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TECHNICAL DATASTANDARDS IN THE VALVE AND PRESSURE RELIEF INDUSTRYMaterial standards are developed by organizations asthe American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM),the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI), the Societyof Automotive Engineers (SAE), the NationalAssociation of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) and theAmerican Society for Metals (ASM).Some materials are approved by the AmericanSociety of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for their usein Boilers and Pressure Vessels.The American National Standards Institute, Inc.(ANSI) serves as the national coordinator for themajority of code and product standards related to theValve and Fittings Industry.Product standards are also developed and issued byindividual user and/or manufacturing agencies suchas the American Society of Mechanical Engineers(ASME), American Petroleum Institute (API) and theManufacturers’ Standardization Society (MSS).Procedural and safety standards are issued byANSI, MSS and ASME.Following is a partial list of codes and standardsthat have a direct bearing on the design andproduction of valves & pressure relief devices. Thecodes and standards are interrelated as the followingdescriptions project:ASME Boiler & Vessel CodeSection I – Power BoilersSection ll – Material SpecificationsSection lll – Nuclear Power Plant ComponentsSection V – Nondestructive ExaminationSection Vlll – Pressure VesselsSection IX – Welding and Brazing QualificationsThe above Codes (Sections I, lll & Vlll) coverconstruction requirements for Boilers, PressureVessels, and Nuclear Components that requireAuthorized Inspection Agency involvement.Section I and Vlll Codes relate to the boiler andpressure vessel proper and not to external piping.Section lll Code includes rules for nuclearcomponents including piping. Section II, V and IXCodes cover material, nondestructive examinationand welding requirements, respectively, for ASMEconstruction.ASME Codes for Pressure PipingASME B31.1 – Power PipingASME B31.3 – Process PipingASME B31.4 – Liquid Transportation Systems forHydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum, Gas, AnhydrousAmmonia and Alcohols.ASME B31.5-92 – Refrigeration PipingASME B31.8-95 – Gas Transmission and DistributionPiping SystemsASME B31.9 – Building Services Piping SystemsASME B31.11 – Slurry Transportation Piping SystemsThe above are piping construction codes that includerequirements for design, materials, fabrication, examination,testing, inspection and components.Valve StandardsASME B16.34 – Valves - Flanged, Threaded and WeldingEndsAPI-600 – Steel Gate Valves, Flanged, and ButtweldingEndsAPI-602 – Compact Steel Gate ValvesAPI-603 - Corrosion Resistant Gate ValvesMSS-SP-99 – Instrument ValvesMSS-SP-118 – Compact Steel Globe and Check ValvesANSI/FCI 70-2 – American National Standard Control ValveSeat LeakageFlanges, Fittings and UnionsASME B16.5 – Pipe Flanges and Flanged FittingsASME B16.47- Large diameter Pipe FlangesASME B16.11 – Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Weld andThreadedValve, Fitting, Flange and Union DetailsASME B1.20.1 – Pipe Threads, General PurposeASME B16.10 – Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensionsof Ferrous ValvesASME B16.20 – Ring Joint Gaskets and Grooves for SteelPipe FlangesASME B16.25 – Buttwelding EndsMSS-SP-6 – Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of PipeFlanges and Connecting End Flanges of ValvesMSS-SP-25 – Standard Marking System for Valves,Fittings, Flanges and UnionsMSS-SP-45 – Bypass and Drain Connection StandardThe above standards are detailed dimensional, marking,finish and bypass valve and fittings instructions for use inthe manufacture of valves, flanges and fittings. The productstandards normally refer to these standards for detailedinstructions.Inspection and TestingMSS-SP-61 – Pressure Testing of ValvesAPI-598 – Valve Inspection and TestNACE StandardMR-01-75 – Sulfide Stress Cracking ResistantMetallic Material for Oil Field EquipmentChlorine InstitutePAMPHLET #6 – Piping Systems For Dry ChlorineThis publication is intended to provide usefulinformation concerning the construction of chlorinepiping systems including valves.Enviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net1

TECHNICAL DATAABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE VALVE & PRESSURE RELIEF INDUSTRYAARH – Arithmetic Average Roughness HeightAISI – American Iron and Steel InstituteAPI – American Petroleum InstituteANSI – American National Standards InstituteASME – American Society of MechanicalEngineersASTM – American Society for Testing andMaterialsAWS – American Welding SocietyBB – Bolted BonnetBHN – Brinell Hardness NumberBtu – British Thermal UnitBWE – Butt Weld EndsC or Cel – Celsius degreesCl – Cast IronCl – Chlorine InstituteCR 13 – 13% Chromium Stainless SteelCRES – Corrosion Resistant SteelC v – The number of U.S. gallons per minute ofwater at 70 F which will flow through a valve at apressure drop of one psi.CWP – Cold Working PressureDN – Diameter Nominal (Metric)ELL – ElbowFAS – Free Alongside SteamerF or Fahr – Fahrenheit degreesF & D – Faced and DrilledFF – Flat FaceFHF – Full Hard FacedFLG – FlangedFOB – Free on BoardFTTG – FittingG – Gasgpm – Gallon per MinuteHF – Hard FacedHW – HandwheelID – Inside DiameterINT – IntegralISRS – Inside Screw Rising StemISNRS – Inside Screw Non. Rising StemKg – Kilograms km – KilometersLH – Left HandMAV – Motor Actuated Valvemm – MillimeterMOV – See MAVMSS – Manufacturers Standardization Society ofthe Valve & Fitting IndustryNACE – National Association of CorrosionEngineers (Formerly NACE International)NPS – Nominal Pipe SizeNPT – National Standard Pipe Thread TaperNRS – Non Rising StemOD – Outside DiameterOne-Piece Stem – An inseparable Stem and Discmade from one piece of metal.OS&Y – Outside Screw and YokeOWG – Oil, Water & Gas (See CWP)PN – Pressure Nominal (Metric)Prd – Pressure Relief DevicePrv – Pressure Relief ValvePsi – Pounds per square inchPsia – Pounds per square inch absolutePsig – Pounds per square inch gageP-T – Pressure-TemperatureRc – Rockwell “C”RF – Raised FaceRH – Right HandRMS – Root Mean Square Roughness HeightRS – Rising StemRTJ – Ring-Type JointS – SteamSAE – Society of Automotive EngineersSC – Swing Check ValveSch. or Sched. – Schedule (Pipe Wall Thickness)SCFM – Standard Cubic Feet per MinuteScrew Bonnet – Body and Bonnet ThreadedTogether SE – Screwed EndsSeal Weld – Threaded Joint Back Welded for SealSS – Stainless SteelStem Nut – Operating NutStuffing Box – Packing ChamberSTD – Standard Wall ThicknessStop Check – A Check valve in which the closuremember can be mechanically closed.SWE – Socket Weld EndSWP – Steam Working PressureT – Tee ValveThd. – ThreadedTIR – Total Indicator ReadingUB – Union BonnetW – WaterWedge – GateWOG – Water, Oil and Gas (See CWP)WSP – Working Steam PressureWWP – Working Water PressureXS – Extra Strong Wall ThicknessXXS – Double Extra Strong Wall ThicknessY – Wye ValveYoke Bushing – Operating Stem NutYoke Nut – Stem NutEnviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net2

TECHNICAL DATADEFINITIONS FOR THE PRESSURE RELIEF INDUSTRYPressure Relief Device: a device designed to preventpressure or vacuum from exceeding a predeterminedvalue in a pressure vessel by the transfer of fluid duringemergency or abnormal conditions.TYPES OF DEVICESPressure Relief Valve (PRV): a pressure relief devicedesigned to actuate on inlet static pressure and recloseafter normal conditions have been restored. It may beone of the following types and have one or more of thefollowing design features:(a) low-lift PRV: a pressure relief valve in which theactual discharge area is the curtain area.(b) full-lift PRV: a pressure relief valve in which theactual discharge area is the bore area.(c) reduced bore PRV: a pressure relief valve in whichthe flow path area below the seat is less than the flowarea at the inlet to the valve.(d) full-bore PRV: a pressure relief valve in which thebore area is equal to the flow area at the inlet to thevalve, and there are no protrusions in the bore.(e) direct spring-loaded PRV: a pressure relief valve inwhich the disk is held closed by a spring.(f) pilot-operated PRV: a pressure relief valve in whichthe disk is held closed by system pressure, and theholding pressure is controlled by a pilot valve actuatedby system pressure.(g) conventional direct spring-loaded PRV: a directspring-loaded pressure relief valve whose operationalcharacteristics are directly affected by changes in theback pressure.(h) balanced direct spring-loaded PRV: a direct springloaded pressure relief valve that incorporates means ofminimizing the effect of back pressure on the operationalcharacteristics (opening pressure, closing pressure, andrelieving capacity).increase in pressure. It is normally used for incompressiblefluids.Safety Relief Valve: a pressure relief valve characterized byrapid opening or by gradual opening that is generallyproportional to the increase in pressure. It can be used forcompressible or incompressible fluids.Safety Valve: a pressure relief valve characterized by rapidopening and normally used to relieve compressible fluids.Non-reclosing Pressure Relief Device (PRD)A pressure relief device designed to actuate and remain openafter operation. A manual resetting means may be provided.Design Features: nonreclosing pressure relief devices mayinclude one or more of the following design features:(a) low-lift device: a device in which the actual dischargearea is dependent on the lift of the disk.(b) full-lift device: a device in which the actual dischargearea is independent of the lift of the disk.(c) reduced bore device: a device in which the flow patharea below the seat is less than the flow path area ofthe inlet to the device.(d) full-bore device: a device in which the flow patharea below the seat is equal to the flow path area of theinlet to the device.Design Types:(a) rupture disk device: a device containing a disk thatruptures when the static differential pressure betweenthe upstream and downstream side of the disk reachesa predetermined value. A rupture disk device includesa rupture disk and may include a rupture disk holder.(b) pin device: a device actuated by static differentialpressure or static inlet pressure and designed to functionby the activation of a load-bearing section of a pin thatsupports a pressure-containing member. A pin is theload-bearing element of a pin device. A pin device housing isthe structure that encloses the pressure-containing members.Examples of these devices include the following:(i) internal spring PRV: a direct spring-loaded pressurerelief valve whose spring and all or part of the operatingmechanism is exposed to the system pressure when thevalve is in the closed position.(1) breaking pin device: a device designed to functionby the breakage of a load-carrying section of a pinthat supports a pressure-containing member.(j) temperature and pressure relief valve: a pressurerelief valve that may be actuated by pressure at thevalve inlet or by temperature at the valve inlet.(2) buckling pin device: a device designed to functionby the buckling of an axially loaded compressivepin that supports a pressure-containing member.(k) power-actuated PRV: a pressure relief valve actuatedby an externally powered control device.(3) shear pin device: a device designed to functionby the shearing of a load-carrying member thatsupports a pressure-containing member.Relief Valve: a pressure relief valve characterized bygradual opening that is generally proportional to theEnviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net3

TECHNICAL DATADEFINITIONS FOR THE PRESSURE RELIEF INDUSTRY(c) fusible plug device: a device designed to function bythe yielding or melting of a plug, at a predeterminedtemperature, that supports a pressure-containingmember or contains pressure by itself.(d) direct spring-loaded device: a device actuated bystatic differential pressure or static inlet pressure inwhich the disk is held closed by a spring. Uponactuation, the disk is held open by a latchingmechanism.Coefficient of Discharge: the ratio of the measured relievingcapacity to the theoretical relieving capacity.Cold Differential Test Pressure: the inlet static pressure atwhich a pressure relief valve/device is adjusted to open on thetest stand. This test pressure includes corrections for serviceconditions of superimposed back pressure and/or temperature.Constant Back Pressure: a superimposed back pressure thatis constant with time.(g) pilot-operated device: a device in which the disk isheld closed by system pressure and the holdingpressure is controlled by a pilot actuated by systempressure. The pilot may consist of one of the deviceslisted above.Flow-Rating Pressure: the inlet stagnation pressure atwhich the relieving capacity of a pressure relief deviceis measured.DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS —NONRECLOSING PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICESFlow Resistance: a dimensionless term that expresses thenumber of velocity heads lost due to flow through a rupture diskdevice (where velocity head is one-half the velocity squareddivided by the acceleration of gravity).Flow Path: the three-dimensional and geometriccharacteristics of a device that affects the measuredrelieving capacity. It is defined from the cross section ofthe inlet to the cross section of the outlet, including allstreamlines in the flow.Flutter: abnormal, rapid reciprocating motion of the movableparts of a pressure relief valve/device in which the disk doesnot contact the seat.Inlet Area: the cross-sectional flow area at the inletopening of a pressure relief device.Leak Test Pressure: the specified inlet static pressure at whicha quantitative seat leakage test is performed in accordance witha standard procedure.Inlet Size: the nominal pipe size of the inlet of apressure relief device, unless otherwise designated.Marked Breaking Pressure: the value of pressure marked ona breaking pin or a shear pin device or its nameplate.Net Flow Area: the area that determines the flow after anonreclosing pressure relief device has operated. The(minimum) net flow area of a rupture disk is thecalculated net area after a complete burst of the disk,with appropriate allowance for any structural membersthat may reduce the net flow area through the rupturedisk device.Marked Burst Pressure: the value of pressure marked on therupture disk device or its nameplate or on the tagof the rupture disk, indicating the burst pressure at thecoincident disk temperature.Outlet Size: the nominal pipe size of the outlet passagefrom a pressure relief device, unless otherwisedesignated.Measured Relieving Capacity: the relieving capacity of apressure relief device measured at the flow-rating pressure,expressed in gravimetric or volumetric units.OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OFPRESSURE RELIEF DEVICESOpening Pressure: the value of increasing inlet static pressureof a pressure relief valve/device at which there is a measurablelift or at which the discharge becomes continuous asdetermined by seeing, feeling, or hearing.Back Pressure: the static pressure existing at the outletof a pressure relief device due to pressure in thedischarge system.Breaking Pressure: the value of inlet static pressure atwhich a breaking pin or shear pin device functions.Burst Pressure: the value of inlet static pressure atwhich a rupture disk device functions.Chatter: abnormal rapid reciprocating motion of themovable parts of a pressure relief valve in which the diskcontacts the seat.Marked Set Pressure: the value or values of pressuremarked on a pressure relief device.Overpressure: a pressure increase over the set pressure of apressure relief valve/device, usually expressed as a percentageof set pressure.Popping Pressure: the value of increasing inlet static pressureat which the disk moves in the opening directionat a faster rate as compared with corresponding movement athigher or lower pressures.Primary Pressure: the pressure at the inlet in a pressurerelief device.Enviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net4

TECHNICAL DATADEFINITIONS FOR THE PRESSURE RELIEF INDUSTRYRated Relieving Capacity: that portion of the measuredrelieving capacity permitted by the applicable code orregulation to be used as a basis for the application of apressure relief device.Reference Conditions: those conditions of a testmedium that are specified by either an applicablestandard or an agreement between the parties to thetest, which may be used for uniform reporting ofmeasured flow test results.Relieving Conditions: the inlet pressure andtemperature on a pressure relief device during anoverpressure condition. The relieving pressure is equalto the valve/device set pressure or burst (or the rupturedisk burst pressure) plus the overpressure. (Thetemperature of the flowing fluid at relieving conditionsmay be higher or lower than the operating temperature.)Relieving Pressure: set pressure plus overpressure.Set Pressure: the value of increasing inlet staticpressure at which a pressure relief device displays oneof the operational characteristics as defined underopening pressure, popping pressure, start-to-leakpressure, burst pressure, or breaking pressureSimmer: the audible or visible escape of fluid betweenthe seat and disk at an inlet static pressure below thepopping pressure and at no measurable capacity. Itapplies to safety or safety relief valves on compressiblefluid service.Start-to-leak Pressure: the value of increasing inletstatic pressure at which the first bubble occurs when apressure relief valve/device is tested by means of airunder a specified water seal on the outlet.Static Blowdown: the difference between the setpressure and the closing pressure of a prd/prv when it isnot overpressured to the flow-rating pressure.Superimposed Back Pressure: the static pressureexisting at the outlet of a pressure relief device at thetime the device is required to operate. It is the result ofpressure in the discharge system from other sources.Theoretical Relieving Capacity: the computed capacityexpressed in gravimetric or volumetric units of atheoretically perfect nozzle having a minimum crosssectional flow area equal to the actual discharge area ofa pressure relief valve or net flow area of a nonreclosingpressure relief device.Variable Back Pressure: a superimposed backpressure that will vary with time.Enviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net5

TECHNICAL DATAPRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE SHELL MATERIAL ASTM SPECIFICATIONSWhen material permits the usage above 1000oF the flanged PRDs are limited to 1000oF.GroupMaterialNo.ForgingsASMEoCommercial NameDesignationTemp. Service ( F) Spec. GradeB16.341.1Enviro-Valve Inc.807 N. Sycamore Ave. Broken Arrow OKPhone: 918 251-6103 www.envirovalve.net1. SteelCold Temp. ServiceCarbon SteelLow Temp. ServiceFusion welded steelLow Temp. ServiceCarbon SteelCarbon SteelLow Temp. ServiceLow Temp. ServiceLow Temp. ServiceCold Temp. ServiceCarbon SteelLow Carbon SteelCold Temp. ServiceLow Temp. ServiceLow Temp. ServiceHigh Temp. 1/2 MolyCold Temp. 1/2 MolyCarbon SteelCarbon SteelLow Carbon SteelHigh Temp. 1/2 Moly1/2Chrome 1/2 MolyCarbon 1/2 Moly1/2Chrome 1/2 Moly1/2Cr 1/2Mo 1Ni3/4Cr 1Mo Ni31/2NiC-1/2MoC-1/2MoCCC-SiC-SiC-Mn-SiC-Mn-SiC

ASME B31.1 – Power Piping ASME B31.3 – Process Piping ASME B31.4 – Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum, Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols. ASME B31.5-92 – Refrigeration Piping ASME B31.8-95 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

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