Archaeological Building Recording And Watching Brief .

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Archaeological Research & Consultancy at the University of SheffieldGraduate School of ArchaeologyWest Court2 Mappin StreetSheffield S1 4DT Phone 0114 2225106 Fax 0114 2797158Project Report 873b.3(1)Archaeological Building Recordingand Watching Brief: Manor Oaks Farm, ManorLane, Sheffield, South YorkshireVolume 1: Text and IllustrationsJuly 2007By Mark Douglas and Oliver JessopPrepared For:GREEN ESTATES LTD.Manor Lodge115 Manor LaneSheffieldS2 1UH

Manor Oaks Farm, Manor Lane, Sheffield, South YorkshireNational Grid Reference: SK 3763 8685Archaeological Building Recording andWatching BriefReport 873b.3(1) ARCUS 2007Fieldwork SurveyReportingSteve Baker, Lucy Dawson, Mark Douglas, SteveDuckworth, Tegwen Roberts, Alex Rose-Deacon, OliverJessop and Simon JessopMark Douglas, Oliver Jessop and Mark StentonIllustrationsArchiveKathy SpeightLucy DawsonChecked by:Passed for submission to client:Date:Date:Oliver Jessop MIFAAnna BadcockProject ManagerAssistant DirectorArchaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007i

CONTENTSNON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY. VI1INTRODUCTION.72AIMS AND METHODOLOGY.734562.1Aims . 72.2Location of Site and General Layout . 72.3Fieldwork Programme. 82.4Photographic Survey . 82.5Survey Archive. 8HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.83.1Historical Summary . 83.2Medieval Period. 93.3Post-medieval Period . 9THE STANDING BUILDINGS.114.1Summary. 114.2Summary of Standing Structures . 12MANOR OAKS HOUSE .135.1Introduction . 135.2The exterior . 135.3The interior . 145.4The cellars. 145.5The ground floor . 155.6The first floor . 185.7The attics. 195.8Watching brief. 205.9Phased Development of the house . 215.10Discussion . 22THE ANCILLARY BUILDINGS.236.1Introduction . 236.2Building 2. 236.3Building 3. 236.4Building 4. 236.5Building 5. 236.6Building 6. 24Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007ii

7896.7Building 7. 246.8Building 8. 246.9The exterior . 246.10The interior . 266.11Building 9. 276.12The interior . 276.13Building 10 . 286.14Building 11 . 286.15Building 12 . 296.16Building 13 . 296.17Building 14 . 296.18Building 15 . 296.19Building 16 . 29THE FARM COMPLEX AND ITS LANDSCAPE SETTING .297.1Introduction . 297.2The ha-ha wall . 307.3The walled gardens . 307.4The central lane. 317.5The rear yard wall . 317.6The wider landscape . 317.7The soft landscaping. 327.8Discussion . 32ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF .328.1Introduction . 328.2Summary of areas investigated during watching brief . 328.3Area Descriptions . 338.4Service Trenches. 358.5Trench descriptions . 36POTTERY REPORT .379.1Introduction . 379.2Pottery description . 37Bibliography. 389.310Pottery Discussion. 40DISCUSSION .40Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007iii

10.1Significance of the Buildings . 4010.2Subsurface Archaeology . Y AND SOURCES.4115ILLUSTRATIONS.43APPENDIX 1: CONTEXT DESCRIPTIONS.44Context Inventory.44Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007iv

Illustrations1Site location map2Site plan location plan3Site plan with general phasing and allocated building numbers4Ordnance Survey maps5Building 1: north-east elevation6Building 1: cellar floor plan7Building 1: ground floor plan8Building 1: first floor plan9Building 1: attic floor plan10Building 1: section A-A111Building 1: section B-B112Building 1: section C-C113Building 1: section D-D114Building 1: section E-E115Building 1: F5 window detail16Building 1: joinery and plaster moulding profiles17Building 1: joinery moulding profiles-skirting18Building 1: joinery moulding profiles-Baluster spindle19Building 8: north-east elevation20Building 8: south-east elevation21Building 8: south-west elevation22Building 8: north-west elevation23Building 8: section A-A124Building 8: floor plans25Site with features observed during watching briefArchaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007v

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARYARCUS were commissioned by Green Estates Ltd in January 2005 to undertake aprogramme of archaeological building recording and monitoring at the site of ManorOaks Farm, Manor Lane, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (SK 3763 8685).The archive and documentary research suggests that the farm was probably laid outin the early part of the eighteenth century. This coincides with the gradual break upof the Duke of Norfolks’ deer park surrounding Manor Lodge. The once openlandscape which provided for hunting pursuits was gradually enclosed to form fieldsthat were leased out to a series of tenant farms.The layout of Manor Oaks Farm is clearly defined, with the agricultural elementsconcentrated to the south of a central lane; and the house and its ancillary structuresand yards to the north. The house was sited to provide commanding views over theDon Valley and the developing town of Sheffield.Cartographic evidence shows that at the rear of the house was a service yard withranges of buildings utilised as stables, dairy, bake-house, smithy, cart sheds andcottages. Beyond this was a second, yard that may have acted as an area for themanagement of livestock. A raised bank beyond was formerly planted with two rowsof trees. This feature would have shielded the farm from the view of Manor Lodgewhich is situated further up the hill to the south.The formal frontage of the house towards the north was accessed via a gated drivethat ran along the top of a prominent curving ha-ha. There appears to have beenspecific areas devoted to gardening on both sides of this part of the house.Between the house and Manor Lane a rectangular kitchen garden and orchard hasbeen identified. This had stone outer walls, with an internal brick skin typical forwalled gardens of this date. As a result of its recent use as a scrap yard no evidencefor earlier layouts was recorded, although the demolition of a modern shed hasexposed a spine wall with evidence of a former glasshouse and potting shed.Throughout its historical development six main phases of structural developmenthave been identified. Evidence revealed during the restoration of the house suggeststhat the earliest date for the structure is probably the early eighteenth century. It isinteresting to note that over the time that the house developed and expanded in sizeits visual appearance was enhanced to create a longer west façade by the addition ofa blind wall.The archaeological watching brief conducted during the groundworks anddemolition phase of the restoration revealed evidence for the nature of the earlierstructures on the site. The pottery assemblage from these trenches dates from theeighteenth to the twentieth century.Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 2007vi

1INTRODUCTIONIn January 2005 ARCUS were commissioned by Green Estates Ltd to undertake aprogramme of archaeological research and fieldwork at the site of Manor Oaks Farm,Manor Lane Sheffield. Manor Oaks Farm comprises a number of derelict and semiderelict buildings situated within a series of walled yards. The works undertaken atManor Oaks Farm have involved; the restoration of Manor Oaks House and itconversion to office accommodation, the demolition of a number of derelict buildingsto the rear of the house, new build and a scheme of soft landscaping.The site and the buildings within it are deemed to be of historical and archaeologicalsignificance; a conservation statement produced by Field Archaeology Specialists(Clark, J. and Jack, S. 2002) highlighted the site of the farm as a potentially importantpart of the former Sheffield Manor Lodge estate. Resulting from this South YorkshireArchaeology Service (SYAS) issued a brief specifying a programme of thearchaeological recording required for the site (Appendix I).This document presents the results of the scheme of documentary research andarchaeological fieldwork carried out by ARCUS. The work undertaken included: a watching brief on geotechnical testpits excavated in the rear yard archive research and map regression analysis archaeological building recording of a stone built barn the rapid survey and assessment of outbuildings and boundary walls watching brief during the reduction of ground levels in the rear yard detailed building recording of Manor Oaks House a watching brief carried out during the restoration and partial demolition ofthe house a watching brief on the excavation of service trenches across the siteThe fieldwork, background research and reporting was undertaken between Januaryand December 2005 by; Oliver Jessop (ARCUS Project manager), Mark Douglas(ARCUS Project Officer), Tegwen Roberts, Lucy Dawson, Alex Rose-Deacon, SteveDuckworth, Ben Chan, Steve Baker (ARCUS Archaeologists) and Simon Jessop(ARCUS Photographer). Reporting is by Mark Douglas and Oliver Jessop, with MarkStenton undertaking the historical research and illustrations by Kathy Spieght.2AIMS AND METHODOLOGY2.1AimsThe aim of the archaeological recording was to create a permanent written, drawnand photographic record of the historic buildings on the site. The recordingmethodology adopted during this survey has been in accordance with guidelinesdescribed in Understanding Historic Buildings: A Guide to Good Recording Practice(English Heritage 2006).2.2Location of Site and General LayoutThe site is located to the south-east of the centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire NGR:SK 2363 8685 (Illustration 1). A central lane divides the site into two areas, with thehouse and associated yards to the north and ancillary buildings (surveyed) andformer farmyard (not surveyed) to the south (Illustration 2).Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks, Sheffield –ARCUS Report 873b.3(1) - July 20077

The site is situated on a prominent position (approx. 145m AOD) overlooking theLower Don Valley and the city of Sheffield to the north-west, while to the south theground rises up towards the site of Manor Lodge. The site can be separated into thefollowing distinct zones, or areas:2.3 Rear yard (southern part of site) – this irregular shaped yard has direct accessinto the central lane and also to the fields to the east of the house; it is tentativelyinterpreted as a fold yard Service yard (central part of site) – this area comprised the buildings allocatedto provide the domestic service functions of the house; including the brewhouse, bake-house, dairy, stores, barn, smithy and stables Entrance Drive/Formal Garden (east of house) – remains of entrance driveleading up to the house and formal gardens providing views over surroundinglandscape Walled Garden (between house and manor lane) – brick and stone walledrectangular walled garden with central spine wall. Remains of well andglasshouse to the north Central Lane (orientated west-east) – narrow lane defined by stone boundarywalls accessed from manor lane to the east, permitted access to all parts of site Farmyard (to the south of the central lane) – this area is beyond the scope ofthis study, however it is a large enclosed area with remnants of internalstructures in the form of barns and cart sheds Manor Oaks House – this a two storey double pile structure with associatedattic and cellarsFieldwork ProgrammeSite fieldwork was undertaken during the restoration of the house and landscape,between December 2005 and April 2006.2.4Photographic SurveyThe photographic record comprised a series of general and detailed shots coveringall areas of the site. The record includes medium format, 35mm black and white andcolour slide photography. A full list of the photographs taken is included in volume 2of this report, along with a plan indicating the position of photographic viewpoints.2.5Survey ArchiveThe site archive containing a fully indexed field archive of primary wri

Archaeological Research & Consultancy at the University of Sheffield Graduate School of Archaeology West Court 2 Mappin Street Sheffield S1 4DT Phone 0114 2225106 Fax 0114 2797158 Project Report 873b.3(1) Archaeological Building Recording and Watching Brief: Manor Oaks Farm, Manor Lane, Sheffield, South Yorkshire Volume 1: Text and Illustrations July 2007 By Mark Douglas and Oliver Jessop .

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