOOK VI. ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW VIII, UNIT 3 BUSINESS BEHAVIOUR 2. UNIT 4 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 157, F01 IASL ECON 39194 PRE i ix indd 3 01 05 2019 10 16.
iv COURSE STRUCTURE, UNIT 3 BUSINESS BEHAVIOUR, TYPES AND SIZES OF MARKET GOVERNMENT. BUSINESSES 2 STRUCTURES AND INTERVENTION 140, CONTESTABILITY 54. 1 TYPES OF BUSINESS 3 8 EFFICIENCY 55 19 GOVERNMENT. INTERVENTION IN, 2 SIZES OF BUSINESSES 7 9 MARKET STRUCTURES PRODUCT MARKETS 141. AND CONCENTRATION, 3 BUSINESS OBJECTIVES 16 RATIOS 63 20 GOVERNMENT. INTERVENTION IN, 10 PERFECT COMPETITION 70 LABOUR MARKETS 150.
11 MONOPOLISTIC, COMPETITION 79, 12 OLIGOPOLY 85, 13 MONOPOLY AND. MONOPSONY 95, 14 CONTESTABILITY 108, REVENUE COSTS LABOUR. AND PROFITS 22 MARKETS 113, 4 REVENUE 23 15 THE DEMAND FOR. LABOUR 114, 5 COSTS 28, 16 THE SUPPLY OF, 6 ECONOMIES AND LABOUR 121. DISECONOMIES OF, SCALE 38 17 THE DETERMINATION OF, WAGE RATES IN.
7 PROFITS AND LOSSES 46 COMPETITIVE AND, NON COMPETITIVE. MARKETS 127, 18 MARKET FAILURE IN THE, LABOUR MARKET 136. F01 IASL ECON 39194 PRE i ix indd 4 01 05 2019 10 16. COURSE STRUCTURE v, UNIT 4 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE, GLOBAL ECONOMY. CAUSES AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS THE ROLE OF THE, EFFECTS OF EXCHANGE RATES AND STATE IN THE. GLOBALISATION 157 INTERNATIONAL MACROECONOMY 282, COMPETITIVENESS 222.
21 CHARACTERISTICS AND 28 BALANCE OF 34 PUBLIC EXPENDITURE 283. CAUSES OF PAYMENTS 223, 35 TAXATION 292, GLOBALISATION 158. 29 EXCHANGE RATE, 22 THE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS 234 36 PUBLIC SECTOR. GLOBALISATION 167 BORROWING AND PUBLIC, 30 THE IMPACT OF CHANGES SECTOR DEBT 301. IN EXCHANGE RATES 245, 31 INTERNATIONAL, COMPETITIVENESS 252. 37 USING MACROECONOMIC, POLICIES 311, 38 IMPACT AND PROBLEMS.
OF MACROECONOMIC, POLICIES 321, TRADE AND POVERTY AND GROWTH AND. THE GLOBAL INEQUALITY 261 DEVELOPMENT IN, ECONOMY 176 DEVELOPING. 23 SPECIALISATION AND 32 POVERTY 262 EMERGING AND, COMPARATIVE DEVELOPED. 33 INEQUALITY 271, ADVANTAGE 177 ECONOMIES 329, 24 PATTERNS AND VOLUME. 39 MEASURES OF ECONOMIC, OF WORLD TRADE 188, DEVELOPMENT 330.
25 THE TERMS OF TRADE 196, 40 CONSTRAINTS ON GROWTH. 26 TRADE LIBERALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT 339, AND TRADING BLOCS 202. 41 MEASURES TO PROMOTE, 27 RESTRICTIONS ON GROWTH AND. FREE TRADE 213 DEVELOPMENT 349, F01 IASL ECON 39194 PRE i ix indd 5 01 05 2019 10 16. vi ABOUT THIS BOOK, ABOUT THIS BOOK, This book is written for students following the Pearson a getting started activity to introduce the concepts There.
Edexcel International Advanced Level IAL Economics is a mix of learning points and activities throughout. specification It covers the second year of the International including global case studies that show a range of. A Level qualification examples within real life contexts Checkpoint questions. at the end of each chapter help assess understanding of. The book has been carefully structured to match the order. the key learning objectives, of the topics in the specification although teaching and. learning can take place in any order both in the classroom The content for Unit 3 is applicable to Paper 3 Business. and in any independent learning This book is organised behaviour and the content for Unit 4 is applicable to. into two units Unit 3 Business behaviour and Unit 4 Paper 4 Developments in the global economy Knowing. Developments in the global economy each with several how to apply learning to both of these papers will be. topic areas critical for exam success There are exam questions at. the end of each chapter to provide opportunity for exam. Each topic area is divided into chapters to break the. practice Answers are provided online in the teaching. content down into manageable chunks Each chapter, resource pack. begins by listing the key learning objectives and includes. Topic openers Learning objectives Specification reference. Introduce each of the key topics Each chapter starts with a list of The specification reference is given at the start. in the specification key assessment objectives of each chapter and in the running header. SPECIFICATION 3 3 1 1 TYPES OF BUSINESS 3, 1 TYPES OF BUSINESS UNIT 3. TYPES AND SIZES, workers However they will have unlimited liability. LEARNING OBJECTIVES due to the fact that as a sole trader the owner and the. Understand different types of businesses business are one and the same Debts of the business. including private sector organisations state are also the debts of the owner and the owner s. owned enterprises for profit and not for profit personal possessions can be taken off the owner to. OF BUSINESSES, organisations cooperatives and joint ventures pay any business debts.
A partnership is similar in many ways to a sole, trader except that there are two or more people in. GETTING STARTED the partnership and so capital risks and responsibility. are shared between the partners The partners have, Yo. PEARSON EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL A LEVEL ECONOMICS Student Book 2 Karen Borrington Tracey Joad F01 IASL ECON 39194 PRE i ix indd 1 01 05 2019 10 16

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