API MPMS Chapter 18.2 Custody Transfer Of Crude Oil From .

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API MPMS Chapter 18.2Custody Transfer of Crude Oil from LeaseTanks Using Alternative MeasurementMethods1ST EDITION, DATE

ForewordNothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for themanufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anythingcontained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.Shall: As used in a standard, “shall” denotes a minimum requirement in order to conform to the specification.Should: As used in a standard, “should” denotes a recommendation or that which is advised but not required in orderto conform to the specification.This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate notification andparticipation in the developmental process and is designated as an API standard. Questions concerning theinterpretation of the content of this publication or comments and questions concerning the procedures under whichthis publication was developed should be directed in writing to the Director of Standards, American PetroleumInstitute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or anypart of the material published herein should also be addressed to the director.Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn at least every five years. A one-timeextension of up to two years may be added to this review cycle. Status of the publication can be ascertained fromthe API Standards Department, telephone (202) 682-8000. A catalog of API publications and materials is publishedannually by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Standards Department, API, 1220 L Street, NW,Washington, D.C. 20005, standards@api.org.

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reservedContents1. Scope2. Normative References3. Definitions4. Safety5. Selection of Methods for Quantity and Quality Determinations Using AvailableEquipment in Zones6. General Responsibilities for Production Operators and Crude Oil Truck Drivers7. Maintenance and Calibration of Equipment8. Assessing Oil Merchantability Prior to Loading9. Measurement Equipment for the Trailer Zone10. Measurement Equipment for the Transition Zone11. Measurement Equipment for the Tank Zone12. Record Keeping13. Capability and Uncertainty14. Run Tickets and Tank TurndownsAnnex A (informative)Annex B (informative)Annex C (normative)

INTRODUCTIONThe API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards covers individual standards for sampling, temperaturedetermination, gauging, and quality testing. This publication integrates these standards, by reference, into aframework that may be applied during custody transfer of crude oil from lease tanks to a tank truck withoutrequiring direct access to the tank thief gauge hatch. Many of the individual standards have guidelines definingthe frequency and tolerances for installation, verification, and calibration of the specified equipment undercontrolled or ideal conditions allowing for uncertainty within custody transfer requirements. However, with theconditions encountered in many of today’s applications, the installation, verification, and calibration ofmeasurement devices may have higher uncertainties due to the operational characteristics and limited accessavailable at the lease site. In the interest of safety and environmental concerns, these higher uncertainties maystill provide acceptable measurement for custody transfer of crude oil from tanks using the defined alternatemethods.

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reservedAPI MPMS Chapter 18.2Custody Transfer of Crude Oil from Lease Tanks Using Alternative MeasurementMethods1ScopeThis standard defines the minimum equipment and methods used to determine the quantity and quality of oilbeing loaded from a lease tank to a truck trailer without requiring direct access to a lease tank gauge hatch.Methods and equipment described are grouped by tank zone, trailer zone, and the transition zone between thetwo. The equipment used for measurement is dependent on the existing design of the lease equipment, theequipment used to transport the product or a combination of the two. Some sites may require measurements frommultiple zones in order to arrive at an accurate load quantity and quality.2Normative ReferencesThe following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references,only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including anyamendments) applies.API MPMS Chapter 2, Tank Calibration – All relevant sectionsAPI MPMS Chapter 3.1A, Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum ProductsAPI MPMS Chapter 3.1B, Standard Practice for Level Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Stationary Tanks byAutomatic Tank GaugingAPI MPMS Chapter 3.6, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Hybrid Tank Measurement SystemsAPI MPMS Chapter 4, Proving Systems – All relevant sectionsAPI MPMS Chapter 5.2, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Displacement MetersAPI MPMS Chapter 5.3, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine MetersAPI MPMS Chapter 5.6, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis MetersAPI MPMS Chapter 5.8, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Ultrasonic Flow MetersAPI MPMS Chapter 7, Temperature Determination – All relevant sectionsAPI MPMS Chapter 8.2, Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Liquid Petroleum and Petroleum ProductsAPI MPMS Chapter 9, Density Determination – All relevant sectionsAPI MPMS Chapter 10, Sediment and Water – All relevant sections

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reservedAPI MPMS Chapter 11.1, Volume Correction FactorsAPI MPMS Chapter 12, Calculation of Petroleum Quantities – All relevant sectionsAPI MPMS Chapter 13, Statistical Aspects of Measuring and SamplingAPI MPMS Chapter 16.2, Mass Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tanks byHydrostatic Tank GaugingAPI MPMS Chapter 21.2, Electronic Liquid Volume Measurement Using Positive Displacement and Turbine MetersAPI MPMS Chapter 22.2, Testing Protocols–Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices3DefinitionsFor the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.3.1 Automatic Tank Gauge (ATG)An instrument that automatically measures and displays liquid levels or ullage in one or more tanks eithercontinuously, periodically, or on demand.3.2 Crude Oil Truck Driver (COTD)Assumes that the driver is also the gauger; however, it should be recognized that these duties may be dividedbetween two individuals: a person who only drives the tank truck and a gauger who is responsible formeasurement and testing.3.3 Hydrostatic Tank Gauging (HTG)A method of direct measurement of liquid mass in a storage tank based on measuring static pressures caused bythe liquid head above the pressure sensor3.4 MerchantabilityA term applied to liquid hydrocarbons that are judged to be acceptable for custody transfer to a carrier. The oil issettled and contains no more than a set amount of suspended sediment and water (S&W) and other impurities.The amount of S&W or other impurities must be agreed upon by both parties to have a mutual understanding ofwhat is merchantable product.3.5 Tank ZoneA term used to describe the interior of the tank and any equipment attached to the tank, i.e. tank gauge. The tankzone includes an outlet valve but not a hose. Once the product has left the outlet valve, it is no longer in the tankzone.3.6 Trailer ZoneA term used to describe the interior of a trailer after a product has left the transition zone. The trailer zone beginswith the inlet valve of a trailer and includes the interior of the trailer.3.7 Transition ZoneA term used to describe the area between tank and truck during custody transfer. The transition zone begins oncethe product has left the outlet valve of the tank, such as through a hose, and ends at the start of its destination, i.e.an inlet valve of a trailer.

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reserved4SafetySafety is an essential part of crude oil trucking operations both on roadways and during custody transfer. Chapter18.1 was developed for applications where access to lease tanks to perform the associated measurement andquality tasks were not restricted and where the settling and weathering of crude oil prior to custody transfer waspossible. There are many applications today where these conditions cannot be met due to health, safety, andenvironmental concerns. This standard was developed to encourage uniform, technically defensible measurementand testing practices for crude oil gathered from lease tanks when access to the tank’s thief hatch may berestricted due to environmental or safety concerns, for example, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or hydrogensulfide (H2S) gas being emitted during crude oil production and storage operations. It may also be necessary togather unsettled or weathered crude oil from active tanks due to high production volumes with limited storagecapacity. The alternate measurement methods discussed in this standard are intended to minimize uncertaintyand bias while encouraging consistent measurement and testing practices utilizing existing technologies withinAPI standards that are available at the time of the development of this standard. They are not intended tointerfere with business contracts or the development of new technologies or to comprise the only acceptablealternate methods of custody transfer of crude oil by trucks.Safety is an essential part of crude oil trucking operations both on roadways and during custody transfer, so theCOTD must be thoroughly familiar with all government and company safety regulations as well as APIRecommended Practice 2003, which outlines safety procedures for truck transports. Opening thief hatches ofstorage tanks can lead to the rapid release of high concentrations of hydrocarbon gases and vapors. Those mayresult in very low oxygen levels and toxic and flammable conditions around and over the hatch. The following listprovides some general safety practices but serves only as a guideline, and it does not cover all unsafe conditionsthat might be encountered while performing the procedures referenced contained in this document. Employers shall conduct a hazard assessment of the worksite to determine the need for EngineeringControls, Respiratory Protection, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and Monitoring Devices, such asmulti-gas meters or other toxic gas meters.Employers shall train workers on the hazard assessment, hazard communications, standard operatingprocedures for Tank Gauging, proper use of PPE, respiratory protection, emergency response plan(procedures for alarm response and site re-entry), lone worker policy, monitoring devices (use and limitsfor toxic gas or multi-gas meter for O2, H2S, LEL, CO), and potential ignition sources (static, cell phone,open flame, sparks from tools, etc.).Do not smoke around crude oil loading or unloading or during crude oil testing.Connect bonding/grounding cables before the hose is connected and leave them in place until the hose isdisconnected.Minimize the hazards of static electricity by grounding oneself.Use authorized protective gloves when handling crude oil and solvents during gauging and testing.Use a hydrogen sulfide analyzer and self-contained breathing apparatus, as required, when workingaround tanks if the lease is posted with a warning sign for hydrogen sulfide.Do not use gasoline as a solvent.Report other unsafe conditions such as defective valves and leaks.

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reserved5Selection of Methods for Quantity and Quality Determinations Using AvailableEquipment in ZonesAs stated in the scope of the document, this standard defines some of the equipment and methods used todetermine the quantity and quality of oil being loaded from a lease tank to a truck trailer without requiring directaccess to a lease tank gauge hatch. The methods and equipment that will be used are based on:1. Establishing a list/matrix of all the existing and/or available equipment in the tank, trailer, and transitionzones and understanding all the potential uncertainty and bias of the equipment;2. Understanding and documenting the potential conditions that will exist during the loading of the productthat may affect the equipment and process used to determine the quantity and quality of the product; and3. Assessing all of the data to determine the capability of developing a measurement method or processthat will provide the lowest uncertainty and minimize any bias to an acceptable level utilizing the availableequipment in any combination of the three zones.Quantity and quality determinations made under many of the conditions experienced in today’s production arechallenging due to safety and environmental concerns but necessary. Unstabilized liquid hydrocarbons maycontain varying amounts of dissolved natural gas and some entrained water. These conditions reduce the abilityof any equipment to achieve its intended accuracy, so it is important to account for them in assessing thepotential impact to the alternate measurement process developed. The lowest uncertainty will generally beassociated with the most stabilized product.This standard does not address other methods for determination of quantity and quality at locations off-site sincethey are covered by existing industry standards. Other methods such as mass measurement by weigh scale orcustody transfer at the loading or unloading point by metering have the potential for much lower uncertainty andmay have to be considered if the “zone methods” do not meet an acceptable level of uncertainty to all the partiesinvolved in the transaction.The following determinations should be made in one, two, or all of the zones for comparison purposes: Merchantability (See Section 8)Observed VolumeProduct TemperatureObserved Gravity and TemperatureSuspended Sediment and WaterCalculated Volume (GSV and NSV) (Refer to API MPMS, Chapter 12)Methods and equipment described are grouped by tank zone, trailer zone, and the transition zone between thetwo. (See Figure 1.)

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reservedFigure 1. ZonesTank ZoneA term used to describe the interior of the tank and any equipment attached to the tank, such as a tank gauge. Thetank zone includes an outlet valve but not a hose. Once the product has left the outlet valve, it is no longer in thetank zone.Transition ZoneA term used to describe the area between tank and truck during custody transfer. The transition zone begins oncethe product has left the outlet valve of the tank, such as through a hose, and ends at the start of its destination, i.e.an inlet valve of a trailer.Trailer ZoneA term used to describe the interior of a trailer after a product has left the transition zone. The trailer zone beginswith the inlet valve of a trailer and includes the interior of the trailer.See Annex B for the Zone Matrices to determine available equipment for each measured determination.The user, after determining the available measurement equipment for both quality and quantity, must then assessthe potential uncertainty and bias that exists. See Section 13.6 Responsibilities for Production Operators and Crude Oil Truck Drivers6.1 GeneralSince the ownership of the crude oil being gathered may change and the custody is always passed from the leasetank to the transporting truck as the crude oil passes the tank’s last fixed outlet flange, accurate custody transferis extremely important to both the shipper and the carrier. Therefore, all measurements shall be taken carefullyand completed to the full satisfaction of all parties or their authorized representatives.6.2 Production Operators ResponsibilitiesProduction Operators are responsible for ensuring the oil in the tank is ready for custody transfer. This involvesmaking sure that the tank is isolated from production, settled, and weathered. Any free water on the bottom of thetank should be drained to ensure that there are at least four inches of clearance below the sales outlet of the tank.The suspended sediment and water should also be checked to ensure that it is below the acceptable limits.However, achieving these conditions may not always be possible due to excessive production and limited storage

This document is not an API Standard; it is under consideration within an API technical committee but has not received allapprovals required to become an API Standard. It shall not be reproduced or circulated or quoted, in whole or in part,outside of API committee activities except with the approval of the Chairman of the committee having jurisdiction.Copyright API. All rights reservedtanks. When conditions do not allow for tank isolation, proper settling, weathering of the crude oil, and verificationof suspended sediment and water in the crude oil, then alternate methods should be used for custody transfer.Whatever conditions exist, the Production Operator must ensure that the free water has been drained to anacceptable level below the sales outlet of the tank before the truck is dispatched to the lease to pick up the load.6.3 Crude Oil Truck Drivers (COTD) ResponsibilityThe Truck Driver or Gauger is responsible for obtaining measurement and testing the oil prior to, during, or afterthe loading process and documenting the information on the run ticket. The procedures used to measure and testthe oil involve many different processes and equipment for sampling, temperature recording, volumedetermination, and quality testing for API gravity and sediment and water. The procedures and equipment mustbe used to ensure that all of the information obtained is representative of the o

Hydrostatic Tank Gauging API MPMS Chapter 21.2, Electronic Liquid Volume Measurement Using Positive Displacement and Turbine Meters API MPMS Chapter 22.2, Testing Protocols–Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices 3 Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 3.1 Automatic Tank Gauge (ATG) An instrument that automatically measures and displays liquid .

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