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Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationExcavationFieldwork in archaeology has been transformed over the past three decades.Drawing on a wealth of experience in excavating some of the most complex, deeplystratified sites in Britain, Steve Roskams describes the changes that have taken placein the theory and practice of excavation. He then provides a clear account of contemporary techniques, covering pre-excavation reconnaissance and site evaluation,the preparations for full excavation, the actual process of excavation, and therecording of photographic, spatial, stratigraphic and physical evidence. A finalchapter discusses the future of excavation. This manual will be welcomed by the professional excavator, the academic researcher, students and the interested amateur.STEVE ROSKAMS is Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of York. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationCAMBRIDGE MANUALS IN ARCHAEOLOGYSeries editorsDon Brothwell, University of YorkGraeme Barker, University of LeicesterDena Dincauze, University of Massachusetts, AmherstPriscilla Renouf, Memorial University of NewfoundlandCambridge Manuals in Archaeology is a series of reference handbooks designed foran international audience of upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, andprofessional archaeologists and archaeological scientists in universities, museums,research laboratories and field units. Each book includes a survey of currentarchaeological practice alongside essential reference material on contemporarytechniques and methodology.Already publishedJ. D. Richards a n d N . S. Ryan, DATA PROCESSING I N ARCHAEOLOGYSimon Hillson, TEETHAlwyne Wheeler and Andrew K. G Jones, FISHESLesley Adkins and Roy Adkins, ARCHAEOLOGICAL ILLUSTRATIONMarie-Agnes Courty, Paul Goldberg and Richard MacPhail, SOILS ANDMICROMORPHOLOGY IN ARCHAEOLOGYClive Orton, Paul Tyers and Alan Vince, POTTERY IN ARCHAEOLOGYR. Lee Lyman, VERTEBRATETAPHONOMYPeter G Dorrell, P H O T O G R A P H Y IN ARCHAEOLOGY AND CONSERVATION(2ND EDN)A. G. Brown, ALLUVIALGEOARCHAEOLOGYCheryl Claassen, SHELLSWilliam Andrefsky Jr, LITHICSElizabeth J. Reitz and Elizabeth S. Wing, ZOOARCHAEOLOGYClive Orton, SAMPLING I N ARCHAEOLOGY in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationEXCAVATIONSteve Roskams fflCAMBRIDGE*"UNIVERSITY PRESS in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico CityCambridge University PressT h e Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, U KPublished in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521355346 Cambridge University Press 2001This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the writtenpermission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2001Fifth printing 2007A catalogue record for this publicationis available from the BritishLibraryISBN 978-0-521-35534-6 HardbackISBN 978-0-521-79801-3 PaperbackCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence oraccuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to inthis publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is,or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, traveltimetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct atthe time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guaranteethe accuracy of such information thereafter. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationThis book is dedicated to the memory of my Mum.My world is a much lesser place since her death, and no longerwhat it once seemed to be. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore information in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationCONTENTSList of platesList ofAcknowledgementsfiguresIntroduction1page xxiixv1History of the development of techniques1.1 The role of dynamic individualism1.2 Ideological factors1.3 Technical factors1.4 Organisational factors1.5 The professionalisation of fieldwork and itsimplications7101519212Excavation in theory2.1 A critique of total excavation2.2 Problem orientation2.3 The need for interdisciplinary research2.4 Conclusions30313536393Pre-excavation strategies3.1 Aerial photography3.2 Field-walking/pedestrian survey3.3 Shovel test pits/divoting3.4 Documentary material3.5 Previous excavations3.6 Ground-based remote sensing3.7 Chemical mapping3.8 Coring and augering3.9 Evaluation trenches3.10 Conclusions40434648505051545758604Excavation in practice: background preparations4.1 Finance and administration4.2 Staff and support facilities63656823vn in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationviiiContents4.3 General site safety4.4 Special safety situations82895Excavation in practice: preparations on site5.1 Site clearance5.2 Setting out a site grid5.3 Spoil removal5.4 Shoring5.5 De-watering5.6 Finds retrieval9393951011041051076A structured approach to recording6.1 The limits of a stratigraphic unit6.2 Numbering systems6.3 The process of recording6.4 A recording sheet1101101121141177The photographic record7.1 Reasons to photograph7.2 Preparations and techniques7.3 Specialist uses1191201261288The spatial record8.1 Techniques, equipment and drawing conventions8.2 Types of plan8.3 Techniques of measurement8.4 Types of section8.5 Preparation techniques8.6 Measuring-in or piece-plottingfinds1331341371411431471509The stratigraphic record9.1 Types of stratigraphic relationship9.2 Representing stratigraphic relationships9.3 Calculating stratigraphic relationships15315315616010 Deposit descriptions10.1 Who records and when?10.2 Computer storage of record10.3 Deposit descriptions in relation to sedimentologyand pedology10.4 Deposit colour10.5 Soil particle size10.6 Compaction or consistency of deposits in this web service Cambridge University Press169170171173175177178www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationContentsIX10.7 Inclusions within deposits10.8 Thickness and surface characteristics18018111 Non-deposit descriptions11.1 Masonry and brick features11.2 Timbers11.3 Inhumations11.4 Cuts11.5 Finds groups12 Excavating the stratigraphic unit12.1 Sampling strategies for12.2 Methods of collection12.3 Trowelling methods12.4 Making stratigraphic distinctions12.5 Completing the record12.6 Checking the 13 Stratigraphic analysis13.1 Tidying up the record13.2 The role of on-site interpretation in stratigraphicanalysis13.3 Correlating between units versus linking successiveunits13.4 Stratigraphic nodes and critical paths13.5 Employing stratigraphic diagrams in analysis13.6 Grouping stratigraphy13.7 Presenting stratigraphic interpretationsdiagrammatically23924114 Future prospects14.1 Ideological factors14.2 Technical factors14.3 Organisational factors267267270287BibliographyIndex in this web service Cambridge University Press244246253255257261291308www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationPLATES12345678910111213141516Drawing by William Roy of the plan of the Roman campat Kirkboddopage 11Wheeler's excavations at Maiden Castle (Society ofAntiquaries)14Scale-drawings, in water colour, by architectural artist HenryHodge (Guildhall Library, London)20Professional site staff celebrating the end of anotherexcavation (Museum of London)26Differential visibility, and perhaps survival, of archaeologicalfeatures at Holbeach in Lincolnshire owing to diversefarming regimes (Rog Palmer)45RADAR equipment being used to investigate the peripheryof a Roman fort at Lambaesis, Algeria53The removal of a cellar wall allows the extant stratigraphybehind it to be exposed, cleaned and drawn (Martin Carver)59A professional workforce is expected to work all year round,not just in a summer season (Museum of London)70A viewing platform, built with the help of commercialsponsorship (Museum of London)71A rudimentary tank, erected on site, for short-termpreservation of water-logged timbers (Museum of London,Conservation Dept)77A typical scene on a complex urban project (Museum ofLondon Archaeological Services)83Working inside a tunnel in the City of London (Museum ofLondon)91The crypt of Christ Church, Spitalfields, before formalexcavation began (Christ Church, Spitalfields ArchaeologicalProject)92Breaking out concrete in the crowded conditions of a typicalurban excavation (Museum of London)95The use of a micro-excavator and conveyor belt to removesoil from extensive excavations (York Archaeological Trust)103The sides of both large and small excavation areas revettedusing sheet piles (York Archaeological Trust/Museum ofLondon respectively)106x in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationList of platesXI17 A concrete mixer being used to separate soil from the morerobust finds (York Archaeological Trust)10918 Articulated bones of small vertebrates found in associationwith a human burial (Don Brothwell) and cod vertebraefrom a medieval midden (James Barrett)12119 A medieval hearth, cleaned to a very high standard (YorkArchaeological Trust)12320 The relationships between horizontal stratigraphy andstructural divisions (York Archaeological Trust)124-521 The bones of a foetus and mother from the medievalcemetery of St Nicholas Shambles, London (Museum ofLondon)12722 Photographic recording taking place in a tunnel (Museumof London)12923 A medieval skeleton, with year code and skeleton number,direction of view, and coffin nail positions marked for futurereference (York Archaeological Trust)13124 The use of an EDM to record the co-ordinates of individualfinds (Heslerton Parish Project)13525 Section of stratigraphy showing below the sheet piling of anexcavation (York Archaeological Trust)14526 Excavations at Winchester in the late 1960s (WinchesterExcavations Committee)16227 Cleaning and recording a Roman wall in York (YorkArchaeological Trust)19128 Assembly marks on timbers from a medieval waterfront inLondon (Museum of London)19629 Detailed recording of the positions of the bones of a skeleton(York Archaeological Trust)20330 Two burials with a later intrusion cutting away their lowerbodies (York Archaeological Trust)20531 Excavation of a 'sandman' at Sutton Hoo (Sutton HooResearch Trust)20832 Spit excavation of a pit fill at West Heslerton, NorthYorkshire (Heslerton Parish Project)21533 Wet sieving on site (Museum of London ArchaeologicalServices)22434 Trowelling properly (Museum of London ArchaeologicalServices)22835 An early example, from 1986, of recording context datadirectly onto computer in the field (Heslerton Parish Project) 27636 A digital elevation model of the Yorkshire Wolds, with aerialphotographic plots superimposed (Heslerton Parish Project)280 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationFIGURES1 Rescue versus researchpage 322 Roman roof tiles and tesserae plotted against featuresindicated by magnetic anomalies at Wharram Percy(University of York)473 Vegetation survey at the Sutton Hoo site, as part of preexcavation evaluation (Sutton Hoo Research Trust)554 Mapping of phosphates at Birka, Sweden (BjornAmbrosiani)565 An excavation strategy adopted in the mid-1970s (redrawnby Frances Chaloner from Long 1974)646 Using 30m tapes to set out a series of 5m boxes along a baseline (Frances Chaloner)977 Defining a site grid and labelling Temporary Bench Marksbefore excavation (Frances Chaloner)1008 A flow diagram for recording a single stratigraphic unit(James Brennan)1159 Examples of plan types and planning methods (JamesBrennan)13810 Creating a cumulative section (James Brennan)14611 Positioning a section line for problem-solving (FrancesChaloner)14812 A simple Harris matrix (James Brennan)15713 Dealing with 'jumps' in a Harris matrix (James Brennan)15814 Avoiding a common error in Harris matrix construction(James Brennan)15915 Problems in labelling stratigraphy ahead of its excavation(Frances Chaloner)16416 Using plan overlays to produce a Harris matrix (FrancesChaloner)16717 A recording sheet for deposits and cut features (FrancesChaloner)17418 A flow diagram for assessing deposit composition (FrancesChaloner)17919 A recording sheet for masonry and brick features (FrancesChaloner)186xn in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationList offigures20 Stone courses and finishing (Frances Chaloner)21 Common brick bonds (Frances Chaloner)22 A timber recording sheet (Frances Chaloner)23 Timber conversion methods and common carpentryjoints (Museum of London)24 A skeleton recording sheet (Frances Chaloner)25 Problems with the stratigraphic position of cut features(Frances Chaloner)26 Stratigraphic definition in trowelling (Frances Chaloner)27 A simple stratigraphic sequence for analysis (FrancesChaloner)28 A Harris matrix amended to show different types of recordand blending of strata (Frances Chaloner)29 A Harris matrix amended to show different interpretativetypes of strata and strengths of linkage (Frances Chaloner)30 A Harris matrix 'stretched' to show relative time indiagrammatic form (Frances Chaloner)31 A Harris matrix adjusted to indicate absolute time, withphasing decisions imposed on the sequence (FrancesChaloner) in this web service Cambridge University ambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore information in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore informationACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe thoughts and ideas expressed here have been influenced, inevitably, bymany other people. These include the first supervisors I worked for who had toput up with endless queries such as 'But why do sections have to be vertical?'and 'Why take the photograph now rather than after the next occupation layerhas been removed?' (I never got a straight answer to these, or most other, questions.) Later there were fellow excavators in full-time units with whom I discussed improvements in excavation techniques during site tea-breaks, that timelong acknowledged as the most productive part of the working day. Recentlythere have been the students at York who have had to sit through seminar discussions on anything from site safety to questions such as 'What is a phase?',or even more philosophical issues such as 'What are data?' I have borrowedideas from them all, knowingly or otherwise.There are several individuals who deserve more specific mention. A long timeago, in Cirencester, Richard Reece showed me that excavations could be notonly physically enjoyable but intellectually demanding, and further that it wasnot necessary to act as Adolf Hitler in order to supervise them effectively.Henry Hurst, during our work at Carthage, let me into the secret that postexcavation analysis was not just a necessary evil which made you pull your hairout (though it certainly does this) but also a creative activity in its own right.Later, in London, Annie Upson and Friederike Hammer opened up my eyes tonew aspects of site recording, especially its graphic representation. Morerecently, Phillip Rahtz and Martin Carver of this Department have set mestraight on different conceptions of the archaeological record and tolerated myargumentative interventions into their seminars, whilst Mark Whyman has discussed various issues with me and so demonstrated on many occasions thatresearch students give much more to their academic 'supervisors' than theyreceive. Finally, Martin Jones and Tracy Wellman in Algeria showed me thatcollaboration in a team really was the best way to work and to learn in archaeology (and in many other areas besides). If I take full responsibility for thebiassed views, incoherences and mistakes in this manual, it is all the excavatorswho have worked with me who are to blame for stimulating me into writing it.Finally I would like to thank Jessica Kuper of Cambridge University Pressfor her encouragement during the long time this book has been in preparationand thus allowing it to see the light of day.xv in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-35534-6 - ExcavationSteve RoskamsFrontmatterMore information in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology is a series of reference handbooks designe fodr an international audience of upper-level undergraduate and graduate students and , professional archaeologist ands archaeologica l scientist isn universities, museums, research laboratorie and fields units. Each book include a surve oysf current archaeological practice alongside essential referenc on contemporare .

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