Imagining And Illustrating The Archaeological Record .

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Imagining and illustrating the archaeological recordGheorghiu Dragos and Jones GeorginaThroughout the last decade, the concept of archaeological imagination started timidly to appear in thearchaeological literature (see Shanks 2012); in experimental archaeology it was earlier accepted, butcovertly, as re-enactment.In current archaeology the definition of ‘illustration’ has expanded to include multimedia approachesstretching from graphic design layouts to three-dimensional computer modelling. Illustration hasbecome an influential tool used to increase the imagination of anyone who is interested in the subject.This paper will show the results of the work of an experimentalist and of an illustrator, focused on theproblem of archaeological imagination.In the present paper we will present a study case of a research project that tries to offer a solution tothe problem of imagination, by trying to mix the two current approaches mentioned, or in other words,to mix science with art. In recent years we witnessed the discovery of art as a potential source ofinspiration and refinement of the hermeneutical discourse. Due to its possibility to use symbolicthinking, art could become a tool to approach the reality of the Past, functioning on the principle ofanalogy like experimental archaeology or ethno-archaeology, this new approach being recentlyaccepted in archaeological professional meeting, to cite the last EAA Annual Meeting 2013, and thepresent TAG conference.The research project mentioned (“The Maps of Time” PN2 Idei;, DirectorD.Gheorghiu) which intends to mix science and art, is at the same time a project of experiments andexperientiality, which studies prehistoric and ancient technologies from both these perspectives inorder to expand first the imagination of the experimentalists and then of the large public. Since webelieve that the sensorial experience as well as images could act as an efficient instrument toaugment the imaginary of the individual, we designed a mixed approach which will be presented fromboth the objective/ethic and subjective/emic perspectives, i.e. from the perspective of theexperimentalist and of the actor-illustrator (figure 1), and where the different types of experientiality ofthe actor (in virtual and real space) were firstly recorded and presented to the public, and alsotransferred in images/illustrations by the actor illustrator, and complementing the scientific research.

Figure 1.The main study-case we present is Woodhenge, an icon of British archaeology, whose reconstructionstill creates debates. Our goal was use only that part of the reconstruction that is considered to be“objective” (i.e. the existence of wooden posts), and to augment it with the experientiality of the actorand illustrator. The first experiments started in August 2012 in Vadastra, a Chalcolithic site in SouthRomania, where a series of important experiments of archaeology and of art-chaeology were carriedduring the last decade (see Gheorghiu 2009a,b,c; 2012). To evoke a fragment of Woodhenge aseries of wooden posts were planted on a field, and the actor-illustrator dressed in a neutral costume(but with the materials’ textures emphasized) carried a series of experiments of coil-building vasesnear this reconstruction (figure 2).

Figure 2All the architectural features of the Woodhenge reconstruction in reality and in 3D Max were built anddrawn very simplified, with all details excluded, to evoke only the built space and the spatial sensationof a passage through a space marked by the wooden posts (figure 3).Figure 3

The purpose of the experiment was not the search of the archaeological realism, but to suggest ahuman spatial experience that could have happened in the past, to recover possible gestures andexperientiality. In this case the actor exploited the potential of the corporal memory, which functionssimilar to the mental processes (Csordas 1999; Hamilakis et al. 2001), to approach prehistorictechnologies and objects.The actor was filmed in darkness, illuminated only by a single source of light, a bonfire lit near one ofthe wooden posts, to reduce the degree of representation and stimulate the imagination of the viewer.Finally all the visual material (3D reconstructions, video films and photos) was given to the illustrator,who saw her performance and was immersed in the virtual space as well as in the filmic one.The result of this mix up between the experientiality of a virtual experience with her own in reality wasthe ferment for her to imagine a part of the prehistoric site.The actor-illustrator Georgina Jones utilized a second series of experiments to convey the subjectiveexperience of making a Neolithic-style coil-pot to the audience. The resultant practice expressivelyillustrated the exercise as internal cognizance from memory. This was recorded through expressiveand diagrammatic illustrations as well as through the use of photography.Relying on pen and ink, which is the conventional medium used for archaeological illustration (Dillon,B. 1987), the artist was able to use semiotic principles to turn traditional scientific illustrations intoallegories of the subjective experience (figure 4).Figure 4Illustrations have been used to draw the viewers’ attention to the skill of making and the focal pointsof the fledgling craftsman’s concentration (figures 5 and 6). Illustrations and photography also recordthe environment in which the object is made (figure 7). Tracing paper was used to manipulate thespatial sensation of the book allowing the readers to look through a series of images and across thebreath of the pages. The book thereby introduces ideas of multi-dimensional visual narrative.

Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

The resultant book presents the ancient artifact as a subjectively realized process. The aim of thebook is not to present facts about the Neolithic pot; instead it presents the pot as an event and as apersonal experience. Artistic imagination explores the potential of an artifact as well as the methodsand modes by which archaeologists can present ideas to their audience.ConclusionsIn conclusion artists are now practicing in the ‘post-movement’ era of their discipline, whichencourages bold personal explorations of the ontology of modern society. The appropriation ofarchaeological principles into the artistic discipline adds to the potential interest and invigoration ofarchaeology in modern culture. The resultant discussions between the two disciplines, ifarchaeologists present art carefully as a source of inspiration as opposed to fact, can lead to new andinspiring imaginings of the past.AcknowledgementsThe authors express their gratitude to arch. Andra Jipa and Inga Bunduche (National University ofArts, Bucharest) for the 3D reconstructions. Films by Adrian Serbanescu; photos by D.Gheorghiu.The project “The Maps of Time” was funded by the PN II IDEI exploratory research grant 2011-2014.BibliographyDillon, B. D. ed.1987- The Students Guide to Archaeological illustrating. Second Revised Edition. ArchaeologicalResearch Tools Volume 1. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.CSORDAS, T.1999 - Embodiment and cultural phenomenology. In Weiss, G. and Haber, H. (eds.), Perspectives onembodiment, Routledge, New York: 143-162.GHEORGHIU, D.2009a - Experimenting with prehistoric spaces (Performance, experience, evocation), TheArchaeology of People and Territoriality. In Nash, G. and Gheorghiu, D. (eds.), The Archaeology ofPeople and Territoriality, Archaeolingua, Budapest: 343-371.2009b - A study of art-chaeology, Archeologia Africana – Saggi occasionali 2005-2009, 11-15: 45-50.2009c - De l’objet à l’espace: une expérience art-chéologique de la préhistoire, Etudes Balkaniques(Cahiers Pierre Belon 15): 211-224.2012 - Metaphors and allegories as augmented reality. The use of art to evoke material andimmaterial objects. In Back-Danielsson, I-M. and Fahlander, F., Encountering imagery. Materialities,perceptions, relations, Stockholm Studies in Archaeology 57, Stockholm: 177-186.HAMILAKIS, Y., PLUCIENNIK, M. E TARLOW, S.2001 - Thinking through the body: archaeologies of corporeality, Kluwer Academic Press, London.SHANKS, M.2012 - The Archaeological imagination, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.List of illustrationsFigure 1Author’s Own

2011-2013 Director D.Gheorghiu, The Maps of Time, PN2 Idei; www.timemaps.netFigure 2Author’s Own2011-2013 Director D.Gheorghiu, The Maps of Time, PN2 Idei; www.timemaps.netFigure 3Andra Jipa and Inga Bunduche2013 Director D.Gheorghiu, The Maps of Time, PN2 Idei; www.timemaps.netFigure 4Author’s Own2012- Jones, G. Vadastra. Unpublished. Masters Degree (Ma). Arts University BournemouthFigure 5Author’s Own2012- Jones, G. Vadastra. Unpublished. Masters Degree (Ma). Arts University BournemouthFigure 6Author’s Own2012- Jones, G. Vadastra. Unpublished. Masters Degree (Ma). Arts University BournemouthFigure 7Author’s Own2012- Jones, G. Vadastra. Unpublished. Masters Degree (Ma). Arts University Bournemouth

Relying on pen and ink, which is the conventional medium used for archaeological illustration (Dillon, B. 1987), the artist was able to use semiotic principles to turn traditional scientific illustrations into allegories of the subjective experience (figure 4). Figure 4 Illustrations have been used to draw the viewers’ attention to the skill of making and the focal points of the fledgling .

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