CHEMISTRY Ample Content - Target Publications

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Written in accordance with the topics based on new syllabus XII Sci.(Maharashtra State Board)MHT-CETTRIUMPHContentCHEMISTRYSalient FeaturesIncludes chapters of Std. XII as per textbook of 2020. Exhaustive subtopic wise coverage of MCQs. 3049 MCQs including questions from various competitive exams. Quick Review provided for all the chapters. Important Formulae provided for relevant chapters Includes MCQs from JEE (Main) (8th April, shift 1), NEET (UG), NEET (Odisha), MHTCET (6th May, Afternoon) 2019 and JEE (Main) (7th January, shift 1) 2020. Includes MCQs from JEE (Main), NEET and MHT-CET upto 2018. Various competitive examination questions updated till the latest year. Evaluation test provided at the end of each chapter.plInclusions: ‘Real-world applications’ and ‘Compilation of organic reaction based MCQs’.m e SaScan the adjacent QR code or visit www.targetpublications.org/tp1629 to downloadHints for relevant questions and Evaluation Test in PDF format.Printed at: Print to Print, Mumbai Target Publications Pvt. Ltd.No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanicalincluding photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher.Balbharati Registration No.: 2018MH0022TEID: 1629P.O. No. 1107

PREFACE“Don’t follow your dreams; chase them!”- a quote by Richard Dumbrill is perhaps the most pertinent for onewho is aiming to crack entrance examinations held after std. XII. We are aware of an aggressive competition astudent appearing for such career defining examinations experiences and hence wanted to create books thatdevelop the necessary knowledge, tools and skills required to excel in these examinations.ontentFor the syllabus of MHT-CET 2020, 80% of the weightage is given to the syllabus for XIIth standard whileonly 20% is given to the syllabus for XIth standard (with inclusion of only selected chapters). Since there is noclarity on the syllabus for MHT-CET 2021 till the time when this book was going to be printed and taking thefact into consideration that the entire syllabus for std. XIIth Science has always been an integral part of MHTCET syllabus, this book includes all the topics of std. XIIth Chemistry.We believe that although the syllabus for Std. XII and MHT-CET is aligned, the outlook to study the subjectshould be altered based on the nature of the examination. To score in MHT-CET, a student has to be not justgood with the concepts but also quick to complete the test successfully. Such ingenuity can be developedthrough sincere learning and dedicated practice.Having thorough knowledge of basic principles, laws, concepts and their applications is a prerequisite forbeginning with MCQs on a given chapter in Chemistry. For physical chemistry, students must know formulae,conversion factors, units and dimensions of physical quantities involved in the chapter. For inorganic andorganic chemistry, students need to focus on chemical behaviour of elements and compounds and understandthe mechanism of chemical reactions. It should be kept in mind that every single line of text has potential ofgenerating several MCQs.CAs a first step to MCQ solving, students should start with elementary questions. Once a momentum is gained,complex MCQs with higher level of difficulty should be practised. Questions from previous years as well asfrom other similar competitive exams should be solved to obtain an insight about plausible questions.The competitive exams challenge understanding of students about subject by combining concepts fromdifferent chapters in a single question. To figure these questions out, cognitive understanding of subject isrequired. Therefore, students should put in extra effort to practise such questions.eSuch a holistic preparation is the key to succeed in the examination!To quote Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, “If you want to shine like a sun, first burn like a sun.”plOur Triumph Chemistry book has been designed to achieve the above objectives. Commencing from basicMCQs the book proceeds to develop competence to solve complex MCQs. It offers ample practice of recentquestions from various competitive examination. It also includes hints that provide explanations and solutionsto help students learn how to solve the MCQs. Each chapter ends with an Evaluation test to allow selfassessment.Features of the book presented on the next page will explicate more about the same!mWe hope the book benefits the learner as we have envisioned.The journey to create a complete book is strewn with triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we’venearly missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, we’d love to hear from you.Please write to us on: [email protected] book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.From,PublisherEdition: FirstBest of luck to all the aspirants!

FEATURESQuick ReviewQuick ReviewContentIronCast ironWrought ironSteelContains4% CContains less than0.2% CContains0.2 - 2% CHard and brittleVery softNeither too hardnor too softUses:making pipes,manufacturingautomotive parts,pots, pans,utensils, etc.Uses:making pipes,bars for staybolts, enginebolts and rivets,etc.Quick Review includes tables/chartsto summarize the key points/importantchemical reactions in the chapter.This is our attempt to help students toreinforce key concepts.Uses:in buildingsinfrastructure,tools, ships,automobiles,weapons, etc.Formulae1.eFormulae2.Packing efficiencyVolumeoccupied by particlesin unit cell 100 Total volumeof unit cellClassical Thinking9.11.Mna3 NAWhere M molar mass of substance (g/mol),n number of particles in a cubic unit cell,a edge length (cm),NA Avogadro number (6.022 1023 mol 1)SamplFormulae includes all of the keyformulae in the chapter.This is our attempt to make tools offormulae accessible for students whilesolving problems and revising at lastminute at a glance.Density (ρ) IntroductionCoordination compounds contain ligands attached tocentral metal atom/ion through bonds.(A) covalent(B) ionic(C) coordinate(D) metallicClassical ThinkingClassical Thinking section encompassesstraight forward questions includingknowledge based questions.This is our attempt to revise chapter in itsbasic form and warm up students to dealwith complex MCQs.

FEATURESCritical Thinking50.4.8CH3HO(A)(B)(C)(D) B2 H 6conc. H 2SO4 / H 2 O2 / OH B CA cyclopentenecyclohexaneA(g) 2B(g) 2C(g) 3D(g) for the above reactionthe value of ΔH is 19.0 kcal at 27 C.The value of ΔU in kcal is .(Given R 2.0 cal K–1 mol–1)[MHT CET 2019](A) 19.8 kcal(B) 20.8 kcal(C) 18.8 kcal(D) 17.8 kcalCompetitive ThinkingCompetitiveThinkingsectionencompasses questions from variouscompetitive examinations like MHT CET,JEE, AIPMT/NEET-UG, etc.This is our attempt to give studentspractice of competitive questions andadvance them to acquire knack essentialto solve such questions.Sample13.Enthalpy (H)Product C in the following sequence is .CCritical Thinking section encompasseschallenging questions which testunderstanding, rational thinking andapplication skills of students.This is our attempt to take studentsfrom beginner to proficient level insmooth steps.Competitive Thinkingontent11.4 Alcohols and phenolsCritical ThinkingSubtopic wise segregationEvery section is segregated sub-topicwise.This is our attempt to cater toindividualistic pace and preferences ofstudying a chapter in students andenable easy assimilation of questionsbased on the specific concept.Subtopics1.11.21.31.41.5IntroductionTypes of solidsClassification of crystalline solidsCrystal structureCubic system

FEATURESMiscellaneousMiscellaneous76.Every section, in general, ends with asub-topic; miscellaneous.Miscellaneous incorporates MCQs whosesolutions require knowledge of conceptscovered in different sub-topics of samechapter or from different chapters.This is our attempt to develop cognitivethinking in the students essential to solvequestions involving fusion of multiple keyconcepts.The end product in the following sequence ofreaction is .(A)(C)acetic acidacetoneEvaluation test(B)(D)Content[O]1% HgSO4CH3 MgXHC CH A B ?20% H 2SO4isopropyl alcoholethanolEvaluation Test covers questions fromchapter for self-evaluation purpose.This is our attempt to provide thestudents with a practice test and helpthem assess their range of preparationof the chapter.Evaluation Test1.Which of the following cell the chemicalsconsumed during current generation CANNOT beregenerated?(A) Lead storage cell (B) Dry cell(C) Mercury cell(D) NICAD cellStraight or curly?SampleHair is primarily composedof keratin, a protein, whichgrows from a sac called thefollicle. Cells in the hairfollicle generate keratin, andvariousotherproteins,which become a part of thehair shaft. These proteinscontain sulfur atoms, andwhen two of these sulfuratoms pair up and bond, theyform a disulfide bond. If thetwo sulfur atoms in the sameprotein are at a distance,and join to form the disulfidebond, the protein will bend.The greater the number of links, the curlier the hair, and thefewer the number of links, the straighter the hair.Organic ReactionsOrganic Reactions – is a compilation ofquestions based on various organicchemistry concepts and reactions.This is our attempt to help the studentsdevelop a strong understanding oforganic chemistry.22.Real-world ons or examples related to theconcept discussed.This is our attempt to link learning to thelife and make students conscious of howChemistry is related to everything we see,feel, touch and taste.Predict the products in the following reactions.CO, HClHCHO‘C’ ‘B’ anhydrous AlCl3 ,conc. NaOHCuCl‘A’(A)(B)(C)(D)Benzoic acid, benzyl acohol, sodium formateBenzaldehyde, sodium benzoate, methanolBenzoic acid, sodium benzoate, methanolBenzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, sodium formate

CONTENTSChapter No.Chapter NamePage No.Solid State12Solutions3Ionic Equilibria4Chemical Thermodynamics5Electrochemistry6Chemical Kinetics7Elements of Groups 16, 17 and 181058Transition and Inner Transition Elements1249Coordination Compounds14010Halogen Derivatives11Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers18312Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids20913Amines23614Biomolecules25515Introduction to Polymer Chemistry27316Green Chemistry and Nanochemistry290Organic Reactions: Compilation of organic reaction based MCQs298ontent119375070159SampleC88DisclaimerThis reference book is transformative work based on XIIth std. textbook Chemistry; First edition: 2020 published by the Maharashtra State Bureau ofTextbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune. We the publishers are making this reference book which constitutes as fair use of textualcontents which are transformed by adding and elaborating, with a view to simplify the same to enable the students to understand, memorize andreproduce the same in examinations.This work is purely inspired upon the course work as prescribed by the Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune.Every care has been taken in the publication of this reference book by the Authors while creating the contents. The Authors and the Publishers shall not beresponsible for any loss or damages caused to any person on account of errors or omissions which might have crept in or disagreement of any third party onthe point of view expressed in the reference book. reserved with the Publisher for all the contents created by our Authors.No copyright is claimed in the textual contents which are presented as part of fair dealing with a view to provide best supplementary study material forthe benefit of students.

TextbookChapter No.02SolutionsSubtopicsContentAddition of salt to water decreasesthe total volume!!!!!2.1Introduction2.2Types of solutions2.3Capacity of solutions to dissolve solute2.4Solubility2.5Vapour pressure of solutions of liquidsin liquids2.6Colligative properties of nonelectrolytesolutions2.7Vapour pressure lowering2.8Boiling point elevation2.9Depression in freezing point2.10 Osmotic pressureQuick ReviewClassificationof mixtures:Classification of mixtures:m When salt is added to the water there is an increase in thevolume before the salt dissolves in it. However, as thedissolution occurs, there is a decrease in the total volume!This is due to the breaking of crystal structure of NaCl intothe free ions of Na and Cl . Moreover, the watermolecules bond to the free ions i.e., the negative oxygenends of water molecules surround the positive sodium ions(Na ) and the positive hydrogen ends surround thenegative chlorine ions. Salt ions (being smaller than thewater molecules) enter the voids between them and hence,cause shrinkage of the total volume.ple2.11 Colligative properties of electrolytes Chapter 02: SolutionsMixturesCombination of two or more substancesHeterogeneous mixtureSaHomogeneous mixtureUniform composition of componentsColloidUnsaturated solutionContains less amount of solutethan that can be dissolved insolvent at given temperature.Nonuniform composition of componentsBased on size of particlesTrue solutionSaturated solutionContains maximum (equilibrium)amount of solute that can bedissolved in solvent at giventemperature.Supersaturated solutionContains greater than theequilibrium amount of solute.19

MHT-CET Triumph Chemistry (MCQs)Types of solutions:State of soluteSolidSolidSolidLiquidLiquidLiquidGasGasGas State of olligative properties:Vapour pressureloweringEffect of addingnonvolatile soluteto solventEffect of addingnonvolatile soluteto solventeFreezing pointdepressionmplOsmoticpressure Effect of addingnonvolatile soluteto solventBoiling point of solution isgreater than that of pure solventFreezing point of solution is lessthan that of pure solventHigher the concentration of solution,greater is the osmotic pressureTypes of solution depending on the osmotic pressure of two solutions:Types of SolutionIsotonic(Iso means equal)SaNo.i.20Vapour pressure of solution isless than that of pure solventEffect of addingnonvolatile soluteto solventCColligativepropertiesBoiling pointelevationExamplesSea water, benzoic acid in benzene, sugar in waterMetal alloys such as brass, bronze.Iodine in airGasoline, ethanol in waterAmalgams of mercury with metals i.e., mercury in silverChloroform in nitrogenCarbonated water (CO2 in water), oxygen in water.H2 in palladiumAir (O2, N2, Ar and other gases)ontent ower)meansDefinitionTwo or more solutions having thesame osmotic pressure are said to beisotonic solutions.If two solutions have unequalosmoticpressures,themoreconcentrated solution with higherosmotic pressure is said to behypertonic solution.A solution having an osmoticpressure lower than that of anothersolutionowingtolowerconcentration of solute is calledhypotonic solution.Example0.1 M urea solution and 0.1 Msucrose solution are isotonic.If osmotic pressure of sucrosesolution is higher than that of ureasolution, the sucrose solution ishypertonic to urea solution.If osmotic pressure of sucrosesolution is higher than that of ureasolution, the urea solution ishypotonic to sucrose solution.

Chapter 02: Solutionsx2 Mole fraction of soluten1 Moles of solventn2 Moles of soluteFormulae2.Henry’s law:S KHPwhere, S solubility,P pressure of the gasKH Henry’s constantii.Raoult’s law:For a binary solution of two volatilecomponents:P1 P10 x1P2 P20 x2where,P10 is the vapour pressure of pure component 1and P1 is the partial vapour pressure ofcomponent 1 in solution.x1 is the mole fraction of component 1 insolution.P20 is the vapour pressure of pure component 2and P2 is the partial vapour pressure ofcomponent 2.x2 is the mole fraction of component 2 in solution.3.Dalton’s law of partial pressures:ORP P10 x1 P20 x2P P1 P2where, P is the total pressure of solution.Partial pressures in vapour phase:P1 y1PP2 y2Pwhere, y1 and y2 as the mole fractions of twocomponents in the vapour.P1 and P2 are the partial pressures of twocomponents in the vapour.P is the total vapour pressure.For a solution containing a non-volatilesolute:P1 P10 x1where, P1 is the vapour pressure of the solution,P10 is the vapour pressure of pure solvent andx1 is its mole fraction in solution.Sam5.ple4.6.i.iii.W2Wand n1 1M2M1where, W2 Mass of solute,W1 Mass of solvent,M2 Molar mass of solute,M1 Molar mass of solventRelative lowering of vapour pressure, P W MP10 P1 0 2 10P1W1M 2P18.i. P P10 P1 P10P10Molecular mass determination from loweringof vapour pressure:0 Pn2 x2 P1 0 P1 0P1P1n1 n 2where, P10 Vapour pressure of pure solventand P1 Vapour pressure of solutionElevation of boiling point: Tb Tb – Tb0where, Tb Elevation in boiling point,Tb Boiling point of solution andTb0 Boiling point of pure solvent.ii. Τb Kb mwhere, m Molality of solutionKb boiling point elevation constantiii.DTb iv.9.i.1000K b W2M 2 W1where, Tb Elevation in boiling point,Kb Molal elevation constant,W1 Mass of solvent,W2 Mass of solute,M2 Molar mass of soluteMolecular mass determination from elevationof boiling point:Molecular mass of solute,M2 1000 K b W2DTb W1Depression of freezing point: Tf Tf0 – Tfwhere, Tf Depression in freezing point,Tf Freezing point of solution andTf0 Freezing point of pure solvent.Relative lowering of vapour pressure:where, P10 vapour pressure of pure solvent andP1 vapour pressure of solution7.n2 Content1.ii. Τf Kf mwhere, m Molality of solutionKf Freezing point depression constantiii.DTf 1000K f W2M 2 W1where, Tf Depression in freezing point,Kf Molal depression constant,W2 Mass of solute,W1 Mass of solvent,M2 Molar mass of solute21

MHT-CET Triumph Chemistry (MCQs)Molecularmassdeterminationdepression of freezing point:Molecular mass of solute, M 2 10.11.from1000 K f W2DTf W1Molecular mass from osmotic pressure:W2 RTM 2VORM2 W2 RTπVvan’t Hoff factor (i):i Colligative property of electrolyte solutionColligative property of nonelectrolyte solutionof the same concentrationpleActual moles of particles in solutionafter dissociation Moles of formula units dissolved in solutionFormula mass of substance Observed molar mass of substanceM TheoreticalM Observedii. Tb iKbm iSa P i P10 x2 i1000K b W2M 2 W1 Tf iKf m iiv.π iMRT i14.Degree of dissociation (α):α In a solution, the larger proportion of thecomponent is known as .(A) solution(B) solute(C) solvent(D) mixed solutionTypes of solutions3.Depending on the physical states of solvents andsolutes, there are types of solutions.(A) five(B) seven(C) nine(D) twelve4.Sugar dissolved in water is a type ofsolution.(A) solid in solid(B) solid in gas(C) solid in liquid(D) gas in solid5.An alloy is a homogeneous mixture oftype of solution.(A) solid in solid(B) solid in gas(C) solid in liquid(D) gas in solid6.W2 RTM 2Vi 1n 1where, α Degree of dissociation,i van’t Hoff factor,n Moles of ions obtained fromdissociation of 1 mole of electrolyteAn example for solid in solid solution is.(A) bronze(B) iodine in air(C) H2 in palladium (D) gasoline2.37.Capacity of solutions to dissolve soluteIf we continue the addition of solute in a givenamount of solvent, the dissolution stops aftersome time. The solution at this point is said tobe .(A) supersaturated(B) saturated(C) unsaturated(D) none of these2.4Solubility8.Solubility is expressed in the concentrationunit(s) of .(B) mol g–1(A) mol L–1(C) mole fraction(D) mol kg–19.Solubility of which of the following changesonly slightly with temperature?(A) NaBr(B) KNO3(C) KBr(D) NaNO310.The solubility of a gas in water increases with.(A) increase in temperature(B) reduction in gas pressure(C) decrease in temperature(D) a

clarity on the syllabus for MHT-CET 2021 till the time when this book was going to be printed and taking the fact into consideration that the entire syllabus for std. XIIth Science has always been an integral part of MHT-CET syllabus, this book includes all the topics of std. XIIth Chemistry. -