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BEACONS: ABCThe new Beacons ABC addresses all those who work directly or indirectly with beacons, purchase them, or those whowould simply like to know more about them.Each of these groups bear in their own capacity responsibility for the safety of people, vehicles and loads. Whether inthe agricultural or municipal sector, or as a driver on country roads. The right beacon on a vehicle can increase safetysubstantially.With this ABC, we would like to contribute to making your decision to find the right beacon for the matching applicationeasier. This decision is not easy and we would like you to be able to base it firmly on the knowledge in this ABC.

PREFACE2 3WHEN CAN/MUST A BEACON BE USED AND WHY?The application and use of beacons in road traffic is regulated in the Road Traffic Regulations (StVO)/RoadTraffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO). They indicate when and how beacons are to be used.§38 StVO Blue and amber flashing lights(1) A blue flashing light together with a siren may only be usedin matters of the upmost urgency to save human lives oravert any severe threat to health, to prevent any threat topublic safety or order, to pursue any person attempting toescape, or to preserve property. It rules: "All other road-usersmust clear the way immediately".(2) A blue flashing light alone may only be used by the vehiclesequipped with one and only to warn of any accident or otherdeployment locations, on emergency calls, or when escortingvehicles or closed vehicle formations.(3) An amber flashing light is a warning sign. It can be used asa stationary warning or on vehicles. Its use on vehicles isonly permissible to warn of work in progress or where anaccident has occurred, or of unusually slow moving vehicles,or in front of unusually wide or long vehicles, or usually wideor long loads.§52 StVZO Auxiliary headlamps and lights(3) A vehicle may be equipped with one or several beacons forblue flashing light (rotating light)1. Vehicles used by law enforcement services of the police,the military police, the federal police or customs services,particularly command, patrol or armoured transport, roadaccident or homicide division vehicles,2. Emergency and command vehicles of the fire brigade and theunits and facilities of disaster control and emergency services,3. Vehicles which are approved according to their vehicleregistration documents as an accident assistance vehicle ofpublic transport services with track-guided vehicles, includingtrolley buses,4. Emergency service vehicles which are specially equipped forambulance services or emergency services and are approvedaccording to the vehicle registration document as ambulances.(4) May be equipped with one or, if required for horizontal undvertical visibility (geometric visibility), several beacons foramber flashing light (rotating light)1. Vehicles which are used for construction, maintenance orcleaning the streets or facilities in public places, or for wastecollection, and which have red-white warning markings (safetymarking), complying with the DIN 30 710 standard, March1990 edition,The German Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO) §52(4) no. 1 states therefore if warning markings as definedabove are present on a vehicle, it is possible to use amberrotating lights without any additional approval.2. Vehicles which are suitable for use as breakdown servicevehicles according to their construction or equipment andwhich are approved as breakdown service vehicles accordingto the vehicle vehicle registration document. The vehiclelicensing agency can, in the preparation of their decision as towhether a vehicle is suitable as a breakdown service vehicleaccording to its construction or equipment, arrange for theprovision of the report from an officially appointed expert orinvestigator for motor traffic. Approval is only permissiblefor vehicles belonging to operations which provide eithercommercial or in-house breakdown services, automobileclubs, and associations of the transport industry and carinsurers,3. Vehicles that are exceptionally wide or long or with anexceptionally wide or long load, provided the approvingauthority has stipulated that be equipped with beacons,4. Vehicles, which on the basis of their equipment, are equippedas vehicles to escort heavy duty or large capacity vehiclesand which are approved according to the vehicle vehicleregistration document. Other escort vehicles may be equippedwith removable beacons, provided the approving authority hasprescribed that they be equipped with beacons.All other vehicles that are not marked and do not come under the other points of § 52 StVZO require special approval in accordance with §70 StVZO.(Special approval can normally be obtained from the responsible regional authorities).

DIRECTIVESWHICH BEACONS ARE PERMITTED FOR ROAD TRAFFIC?– THE ECE R65 DIRECTIVEA beacon may only be used in public road traffic when it meets the ECE R65 directive. The ECE R65 is theEuropean directive for beacons. It specifies the required light values, light distribution and attachmentspecifications, etc.Can also be viewed at (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)The large E-approval mark (here) shows whether the beacon meets the ECE R65 directive and has therefore approval.Key:e1 EMV test numberCE CE markingE1 Test markTA1T 360 A Amber; B Blue1 Night; 2 Day and nightTA1 amber beacon with night level in accordance with ECE R65TA2 amber beacon with day and night level in accordance with ECE R65FixingThe beacon [warning light] must be designed in such a way that it cannot be adjusted after it has been fitted correctly to the vehicle(ECE R65 5.2). The design and fixing method must conform to DIN14620. The beacon itself can have the following designs: A, B1, B2or C.Design ADesign B1Design B2Design C

DIRECTIVES4 5LIGHT INTENSITY OF BEACONSThe luminous intensity that warning lights emit is particularlyimportant to be visible in heavy traffic. The luminous intensity isgenerally measured in candela (cd), whereby this information iscalculated as follows: 1 cd 1 lux to 1 m distance.A rotating beacon emits different amounts of light depending onthe position of the reflector. For this reason, the peak luminousintensity is measured in such cases. The unit used for thispurpose is peak candela, abbreviated to cd (p).In each case the effective luminous intensity in a specifieddirection for both the rotating light beam and also for thestationary, simultaneously flashing light source.Key:The effective luminous intensity is a decisive value forconforming to the ECE R65.Jm: Maximum luminous intensity (cd)C: Time constant, C 0.2 secT: Period durationJ: Instantaneous value of the luminous intensity (cd)F: "Form factor"This is especially known in the USA and Japan as impressive luminous value as these countries have different measuring methods.A direct comparison with European manufacturers is generally not possible.Light intensity depends on how efficiently light bulbs, Xenon flash tubes or LEDs convert the energy emitted from electronics intovisible light. Another decisive factor is also the optical system including the dome which controls the light.As a rule of thumb it can be said: In the industrial sector, warning lights should be five times lighter than the ambient light. When used on the street, ten times lighter than the ambient (luminous intensity)cd (luminous intensity)t (time)High light intensity1 Intensity2 Periodt (time)Low light intensity due to a broad scattering surface

ECE R65Light values according to ECE R65The light values to be obtained are indicated with the aid ofthe effective luminous intensity. An amber beacon must, forexample, reach a luminous intensity of 70 cd (effective candela)at night at a vertical angle of 8 .Each in cd(candela)BlueAmberRed0 50100 (nights)230 (days)504 25–258 –70–A blue beacon must, on the other hand, reach 25 cd at night at avertical angle of 4 .Light distribution as per ECE R 65Correct 8 70 cdGraphic 14m0 100 cd- 8 70 cdBraking distance15,7 m28,5 mPositive example:The warning signal can be seen from every direction in a radius of 25 metres.

DIRECTIVES6 7ECE R65Light distribution according to ECE R65(E-test mark)In accordance with the ECE R65 directive, it must be guaranteedthat beacons supplied function perfectly with standardcompany use despite any vibrations which occur, and that thecharacteristics described in this regulation are maintained.A beacon must be fitted to a vehicle to enable the warning signalto be seen from a perimeter of 25 m (see Graphic 1).If this is not possible, additional warning systems(e.g. more beacons) must be fitted to the vehicle (see Graphic 2).It is important that the beacon is designed in such a way that itcannot be adjusted after it has been correctly fitted to the vehicle.Incorrect installation could restrict the warning effect.The following diagrams show the implementation of the ECE R65(person: 1.8 m tall).The light values are measured at a distance of at least 25 m.HELLA beacons conform to ECE R-65 (except KLX-1)Lights which are not equipped with bulbs as a light source mustcomply with the minimum and highest requirements which areestablished by taking light intensity measurements after oneand after 30 minutes of operation. This shows how importanttemperature management is for LED beacons, as only anoptimised temperature management system can guaranteeoptimum lighting values even after long periods of use.IncorrectGraphic 2 8 70 cd2,5 m0 100 cd- 8 70 cdBraking distance5m17,8 mNegative example:The warning signal cannot be seen from every direction at a radius of 25 metres - in the area of the tow hook,the warning signal is interrupted. In this case, another warning light needs to be attached to the rear of the vehicle, or two beaconsattached to the cabin.

DIRECTIVESECE R10What is EMC (ECE-R10)?Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) describes two factors whichare essential quality features for optical signaling systems: Radiated interference: the limitation of radiatedelectromagnetic interference to a level that guaranteesthe interference-free operation of other devices in theenvironment. Immunity to interference: guaranteeing sufficiently highresistance to external electromagnetic interferenceThe legal foundations for this are the CISPR 25 as well as the ISO7637 and 11452.Protective categories standard CISPR 25:ECE-R10ECE R65CISPR 25 is the standard for emitted interference which appliesa classification of 1 - 5. In doing so, category 5 products mustsatisfy the most demanding requirements and are even suitablefor installation situations directly next to an aerial. The statutorystandards are met by category 3, which guarantees adequateprotection in standard practice. (HELLA lighting systems fulfil atleast category 3, many even category 5, and guarantee absolutefunctional safety in all application situations).Only beacons, which can have both of these test numbers,possess the authorisation for use on public roads.Electromagnetic interactionsMobile telephoneRadio / TVSat radioNavigationTelematicsfee collectionDistance warning radarEntire electrical system

DIRECTIVES8 9WHAT IP PROTECTION CATEGORIES ARE THERE?How well a product is protected from environmental influences can have a significant effect on its designlife. Beacons are exposed to dust, water and other contamination.HELLA beacons are designed in various degress of protection.Protection category IP 5K4KDust may only penetrate to such an extent that function andsafety are not impaired. Water that is sprayed from everydirection at increased pressure against the housing must nothave any damaging effect: water pressure approx. 4 bar.Protection category IP 5K9KDust may only penetrate to such an extent that function andsafety are not impaired. Water that is directed from highpressure / steam-jet equipment onto the housing must not haveany damaging effect: water pressure approx. 100 bar.Type of protection: IP67Dust must not penetrate. No water may penetrate, even if thedevice is submersed for some time.Protection category IP 6K9KDust must not penetrate. Water that is directed from highpressure / steam-jet equipment onto the housing must not haveany damaging effect: water pressure approx. 100 bar.Protection category IP 6K4KDust must not penetrate. Water that is sprayed from everydirection at increased pressure against the housing must nothave any damaging effect: water pressure approx. 4 bar.Overall viewK: Denotes tests for road vehicle equipment.Protection against the penetration of foreign bodies(including dust)protection against the penetration of waterFirst numberSecond number0no special protection0no special protection1solid bodies Ø 50 mm1vertically falling drops of water2solid bodies Ø 12.5 mm2drops of water falling at a 15 angle3solid bodies Ø 2.5 mm3drops of water falling at a 60 angle4solid bodies Ø 1.0 mm4drops of water from all directions5K same as 5dust protected4Ksame as 4, but at increased pressure6K same as 6dust tight5water jet from a nozzle6same as 5, but at increased pressure7temporary immersion in water8sustained immersion in water9Kcleaning under extremely high pressure

PREFACEINTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS CONCEPTS . guarantee the protection the LEDs need.Inverse polarity protection and protection from voltage peaks are necessary for the reliable realisation of extremely long LED designlives. When a current flows through the LED from the anode to cathode –, light is produced (emitted). The diagram below illustrateshow this works: A high degree of efficiency is achieved by means of the intelligent electronics concept of the LEDs.Cathoden-doped layerElektronActive layer(pn transition)Light radiation"Band gap"p-doped layerAnodeCathodeBond wireLED dieDie bondMetal interconnect layerThermal pad(electrically insulated)Ceramic substrateSilicone lens

PREFACE10 11LED'S ARE NOT ALL THE SAMEWith LEDs you are investing in high-quality technology – but a significant reduction in follow-on costs anda longer problem-free design life means that this technology will pay off. The widespread use of LEDs isthe best indication of their clear benefits. However, certain factors must be taken into account.With temperature managementTemperature management dissipates heat away from theLEDs and transfers it to the surroundings.Without temperature managementIf heat is not dissipated away from the LEDs, hotspotsdevelop. These damage the LEDs and can even cause themto fail.The LEDs only achieve their extremely long design lives withappropriate temperature management.If reliable temperature management is not available, theLEDs can overload and, in the worst case, even fail.HELLA ensures optimal temperature management duringdevelopment.Temperature management is an absolute must for protecting LEDsLEDs are sensitive to heat. If the LEDs become too hot, the diodes can lose their luminous intensity and even be destroyedcompletely in the worst case.HELLA's selection of heat-conducting materials and the arrangement of components ensure effective heat flow:temperature management directs heat away from the LED. This means we can guarantee the long design life of ourproducts!If you want to get the best out of LED technology, temperature management is essential!

RECOMMENDATIONWHICH BEACON FOR WHICH USE?There is no general answer to this question. Even for identical areas of application, for example, on atractor, there is no uniform response. The selection can, however, be clearly narrowed with the help ofcertain criteria. To find the right beacon for the right application, you should ask yourself the followingquestions before purchasing.Initial price or life cycle costs?HELLA quality always pays off in the end!This questions is closely related to the first question. If youcompare the current costs of purchasing a halogen beaconwith those of an LED beacon, you will quite astonished. LEDbeacons are considerably more expensive due to their complextechnology and thus deter many users. But their advantagescannot be dismissed. LED beacons are characterised by aconsiderably higher design life, no maintenance and low energyconsumption. The higher initial costs are frequently alreadyamortised after a short time due to savings on replacing thelight source, lower service life, etc., as the following examplecalculation shows:Where or how intensively / frequently will the beacon beused?How often the beacon is to be used in switch-on mode andespecially where should also be taken into account. If the beaconis used very frequently, the advantages of LED technologysuch as design life, no maintenance, etc. will be clearly moreimportant than if its use is low. The decisive factor in consideringwhere it will be used is how demanding the area of application 0140,50100,00Light-source replacement

RECOMMENDATIONWhat kind of warning effects do I want to achieve?On motorways or in city traffic, you usually want to draw theattention of approaching vehicles to a danger situation fromalready quite far away. In this case, we recommend using abeacon with a high warning effect (Xenon or LED). However, ifthe beacon is only used very infrequently and in areas that arenot too dangerous, the warning effect of a halogen beacon iscompletely sufficient.How high is the vibration stress for beacons?The level of vibration stress for a beacon needs to be estimated,e.g. does the vehicle have suspension and already absorb a partof the vibrations, or does it not have any suspension and thebeacon is exposed to the full extent of the vibrations. If thereis a high level of vibration stress, it is necessary to ensure thata fixing variant is selected which absorbs the vibrations (e.g.a flexible pipe socket attachment, rubber base, etc.) and/orthat a technology is selected which is not heavily influenced byvibrations (LED).12 13Pipe-socket attachmentKL 7000 RFlexible pipe-socket attachmentKLX 7000 FLHow do I want to attach the beacon to the vehicle?There are four different fixing options to choose from: thedecision as to which fixing variant makes the most sensedepends on the vehicle. The different attachment variants arelegally stipulated in DIN 14620. There are three different designsA, B and C to choose from.Fixed attachmentKL 7000 LEDMagnetK-LED 2.0

LIGHT TECHNOLOGIESLED TECHNOLOGYBasic properties of LEDsService life – how temperature development affects theservice lifeThe service life or also the light degeneration of an LED refers tothe period after which the light output sinks to half of its originalvalue. The functioning of an LED depends on several factors. Thesemiconductor material used is as important as the operatingconditions or the degeneration of the silicon crystal.The actual value of the service life cannot be generallydetermined, though. While standard LEDs may last up to 100,000hours, high-performance LEDs can be used for only about aquarter to a half of that time (25,000 - 50,000 hours). If bothdiodes were to be used non-stop, they could be used continuallyfor eleven and more than two years, respectively.The service life greatly depends on the location and the providedcurrent density. The higher the current flow, the more thediode heats up. This shortens the service life. The ambienttemperature is also relevant for the service life, as the diodegenerally fails sooner, if it is warmer. Basically, the intensity ofthe light radiation in LEDs continually decreases over time. Thisis an advantage, as unlike traditional lights (bulb, halogen), anLED does not suddenly leave you standing in the dark. Even if thelight output is reduced, it normally does not suddenly fail. Theplastic normally used in the lenses of LEDs gradually becomeshazy, which also affects the light yield negatively.Main factors affecting the service

BASIC KNOWLEDGE BEACONS. BEACONS: ABC The new Beacons ABC addresses all those who work directly or indirectly with beacons, purchase them, or those who would simply like to know more about them. Each of these groups bear in their own capacity responsibility

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