AN INTRODUCTIONTO localg.a.p.Compiled for smallholder farmers &trainers in South AfricaFirst version July 2016THIS MANUAL BELONGS TO:
This manual was funded by the WWF Nedbank Green Trust, commissionedby the Southern Africa Food Lab, and compiled by Like Mountains 1.This publication does not represent any of these stakeholders’ approved position.This manual was compiled from material available on the GLOBALG.A.P. website: http://www.globalgap.org/uk p./. The Southern Africa Food Lab project, Social,Environment, and Ethical Standards, also informed the design of this manual: nmental-and-ethical-standards-2/.1
Table of contents1. A short history of localg.a.p. and its entry into South Africa32. What you should know as a trainer/supporter to smallholder farmerswho want to achieve localg.a.p. compliance6a) A farmer can only become localg.a.p. compliant if she/he is part of a localg.a.p.programme with a programme owner6b) localg.a.p. compliance will not earn the farmer a certificate - it is only an entrypoint to eventually reach GLOBALG.A.P. certification7c) So then why do it?7d) Steps to reach localg.a.p. for producers8e) Programme owners in South Africa9f) How to become a programme owner9g) South African certification body103. Frequently Asked Questions11a) What are the main differences between localg.a.p. and GLOBALG.A.P.?11b) Can I go back to localg.a.p. if I already had GLOBALG.A.P. certification?11c) How many levels are there in the localg.a.p. programme?11d) Who sets the rules for a localg.a.p. programme?11e) Can I independently prepare for any of the localg.a.p. levels?12f) Is it possible to reach compliance as part of a collective for example a farmingcooperative?12g) Can I stay at one of the localg.a.p. levels forever?12h) Who can be a programme owner?12i) Can I include localg.a.p. requirements in a PGS?12Additional notes132 of 14
1. A short history of localg.a.p. andits entry into South AfricaConsumers of formal markets worldwide increasingly demanded quality foods,produced safely and sustainably. To address their concerns, European supermarketsstarted demanding certification from their producers. Consequently, EurepGAP, acommon standard for farm management practice, was created in the late 1990s byseveral European supermarket chains and their major suppliers. In 2007 the name waschanged to GLOBALG.A.P., which today is the world's leading farm assuranceprogram, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice (G.A.P.).However, when working with smallholder farmers, who may not be able to achieveGLOBALG.A.P. certification, the supermarkets had no alternatives and these formalmarkets effectively closed for those without certification. Consequently theGLOBALG.A.P. organisation created localg.a.p. (originally called Primary FarmAssurance) to engage with farmers who were new to standards, such as smallholderfarmers. GLOBALG.A.P. began the localg.a.p. program in the USA, where thecustomised solution is called localg.a.p. North America.When the programme came to South Africa in 2013, it included two levels ofconformance: foundation and intermediate, before a farmer was finally audited forGLOBALG.A.P. certification. However, even the foundation level did not fit the contextof many smallholder farmers in South Africa. In response to this challenge, SPAR SouthAfrica asked GLOBALG.A.P. to adapt the foundation-level to an entry-level oflocalg.a.p. by removing some of the less crucial food safety requirements.This adaptation was specifically designed to include more smallholder farmers whilemaintaining the integrity of the main localg.a.p. food safety requirements and the focuson progression towards eventual certification. GLOBALG.A.P. does not recognise it asa separate localg.a.p. level, but instead as an adaptation of the localg.a.p. foundationlevel.3 of 14
localg.a.p. and its two levels also do not form a standard in itself, but rather a path toGLOBALG.A.P. certification. It aims to help farmers progress from conformance withone level to the next until they are able to achieve full certification.Including the adapted entry-level of localg.a.p. SPAR created for South Africa, the stepsto reach GLOBALG.A.P. are thus as follows:a) Entry-level is a simplified adaptation of the foundation level and covers the mostbasic food safety requirements for fruit and vegetable producers. It is currentlyaccepted by SPAR and Pick ’n Pay in South Africa. The four control points include: Site history Record keeping Workers health, safety, and welfare Waste and pollution management, recycling and reuseb) The Foundation Level covers all the basic food safety requirements and is ideal forproducers who sell primarily on a local level and are starting the process towardcertification. This is only available for fruit and vegetable producers. The seven controlpoints include: Site history and site management Record keeping and internal self-assessment Workers health, safety, and welfare Subcontractors Waste and pollution management, recycling and reuse Complaints Withdrawal/recall procedurec) The Intermediate Level incorporates stronger food safety criteria, accepted byselect national retailers. This is available for fruit and vegetable, livestock, andaquaculture producers. The eight control points include: Site history and site management Record keeping and internal self-assessment Workers health, safety, and welfare Subcontractors Waste and pollution management, recycling and reuse Complaints4 of 14
Withdrawal/recall procedure Food defensed) GLOBALG.A.P incorporates all the GLOBALG.A.P requirements and upon asuccessful assessment outcome, a farmer is issued a certificate. It has 16 controlpoints.e) GLOBALG.A.P Add-on allows GLOBALG.A.P. producers to add additionalrequirements to their assessments, including for example GRASP requirements thatcover workers’ health, safety, and welfare, and/or animal welfare requirements.GLOBALG.A.P. Add-On also offers members a program to develop add-on modulesspecifically tailored to their needs such as stricter environmental requirements.While the number of smallholder farmers currently in localg.a.p. programmes is smallas a representation of the entire South African smallholder population, these earlyprogrammes may provide examples from which future, larger-scale projects can learn.5 of 14
2. What you should know as atrainer/supporter to smallholderfarmers who want to achievelocalg.a.p. compliancea) A farmer can only become localg.a.p. compliant ifshe/he is part of a localg.a.p. programme with aprogramme ownerA farmer or farmer trainer cannot directly access localg.a.p. training and assessments.Instead the GLOBALG.A.P. organisation requires that a “localg.a.p. programme owner”requests training and assessments for certain farms. This is meant to ensure farmersnot only receive the necessary training for localg.a.p. conformance, but also the marketlinkages and complementary assistance critical to a farm’s success. The localg.a.p.programme owner determines the level of localg.a.p. it will accept and the amount oftime a farmer will have to advance from one level to the next.While SPAR was instrumental to the development of the entry-level localg.a.p. in SouthAfrica, it is available for any potential localg.a.p. programme owner (including otherretailers, exporters, farmer associations, etc.) to use. As GLOBALG.A.P. has beenaccepted by all major retailers in South Africa as their preferred food safety standard,the introduction of localg.a.p. as a path to certification may result in potentially moreinteraction between retailers and smallholder farmers. To this end, SPAR, Massmart/Walmart, Shoprite Holdings (Freshmark), and Pick ‘n Pay are currently acting asprogramme owners for a number of smallholder produce and vegetable farms’localg.a.p. training and assessment. SA Livestock G.A.P. is also acting as programmeowner for a smallholder livestock initiative.Programme owners decide which level they are willing to accept from farmers:Massmart will accept foundation and intermediate levels; Pick n Pay will accept entry,6 of 14
foundation, and intermediate levels; and Freshmark will accept foundation andintermediate levels.b) localg.a.p. compliance will not earn the farmer acertificate - it is only an entry-point to eventuallyreach GLOBALG.A.P. certificationIf a smallholder farmer participates in a programme with an owner, they will receive thenecessary training to enable them to comply with the required localg.a.p. level. Once anassessment by an assessor shows that the farmer complies with the necessaryrequirements, they will be registered on the localg.a.p. database as compliant. Thiswould then enable the farmer to also sell to other supermarkets that accept the samelocalg.a.p. level. As the farmer progresses from entry through foundation tointermediate level, a certificate is never issued. The farmer will only receive a certificateonce she/he reaches and successfully passes a GLOBALG.A.P. assessment.c) So then why do it?The GLOBALG.A.P. website promotes the adoption of localg.a.p. by smallholderfarmers as follows:1. Establish the foundation to achieve GLOBALG.A.P. certification through a stepwiseimprovement plan.2. Reduce your exposure to food safety risks.3. Improve your traceability and reassure your buyers using your localg.a.p. number(LGN): your unique 13-digit localg.a.p. number that identifies you in theGLOBALG.A.P. database.4. Access local and regional markets through a local program based on the globallyrecognised GLOBALG.A.P. certification system.5. Improve the efficiency of your farm management.6. Comply with legislation on food safety and proper hygiene.7. All relevant documents are accessible online, free of charge.7 of 14
Based on the Southern Africa Food Lab’s research on standards and market access,working towards entry-level localg.a.p. is most viable for smallholder farmers and mayassist smallholder farmers as follows:1. Start and maintain record-keeping for various aspects of your farm, which will inturn inform better farm management.2. Improve the food safety standards on your farm or just proof that your farm isalready upholding the necessary food safety standards.3. Use your entry-level localg.a.p. compliance to access both SPAR and Pick n Paystores in your local area.4. Use these records for more than just reaching localg.a.p. compliance - it could forexample support a business plan and loan application, or feed into other standardmaintenance mechanisms such as PGS.d) Steps to reach localg.a.p. for producersThe GLOBALG.A.P. website lists the following steps:1. Download the localg.a.p. documents and learn about the requirements forconformance.2. Contact a localg.a.p. approved certification body and/or Farm Assurer in yourcountry, compare their offers and then ask for a registration application.3. Get your localg.a.p. number (LGN) that identifies you in the GLOBALG.A.P.database.4. Carry out a self-assessment using the localg.a.p. checklist and correct all the pointsyou don’t comply with. You can also contact a Farm Assurer to assist you.5. Check if one of your customers is a program owner by viewing the current list oflocalg.a.p. programs.6. Arrange an appointment with your certification body and/or farm assurer for yourfirst on-site inspection.7. Once you successfully comply with the localg.a.p. requirements, you will receive alocalg.a.p. letter of conformance.8 of 14
e) Programme owners in South AfricaNAMECOMPANYSCOPECONTACTSPAR localg.a.p.SPAR South AfricaFruit and VegetablesJames Lonsdale, National FreshProduce Manager083 627 3383011 821 email@example.comFreshmark localg.a.p.Shoprite Holdings(Freshmark)Fruit and VegetablesMr Donovan Jooste, QualityAssurance Managerdjooste@shoprite.co.zaPick ‘n Pay localg.a.p.Pick ’n Pay South AfricaFruit and VegetablesThozama Vokwana, TechnicalManager Fresh Produce011 574 assmart/WalMartFruit and VegetablesSilnia Badenhorst, Regulatoryand Product Safety Manager011 797 firstname.lastname@example.org. Program SALivestock G.A.P.SA Livestock G.A.P.Livestock012 807 email@example.com) How to become a programme ownerIf a group of smallholder farmers identify a potential client who would allow them to selltheir produce to him/her if they were localg.a.p. compliant, but this potential client is nota localg.a.p. programme owner, the following information could be shared with them:1. A localg.a.p. programme must be initiated by a localg.a.p. programme owner:GLOBALG.A.P. membership and the signing of a Memorandum of Understandingare pre-requisites in order to become a localg.a.p. programme owner.2. Once the programme is initiated, the localg.a.p. programme owner must review thecurrent localg.a.p. control points documents and decide if any changes to thelocalg.a.p. control points will be required.3. The localg.a.p. programme owner must decide on the levels to be introduced in theprogramme. localg.a.p. is currently available in two levels: The Foundation Leveland the Intermediate Level.4. Develop and define the programme rules using the customisation checklist. Genericrules are available and have to be adapted to the localg.a.p. programme owner's9 of 14
requirements for food safety and hygiene (like SPAR did with the entry-levellocalg.a.p.).5. The localg.a.p. programme owner must specify who will conduct the localg.a.p.inspections. These can be conducted by a GLOBALG.A.P. approved certificationbody or a licensed Farm Assurer (FA) or both.6. The localg.a.p. programme owners then pass on the programme documents to thelocal producers and growers for implementation.7. Contact the GLOBALG.A.P. development team for assistance: Elme CoetzerBoersma at 082 662 8105 or firstname.lastname@example.org) South African certification bodySGS South Africa (Pty) LtdHeadoffice:First floor, Panther Park, 11 Berkley Rd, Maitland 11Cape Town, 7405Website: www.sgs.comTel: 27 21 506 3280Scheme Manager: Elsabe MattheeE-Mail: email@example.com, lieze.Beneke@sgs.com orbarbara.VanderMerwe@sgs.com10 of 14
3. Frequently Asked Questionsa) What are the main differences between localg.a.p.and GLOBALG.A.P.? localg.a.p. is an assessment (not certification) A producer will receive a localg.a.p. Number (LGN) to distinguish localg.a.p.producers from certified producers who receive a GLOBALG.A.P. Number (GGN). The localg.a.p. levels are subsets of the full GLOBALG.A.P. 2nd or 3rd parties can conduct localg.a.p. assessments.b) Can I go back to localg.a.p. if I already hadGLOBALG.A.P. certification?No, it is not possible to go back once you are certified.c) How many levels are there in the localg.a.p.programme?GLOBALG.A.P. has set up 2 levels: Foundation and Intermediate level. It is possiblethat a program owner may set up more levels and even have an add-on for controlpoints outside of the scope of the GLOBALG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Standard(e.g. quality, commodity specific items, etc.) which may remain as an add-on once theproducer moves on to the certified level.d) Who sets the rules for a localg.a.p. programme?GLOBALG.A.P. has developed a template with the basic requirements and theprogramme owner will specify the rules within these. Rules to be specified include theactual content of the levels, which levels are available, who may conduct theinspections, how long a producer can stay at one level, etc.11 of 14
e) Can I independently prepare for any of thelocalg.a.p. levels? No. Every localg.a.p. level has a programme owner that signed a Memorandum ofUnderstanding with the GLOBALG.A.P. secretariat. Implementation of a localg.a.p. level is thus market and customer related andproducers’ assessment reports and results are only visible to their customersrequesting the localg.a.p. programme. A producer can join a localg.a.p. programmeonly if one of his/her customers is a programme owner and requests it.f) Is it possible to reach compliance as part of acollective for example a farming cooperative?If the programme owner agrees to it, a collective such as a cooperative could beassessed for localg.a.p. compliance.g) Can I stay at one of the localg.a.p. levels forever?No, it not possible to stay at one of these levels indefinitely. Irrespective of how manylevels a programme owner has introduced, a producer must move on to certification in5 years. Exceptions to this 5-year rule must be approved by the GLOBALG.A.P. Boardon a case-by-case basis.h) Who can be a programme owner? Programme owners must be GLOBALG.A.P. members. They can be retailers, manufacturers, cooperatives, traders – anybody who creates alocal market.i) Can I include localg.a.p. requirements in a PGS?As the members of a PGS determine and agree on their own compliance criteria, intheory it would be possible to include localg.a.p. entry-level, Foundation Level, and/or12 of 14
Intermediate Level control points. The management of the localg.a.p. records couldthus form part of PGS efforts, yet should not replace the organic or agro-ecologystandards the PGS was created for. If a PGS decides to include localg.a.p. controlpoints, it would be essential that these requirements are communicated to members.Ideally, the PGS could then be assessed for localg.a.p. compliance as a collective, asdescribed in 3.f.Additional notes13 of 14
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d) GLOBALG.A.P incorporates all the GLOBALG.A.P requirements and upon a successful assessment outcome, a farmer is issued a certificate. It has 16 control points. e) GLOBALG.A.P Add-on allows GLOBALG.A.P. producers to add additional requirements to their a
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