342A. M. JohnstonePotential side effects of high-protein weight loss dietsProceedings of the Nutrition SocietyPhysiological and metabolic effects of high-proteinweight loss dietsAppetite. Protein is more satiating than carbohydrateand fat in the short term, over 24 h and in the long term(33).In the short-term ‘fast’ proteins are more satiating than‘slow’ proteins, and animal protein induces a higher thermogenesis than vegetable protein. In the longer term, thehigher post-absorptive satiety and thermogenesis are sustained irrespective of the protein source(34). A variety ofinvestigations have examined the effect of HP diets onsatiety. Typically, these studies presented one of severalpreloads with varying protein content to each subject onseparate occasions in a cross-over design. For several hoursfollowing the consumption of the preload, subjective satiety ratings were measured repeatedly. Halton and Hu(34)summarised the main findings that of the fourteen studiesthat compared HP to at least one other macronutrient, eleven found that the protein preload significantly increasedsubjective ratings of satiety. Other studies that have usednose-clips (to reduce the impact of cephalic digestive cuesinvolved in early satiation) and liquid format(35,36) have notfound effects of HP meals suggesting a role in sensorycharacteristics in promoting satiety. The Maastricht lab haspublished many preloading studies that suggest that HPdiets are more satiating in comparison with normal proteinmeals, when fed at iso-energetic amounts(37–39).In summary, the evidence supports the conclusion thatmeals higher in protein tend to increase satiety whencompared with meals lower in protein, at least in the shortterm. Overall, the weight of evidence suggests that higherprotein intakes cause a decreased subsequent energyintake, although the results are not entirely consistent. Itappears that the closer the methodology is to real-lifesituations (real food v. liquid, sense of taste unaltered, freeliving v. whole body calorimeter), the more likely it is forprotein to exert a significant decrease in subsequent energyi
chronic protein intake, indicating adaptive physiological mechanisms to deal with the HP intake. Efﬁcacy of high-protein weight loss diets Short-term body weight and body composition changes Free-living subjects feeding ad libitum from HP diets show a WL of about 1kg a week(19,20) which is
is being used in inducing and enhancing bone healing . Studies on the e cacy of LIPUS for enhancement of mandibular defect healing are limited. Some studies reported signiﬁcant e ects of LIPUS on regeneration of mandibular bone defects  while some others reported its ine cacy in the enhancement of mandibular defects healing .
post-treatment interval. Post-treatment intervals did not signiﬁ cantly affect treatment success, providing management ﬂ exibility based on managerial, labor and market factors. Efﬁ cacy of DRAXXIN , followed by 7-, 10-, or 14-day post-treatment intervals, against naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease Introduction
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Clinical research is necessary to establish the safety and effective-ness of specifi c health and medical products and practices. Much of what is known today about the safety and effi cacy of specifi c prod-ucts and treatments has
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Rakesh Jain, MD, MPH Identify and differentiate bipolar depression from unipolar depression in the primary care setting Outline the neurobiologic and systemic factors of bipolar 1 depression and associated comorbidities Describe the safety and efﬁ cacy of available and emerging pharmacother- .
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