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LONGMANENGLISH GRAMMARPRACTICEfor intermediate studentsL. G. AlexanderLongman

LONGMANENGLISH GRAMMARPRACTICEfor intermediate studentsL. G. AlexanderL o n g m a nSs

Addison Wesley Longman LimitedEdinburgh Gate, Harlow,Essex CM20 2JE, Englandand Associated Companies throughout the world. Longman Group UK Limited 1990All rights reserved; no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, withoutthe prior written permission of the Publishers.Distributed in the United States of American byAddison Wesley Longman, New YorkFirst published 1990Eleventh impression 1998Cartoons by Larry, Ed Mclaughlin and David SimondsBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication DataAlexander, L. G. (Louis George) 1932Longman English grammar practice (Intermediate level)1. English language. GrammarI. Title428.2Library of Congress C a t a l o g i n g - i n - P u b l i c a t i o n DataAlexander, L. G.Longman English grammar practice (Intermediate level) / L. G. Alexander,p. cm.1. English language - Textbooks for foreign speakers.2. English language - Grammar - 1950 - Problems, exercises, etc I. TitlePE1128.A4573 1990428.2'4-dc2089-13851CIPSet in 9/11.5 pt. Linotron Helvetica RomanProduced through Longman Malaysia, ACMISBN 0 582 04500 2

ContentsTo the student11The ntence word orderThe simple sentence: verbs with and without objectsThe simple sentence: direct and indirect objectsThe compound sentenceThe complex sentence: noun clausesThe complex sentence: relative pronouns and clausesThe complex sentence:'whose'; defining/non-defining clausesThe complex sentence: time, place, mannerThe complex sentence: reason and contrastThe complex sentence: purpose, result and comparisonThe complex sentence: present participle constructionsThe complex sentence: perfect/past participle nounsCompound nounsCountable and uncountable nouns (1)Countable and uncountable nouns (2)Number (singular and plural) (1)Number (singular and plural) (2)GenderThe 3.6The indefinite article: 'a/an' (1)The indefinite article: 'a/an' (2)The definite article: 'the' (1)The definite article: 'the' (2)The zero article (1)The zero article al pronouns'One''It' and 'one/some/any/none'Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns ('my/mine')Reflexive pronouns ('myself')Demonstrative adjs/prons ('this'); 'some/any/no' compounds .65.7Quantifiers countable and uncountable nounsGeneral and specific references to quantityUses of 'some', 'any', 'no' and 'none''Much', 'many', 'a lot of, '(a) few', '(a) little', 'fewer', 'less''Both' and 'all''All (the)', '(a/the) whole', 'each' and 'every''Another', '(the) other(s)', 'either', 'neither', 'each (one of)'66687072747678"

Contents6Adjectives806. of adjectivesPosition of adjectivesAdjectives that behave like nouns; '-ed/-ing' endingsAdjectives after'be','seem', etc.; word order of adjectivesThe comparison of 77.8Adverbs of mannerAdverbs of timeAdverbial phrases of durationAdverbs of frequencyAdverbs of degreeIntensifiersFocus adverbsViewpoint adverbs, connecting adverbs and inversion90929496981001021048Prepositions, adverb particles and phrasal verbs1068., adverb particles and conjunctionsPrepositions of movement and position; prepositions of timeParticular prepositions, particles: contrasts (1)Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (2)Particular prepositions, particles: contrasts (3)Phrasal verbs: Type 1, verb preposition (transitive)Phrasal verbs: Type 2, verb particle (transitive)Phrasal verbs: Type 3, verb particle (intransitive)Type 4, verb particle preposition (transitive)1061081101121141161181209Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives1229. simple present and present progressive tenses (1)The simple present and present progressive tenses (2)The simple past tenseThe simple past and past progressive tensesThe simple present perfect and present perfect progressiveThe simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tensesThe simple future tenseThe simple future, the future progressive, the future perfect'Going to' and other ways of expressing the futureThe imperative12212412612813013213413613814010Be, Have, Do14210.110.210.310.410.510.610.7'Be'as a full verb (1)'Be'as a full verb (2)'There' 'be'Verbs related in meaning to 'be''Have' as a full verb 'possess'; 'have got' 'possess''Have' as a full verb meaning 'eat', 'enjoy', etc.'Do'as a full verb14214414614815015215411Modal auxiliaries and related verbs15611.111.211.3The two uses of modal verbsUses of modals (etc.) to express ability and inabilityUses of modals (etc.) to express permission and prohibition156158160

13Uses of modals (etc.) to express certainty and possibilityUses of modals to express deductionUses of modals for offers, requests and suggestionsExpressing wishes, etc.: 'I wish', 'if only', 'it's (high) time'Expressing preferences: 'would rather' and 'would sooner''It's advisable .'/'It's necessary .''It isn't advisable .'/'It isn't necessary .'/'It's forbidden'Modals to express habit: 'used to', 'will' and 'would''Need'and'dare'as modals and as full verbs'Would/wouldn't'; 'that .should'; 'there' modal16216416616817017217417617818012The passive and the causative18212.112.212.3General information about formUses of the passiveForm and use of the causative18218418613Questions, answers, s/No questions, negative statements, Yes/No answersAlternative negative forms and negative questionsTag questions and echo tagsAdditions and responsesQuestion-word questions (1):'Who(m).?','What.?'Question-word questions (2): 'When?', 'Where?', 'Which?', 'Whose?'Question-word questions (3): 'Why?', hose?'Questions about alternatives; emphatic questions with'ever'18819019219419619820020220414Conditional sentences20614.114.214.314.4Type 1 conditionals,Type 2 conditionals"'Type 3 conditionalsMixed conditionals;'unless/if. not', etc.20620821021215Direct and indirect speech21415.115.215.315.415.515.6Direct speech'Say','tell'and'ask'Indirect statements with tense changesIndirect questions with tense changesUses of the to-infinitive in indirect speechWhen we use indirect speech21421621822022222416The infinitive and the '-ing' form22616.116.216.316.416.516.616.716.8The bare infinitive and theto-infinitiveThe bare infinitive or the '-ing' form; theto-infinitiveVerb ( noun/pronoun) to-infinitiveAdjectives and nouns to-infinitiveThe'-ing'formVerb the'-ing'formAdjectives, nouns and prepositions '-ing'The to-infinitive or the '-ing' form?226228230232234236238240Index242Key253

AcknowledgementsDifferent versions of these materials were tried out with students in five countries. The book is in itspresent form partly as a result of the useful reports and in many cases the very detailed commentsreceived while the work was being developed. I would like to thank the following:BrazilVera Regina de A Couto and staffRosa LenzuenLouise TowerseyMichael WatkinsWerner KiewegCultura Inglesa, RioNorman LewisGymnasium WildeshausenRobert NowacekVolkshochschule, KaufbeurenSandra KlapsisJoanna MalliouGeorge RigasHomer Association, AthensThe Morai'tis School, AthensItalyPaola Giovamma OttolinoLiceo Linguistico, A. Manzoni, MilanoUnited KingdomSue BoardmanPat LodgeBell School, Saffron WaldenAlan FortuneEaling College of Higher EducationMary StephensEurocentre, BournemouthM. MilmoSteve MooreJennifer SwiftAnn TimsonJosephine von WaskowskiEurocentre, Lee GreenGermanyGreeceCultura Inglesa, CuritibaUniversity of MunichI would also like to thank:- Donald Adamson and Neville Grant for their detailed and stimulating commentaries and particularlyRoy Kingsbury for his comprehensive report and notes on exercise-types.- my personal assistant, Penelope Parfitt, and my wife, Julia, for reading and commenting on thework at every stage of its development.I am especially grateful to my publishers and their representatives for administering and monitoring thetrialling of the manuscript in various locations round the world and for exercising such care and skill tosee the work through to publication.

To the studentW h y do w e learn grammar?There is no point in learning grammar for the sake of learning grammar. Grammar is the supportsystem of communication and we learn it to communicate better. Grammar explains the why and howof language. We learn it because we just can't do without it.W h o is this book for and what does it cover?This book deals entirely with English as a foreign language (EFL). It is for intermediate students whoare working with a teacher or working on their own. It covers every important area of the Englishlanguage. If you look at the Contents pages, you will find sixteen major areas which form the basis ofEnglish grammar. This book is based on the Longman English Grammar and the grammaticalinformation in it is all drawn from this work. Longman English Grammar Practice has been designed tostand on its own. Students who require further grammatical information can refer to the LongmanEnglish Grammar.How the material is organizedLongman English Grammar Practice is a practice book. It is intended to support (not replace) thematerial in language courses and is organized for this purpose: The material is laid out on facing pages.Each set of facing pages deals with a major point of grammar.This major point is divided into small, manageable amounts of information. Clear notes explain thepoints to be practised, followed by an exercise on just those points.The last exercise is in context, usually an entertaining story with a cartoon illustration. It sums up allyou have learnt in the exercises you have just done and shows you how the language works. It is a'reward' for the hard work you have just been doing!Cross referencesIf you see e.g. [ 7.3A] in the notes, it means that a similar point is discussed in some other part of thebook. Follow up the reference for parallel practice or information if you want to. If you see e.g. [ LEG4.30] at the top of the notes, it means that the point is dealt with in the Longman English Grammar.Follow up the reference if you want 'the whole story'.How to workYOU DON'T HAVE TO WORK THROUGH THIS BOOK FROM START TO FINISH!It is not arranged in order of increasing difficulty.Select a chapter or part of a chapter which you want to study. Do this by referring to the Contentspages or the Index. Usually, this will be a topic you have been dealing with in your languagecourse. Then:1 Read the notes carefully (called Study). Notes and exercises are marked like this:0 Elementary 1*3 Intermediate (most exercises) I***I AdvancedYou will sometimes find that you know some, but not all, of the points in an exercise marked I**].2 Do the exercises (called Write). Always leave the story till last (called Context).3 Check your answers with your teacher.4 If you have made mistakes, study the notes again until you have understood where you wentwrong and why.1

1 The sentence1.1 Sentence word order1.1AStudy:EThe basic word order of an English sentence [ LEG 1.3]The meaning of an English sentence depends on the word order.1 We put the subject before the verb and the object after the verb:The cook burnt the dinner.2 Adverbials (How?, Where?, When7} usually come after the verb or after the object:He read the note quickly. (How?) I waited at the corner (Where?) till 11.30. (When?)3 The basic word order of a sentence that is not a question or a command is usually:subjectverbobjectadverbialsHow?Where? When?Iboughta hatyesterday.The children have gonehome.Weateour meal in silence.4 We also put the time reference at the beginning: Yesterday I bought a hat. [ 7.2A]nr?*Write 1:a Rewrite the sentences that don't make sense.b Mark all the sentences in the exercise S V O to show Subject, Verb, Object.12345678910Write 2:(SlJoM.B.QMty.MlW.- .(Q)a h rjumfi,.record.a Arrange these words in the right order. Use a capital letter to begin each sentence,b Mark each rewritten sentence S V O M P T to show:Subject, Verb, Object, Manner (How?), Place (Where?), Time (When?).1234567891011122Has set John Bailey a new high-jump record.The passport examined the passport officerThese biscuits don't like the dogsThe shop assistant is wrapping the parcelHave seen the visitors the new buildingsMy father didn't wash the dishesThe pipe is going to fix the plumberWill the goalkeeper catch the ball?Has the meal enjoyed the guest?Can't play John the gametill 11 o'clock this morning slept the childrenthe papers into the bin he threwI don't speak well Englishhides Mrs Jones her money under the bedcarefully this suitcase you didn't packon this shelf I left this morning some moneyfrom the bank a loan you'll have to getthe phone in the middle of the night woke me upin the park you shouldn't walk at nightyour food you should eat slowlymy term begins in Octoberyour article j 11 quickly last night in bed read

1.1 Sentence word order1.1BThe forms of a sentence [ LEG 1.2]A sentence can take- a statement:- a question:- a command:- an exclamation:Study:i**iany one of four forms:The shops close/don't close at 7 tonight.Do the shops close at 7 tonight?Shut the door./Don't shut the door.What a slow train this islWhen we write a sentence, we must begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop (.), aquestion mark (?), or an exclamation mark (!).If there are quotation marks ('.') or (".") around spoken words in a sentence, we put otherpunctuation marks 'inside' them:'I'm tired,'she said. (Not "I'm tired', she said.*) [ 15.1 A-B]Write:a Arrange these groups of words in the right order. Add (.), (?) or (!).b Describe each sentence as a statement, question, command or exclamation: S, Q, C or E.123456789101.1CWrite:the coffee don't spillD.or&.ApUl.tte.QQffg&.ttoday's papers have you seento meet you how nicemy umbrella where did you putarrived the train fifteen minutes lateon time the plane won't arrivethis electricity bill I can't payfor me please open the doorthe nearest hotel where's he askedthe bill can't pay 11 he cried( C(((((((((ContextRead this story and arrange the words in each sentence in the right order.Add capital letters and (,), (.), (!) or (?) in the right places.A QUIET SORT OF PLACE!1 my car I parked in the centre of the village2 near a bus stop an old man I saw3 'beautiful village what a' I exclaimed4 'live here how many people'5 'seventeen people there are' the old man said6 'here have you lived how long'7 'all my life I have lived here'8 'isn't it it's a quiet sort of place'9 'here a quiet life we live10 a cinema we don't have or a theatre11 our school five years ago was closed12 only one shop we have13 calls a bus once a day14 here in 55 B.C. came the Romans15 since then has happened nothing'3

1 The sentence1.2 The simple sentence: verbs with and without objects1.2AStudy:i**iWhat is a complete sentence? [ LEG 1.2]1 When we speak, we often say things like All right! Good! Want any help?These are 'complete units of meaning', but they are not real sentences.2 A simple sentence is a complete unit of meaning which contains a subject and a verb,followed, if necessary, by other words which make up the meaning. So:Made in Germany is correct English but it is not a sentence because it doesn't have a subject.My car was made in Germany, is a complete sentence with a subject and verb.We can't say e.g. *ls tired* because we need a subject [ 4.1 A, 4.3A]: He is tired.3 The subject may be 'hidden': Open the door, really means You open the door. [ 9.10B]Write:Put a tick ( / ) beside real sentences.123456789101.2BStudy:EHMade in Germany.This car was made in Germany. /To write a letter.Standing in the rain.I want to write a letter.Is tall.Do you like?The train has arrived.Have finished my work.You should listen.11121314151617181920Verbs with and without objects [ LEGSit down please.You can't park here.Don't interrupt.I understand.She doesn't like me.ynder the water.Ate.A bottle of ink.He's a doctor.What happened?1.4,1.9,1.10,1.12, A p p i ]1 We always have to use an object after some verbs: e.g. beat, contain, enjoy, hit, need.We call these transitive verbs. We have to say:Arsenal beat Liverpool. But we can't say *Arsenal beat. *2 Some verbs never take an object: e.g. ache, arrive, come, faint, go, sit down, sleep, snow.We call these intransitive verbs. We have to say:We arrived at 11. But we can't say *We arrived the station at 11.*3 Some verbs can be used transitively or intransitively: e.g. begin, drop, hurt, open, ring, win.We can say: Arsenal won the match, (transitive) or Arsenal won. (intransitive)Write:Put an object (a pronoun or a noun) after these verbs only where possible.1234567894The box contains . . . . P o U .The train has arrivedThe phone rangSomeone is ringingYou needWe sat downDon't hitDid you beatWho opened10111213141516? 17? 18The door openedThis is a game no one can winThe concert beganI beganIt's snowingQuick! She's faintedDid you enjoyMy head achesMy foot hurtsat 7.30.?

1.2 The simple sentence: verbs with and without objects1.2CSentences with linking verbs like 'be' and 'seem'[ l e g 1.9,1.11,10.23-26]Verbs like be [ 10.1-3] and seem [ 10.4] are 'linking verbs'. They cannot have an object.The word we use after be, etc. tells us something about the subject. In grammar, we call this acomplement because it 'completes' the sentence by telling us about the subject.In He is ill. She seems tired, etc. the words ill and tired tell us about he and she.Study:S3A complement may be:Frank is clever.- an adjective:Frank is an architect.- a noun:Frank is a clever architect.- an adjective noun:- a pronoun:This book is mine.- an adverb of place or time: The meeting is here. The meeting is at 2.30.- a prepositional phrase:Alice is like her father.Write:a Complete these sentences using a different complement for each sentence.b Say whether you have used a noun, an adjective, an adjective noun, etc.1 My neighbour is very2My neighbour is3 This apple tastes4 The children are5 The meeting is6 Whose is this? It's7 John looks8 That music sounds9 Your mother seems10 I want to be1.2DWrite:when I leave schoolContextRead this story and arrange the words in each sentence in the right order.Add capital letters and (,), (.), (!) or (?) in the right places [ 1.1B].SO PLEASE DON'T COMPLAIN!1 the local school attends my son Tim2 to his school my wife and I went yesterday3 we to his teachers spoke4 Tim's school report we collected5 very good wasn't Tim's report6 in every subject were his marks low7 was waiting anxiously for us outside Tim8 'my report how was' eagerly he asked9 'very good it wasn't' I said10 'you harder must try11 seems that boy Ogilvy very clever12 good marks he got in all subjects'13 'clever parents Ogilvy has' Tim said5

1 The sentence1.3 The simple sentence: direct and indirect objects1.3ASubject verb indirect object direct object: 'Show me that photo'[ LEG 1.13]We can use two objects after verbs like give and buy.Instead of: Give the book to me, we can say: Give me the book.Instead of: Buy the book for me, we can say: Buy me the book.Study:0Some verbs combine with TO: bring, give, lend, pay, post, sell, send, show, tell, write:Bring that book to me. -» Bring me that book.Othe

English grammar Thi. s book is based on the Longman English Grammar and the grammatical information in it is all drawn from this work. Longman English Grammar Practice has been designed to stand on its own. Students wh o requir furthee r grammatica informatiol cann refe tro the Longman English Grammar. How the materia ils organized Longman English

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