Archaeological Evaluation Of The Upper Loading Bay, Castle .

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Archaeological Research & Consultancy at the University of SheffieldResearch School of ArchaeologyWest Court2 Mappin StreetSheffield S1 4DT Phone 0114 2225106 Fax 0114 2797158Project Report 413h.1Archaeological Evaluation ofthe Upper Loading Bay,Castle Market,SheffieldApril 2002By Glyn Davies and James SymondsWith Contributions by Chris Cumberpatch, Jennie Stopford,Hugh Willmott, Sean Bell and Alison CoxPrepared For:Sheffield City CouncilHowden House, 1 Union Street, Sheffield, S1 2SH

CONTENTSNon-technical Summary .ivIllustrations .vPlates .viTables . vii1INTRODUCTION.11.12.S ITE L O C A T I O N , T O P O G R A P H YANDG E O L O G Y .1HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND .12.1D E S K B A S E D A S S E S S M E N T .12.2FI E L D E V A L U A T I O N2.3P R E V I O U S L Y I D E N T I F I E D C A S T L E R E M A I N S .3OF THEL O W E R L O A D I N G B A Y .22.3.1The castle gateway .32.3.2Courtyard building in the north east corner .42.3.3Walling in the south west corner.42.3.4Walling on the precipice .42.3.5The courtyard .52.3.6The Saxon building .52.3.7The moat .53PROJECT AIMS .64METHODOLOGY .64.1M A C H I N E-A S S I S T E D T R I A L T R E N C H I N G .64.2F I N D S C O L L E C T I O N P O L I C Y .74.3R E C O R D I N G .74.4MO N I T O R I N G4.5TR E N C H5OFF I E L D E V A L U A T I O N W O R K .8LOCATION ANDR A T I O N A L .8RESULTS .85.1P H A S I N G .85.2T R E N C H 1 .95.3T R E N C H 2 .116MATERIAL CULTURE .137DISCUSSION.147.1SH E F F I E L D CA S T L E7.2TH E8L A Y O U T .14REGIONAL CONTEXT OFS H E F F I E L D C A S T L E .16INTERPRETATION .188.1S I G N I F I C A N C E .188.1.1Trench 1 .188.1.2Trench 2 .19A R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationii

8.2P O T E N T I A L .198.2.1Lower loading bay .198.2.2Upper loading bay .208.2.31930s Market Hall .218.2.4Castle Market 1950s building .218.2.5Additions along Waingate .228.3CONCLUSIONSANDR E C O M M E N D A T I O N S .22APPENDICES.24A P P E N D I X 1 – LI S TOFC O N T E X T S .25A P P E N D I X 2 – M A T R I X E S .28AP P E N D I X 3 – M E D I E V A LA N D L A T E R P O T T E R Y .30A P P E N D I X 4 – C E R A M I C T I L E .36A P P E N D I X 5 – B R I C K .39A P P E N D I X 6 –G L A S S .40A P P E N D I X 7 – C L A Y P I P E S .42A P P E N D I X 8 – I R O N O B J E C T S .43A P P E N D I X 9 - F A U N A L R E P O R T .44A P P E N D I X 10 – A S S E S S M E N TOFP A L E O E N V I R O N M E N T A L P O T E N T I A L .46A P P E N D I X 11 - H A R R I S O N S S U R V E Y 1637 .48A P P E N D I X 12 - BI B L I O G R A P H Y .50ILLUSTRATIONS .52PLATES .53A R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationiii

Non-technical edtrenchesproducedrevelopment of the Castle ed the remains of two buildings which stood on the north side of the castle ntqualityandhighwindow furtherourknowledge of Sheffield Castle and the medieval origins of the City of Sheffield.Checked by Project OfficerGlyn DaviesSenior Archaeological OfficerPassed for submission to ClientDateJames SymondsDateExecutive DirectorA R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationiv

IllustrationsIllustration 1Site Location MapIllustration archaeological remainsIllustration 3Trench 1 phase 2.1Illustration 4Trench 1 phase 2.2Illustration 5Trench 1 phase 2.3Illustration 6Trench 1 phase 3Illustration 7Trench 1 phase 4Illustration 8Trench 1 location of sectionsIllustration 9Trench 1 north facing sectionIllustration 10Trench 1 east facing sectionIllustration 11Trench 1 south facing elevation of doorway wall 1012Illustration 12Trench 1 profile across buttressIllustration 13Trench 1 section through buttressIllustration 14Trench 2 planIllustration 15Trench 2 location of sectionsIllustration 16Trench 2 east facing elevation of wall 2007Illustration 17Trench 2 east facing elevation of 2017Illustration 18Trench 2 west facing elevation of 2017Illustration 19Trench 2 north facing elevation of 2003Illustration 20Trench 2 east facing elevation of 2003Illustration 21Trench 2 north facing sectionIllustration 22Trench 2 north facing sectionA R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationv

PlatesPlate aTrench 1, wall [1012]Plate bTrench 1, chamfered surround to doorwayPlate cTrench 1, plaster on the side of the doorwayPlate dTrench 1, robbed out stepsPlate eTrench 1, buttress with former surface levelPlate fTrench 1, cobbled surfacePlate gTrench 2, pit 2015Plate hTrench 2, wall 2007 with roof tile fragmentPlate ITrench 2, structure 2017 rising in rough stepsPlate jTrench 2, flag stones on top of 2003A R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationvi

TablesTable 1Phasing of upper loading bay trenchesTable 2Counts for find categories by TrenchTable 3List of ContextsTable 4Pottery from excavations at Sheffield CastleTable 5Catalogue of brickTable 6Catalogue of window glassTable 7Catalogue of clay pipesTable 8Catalogue of iron objectsTable 9Summary of bone fragments recoveredTable 10Catalogue of oyster shellsA R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluationvii

chnical investigations on the River Sheaf Culvert (Davies and Wagner 2000).1.1Site Location, Topography and GeologyCastle Markets are located to the north east of the city centre (OS NGR SK 358 877)(IllustrationWaingate,1). The site is bounded to the north by Castlegate and to the west sBridge.Thesouthern boundary of the site is marked by Exchange Street and on the east side bythe offices of the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive lkstoneeroded(BritishGeological Survey, Sheet 100).2.HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND2.1Desk Based yarchaeologicalthesitefromA R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay n1998a)theCastleofSheffieldprovidesMarketsCastle1

is‘motte-and-crenellatedstonecastle by Thomas de Furnival in 1270. The Castle was modified during the d been ivebeenatSheffieldconsultedtoCityexaminethe records of Armstrong's, Himsworth's and Butcher's work on the Castle.2.2Field Evaluation of the Lower Loading etheofthewasofWagnertheCastleCastleinthelower loading bay (Davies 2000) (Illustration termineddefences.theThishasidentified a total of seven phases. All the contexts in the first three phases relate elativelyphases.potteryA R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay dasfrombeingSheffieldto2

receive detailed topped at least 1m short of the base of the moat, and it is possible that preservationof organic remains may be better lower ostsurface.destructionTheofcobbledthesurfacehad burning associated with it, and may have been evidence for small scale reconstruction of the present market buildings.2.3Previously Identified Castle k.Theseoverlooked the 'precipice', but there are no plans showing their location.2.3.1 The castle gatewaypier(Illustration 2). The moat sides were 20/312). At present only a small section of the gateway is accessible. The utcher(1970)suggeststhatmuch of it still survives.A R C U S 4 1 3 h – Sheffield Markets, Upper Loading Bay Evaluation3

2.3.2 Courtyard building in the north east ructedofandrubbleAtkinson,andashlarmasonry. This is listed as 784-1/20/313.2.3.3 Walling in the south west nstructionoflatewalls.themarketsfloor it is listed 784-1/20/314.2.3.4 Walling on the flocation.theupperloading bay. Himsworth also noted uggestoverlookingtheDon, about 10 to 12 feet wide." (Himsworth stthatlost)uptakenbyHimsworthuntil the 1930s thisarea contained substantial deposits and structures relat

Archaeological Research & Consultancy at the University of Sheffield Research School of Archaeology West Court 2 Mappin Street Sheffield S1 4DT Phone 0114 2225106 Fax 0114 2797158 Project Report 413h.1 Archaeological Evaluation of the Upper Loading Bay, Castle Market, Sheffield April 2002 By Glyn Davies and James Symonds With Contributions by Chris Cumberpatch, Jennie Stopford, Hugh Willmott .

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