PCE1003 English Phonetic Transcription Handbook

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PCE1003English Phonetic TranscriptionHandbook

How to use this HandbookThis Handbook is used to complement the rest of the course materials. For your easyreference and use, this Handbook is downloadable.This Handbook provides some basic information about the IPA system for Englishpronunciation in order to help you master phonetic transcription.This Handbook includes the following sections: The basic understanding of English Pronunciation Using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for English Phonetic Transcription4How to articulate the sounds represented by IPA4Key to using the IPA symbols in a dictionary Lists of commonly used words with IPA transcription Self-learning Resources on CUHK campus AcknowledgementThe IPA symbols used in this Handbook are taken from the Oxford Advanced Learner’sDictionary and there will be variation in the symbols used in other dictionaries.This Handbook is to be used as a key to open the door for your own improvement inEnglish pronunciation and help you to become a more confident speaker of English.

The basic Understanding of English Pronunciation / 1What is English Pronunciation?English is a polysyllabic language in that each English word is usually made up of more than one syllable.Syllable is the beat of a word; for example, there are three syllables in the word ‘beautiful’ – beau-ti-ful.However, Chinese is a monosyllabic language and for each Chinese character there is only one syllable.Therefore, it is important for Chinese learners to know the difference between these two language systems.Each syllable in an English word is usually composed of a vowel and consonant(s). Take the word‘beautiful’, it is made up of three syllables and each syllable is made up of a vowel and consonant(s)./ »bju:tIf l /beau·ti·fulVowels and consonants are sounds represented by IPA symbols. IPA stands for International PhoneticAlphabet and the IPA symbols are the representation of the sounds system that the International PhoneticsAssociation has standardized for English pronunciation. You may refer to the key to IPA symbols in thesection Using IPA for English Phonetic Transcription for an overview of all the English vowels andconsonants.What is a vowel sound?We normally understand the vowel sound in the pronunciation system as the sound that could be hearddistinctly. Generally when we make a vowel sound, there is no constriction nor blockage of air in theprocess of the sound production, for example, there is no barrier like the tongue, teeth or other oral parts toobstruct the flow of air. In this way, the sound produced could be heard clearly. It is easier to master andmonitor the quality of the vowel sounds as these sounds are audible. The English vowels are represented bythe IPA symbols as shown in the beginning of the section Using IPA for English Phonetic Transcription.What is a consonant sound?Consonant sounds as defined by the Advanced Oxford Learner’s Dictionary are speech sounds “ producedby completely or partly stopping the air being breathed out through the mouth”.In producing a consonant sound, it is necessary to note the difference between a voiced consonant and avoiceless consonant. Voiced consonants are sounds produced when the vocal cords are vibrating whereasvoiceless consonants are those in which the vocal cords are apart. Voiced and voiceless consonants areshown in the diagram below:VoicelessVoicedpbtdkgfvTDSZtSdZszhmnNlrjwIn producing or articulating a consonant, we would normally use in connection with a vowel sound in orderto make the consonant sound audible. In this way it is easier for us to monitor our articulation and thequality of the sound produced. The chart key to IPA symbols in the section Using IPA for English PhoneticTranscription lists out all the vowels and consonants for English pronunciation.What does the stress mark stand for?As mentioned before, English is a polysyllabic language, there are often more than one syllable in eachword. It would be most unpleasant to the ear and difficult to pronounce if there is equal length for eachsyllable in a word. A stress mark indicates which syllable should be clear and loud in sound, and relativelyPCE / Handbook

The basic Understanding of English Pronunciation / 2longer in length. This could normally be observed by the pitch of the voice. For details, refer to the sectionof Using IPA for English Phonetic Transcription on stress.PCE / Handbook

Key to IPA symbols for EnglishVowelsDiphthongsi Iseesit/si //sIt/ihappy/:hQpi/ eQA tencatfather/ten//kQt//:fA D (r)/ ç Åcupsawgot/k p//sç //gÅt/u Utooput/tu //pUt/uactual/:QktSu l/ Œ birdabout/bŒ d// :baUt/eIaIçIsayfiveboy/seI//faIv//bçI/I nearU e Upoorhairgo/nI (r)/ /pU (r)/ /he (r)/ /g U/aUnow/naU/zSZzooshoevision/zu //Su //:vIZn/tSdZfvchainjamfallvan/tSeIn//dZQm//fç i n//n U//sIN/sso/s U/

(r) indicates that British pronunciation will have /r/ only if a vowel sound follows directly;otherwise it is omitted.In American pronunciation, every ‘r’ of the ordinary spelling isretained. The sounds written /i:/ and /I/ must always be different, as in heat /hi t/compared with hit /hIt/. But /i/ represents a vowel that can be sounded ineither way, or as a sound which is a compromise between them. In a wordsuch as happy /»hQpi/, younger speakers use a quality more like /i / but shortin duration. When /i/ is followed by / / the sequence can also be pronounced/j /.So the word dubious, shown in the dictionary as /»dju bi s/ may bepronounced as three syllables /»dju bi s/, or as two syllables /»dju bI s,»dju bj s /.In the same way, the two vowels represented by /u / and /U/ must be distinctbut /u/ represents a vowel that varies between them. If /u/ is followeddirectly by a consonant sound, it can also be pronounced in a third way, as / /.So stimulate, shown as /:stImjuleIt/, can be pronounced as any of /:stImju leIt,:stImjUleIt, or :stImj leIt/.P. 2

Key to using the IPA symbols in a dictionaryAdapted from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary1.Weak forms and strong formsCertain common words like at, and, for, can, have two pronunciations. The OxfordAdvanced Learner’s (OAL)Dictionary and some other dictionaries give the usual(weak) pronunciation first. The second pronunciation (strong) must be used if theword is stressed, and also generally when the word is at the end of a sentence. Forexample: I’m waiting for /f (r)/ a bus. What are you waiting for /fç (r)/?2. British and American pronunciationThe first pronunciation given in OAL Dictionary is that of younger speakers ofGeneral British (Brit). This includes RP (Received Pronunciation) and a range ofsimilar accents which are not strongly regional. Often the same phoneticrepresentation is also appropriate for American speech, with simple automaticchanges (for instance to insert /r/ in a word such as farm). But if the Americanpronunciation is different in a way which cannot be easily predicted, it is givenseparately with the label US. The American pronunciations chosen are as possible ascould be the most general (not associated with any particular region).Most kinds of American English do not have a vowel like British /Å/. For an American pronunciation,/Å/ generally pronounces in the same way as /A /. For instance hot, shown as /hÅt/, in Americanpronunciation is pronounced /hA t/. A large number of such words are not marked in this way in thedictionary. In a smaller number of words, British /Å/ corresponds to American /ç / instead. Theseare indicated separately, for instance soft /sÅft/; US /sç ft/.3. StressThe mark / : / shows the main stress in a word. Compare able /:eIbl/, stressed on thefirst syllable, with ability / :bIl ti/, stressed on the second. A stressed syllable isrelatively loud, long in duration, said clearly and distinctly, and made noticeable bythe pitch of the voice.P. 3

Longer words may have one or more secondary stresses coming before the mainstress. The main stress is normally called the primary stress and the othersecondary stress(es). These are marked with / » / and / « / as in abbreviation / «bri vi:eISn /, agricultural /«QgrI:k ltS r l /. These secondary stresses feel like beatsin a rhythm leading up to the main stress.Weak stresses coming after the main stress in a word can sometimes be heard, but they are not markedin this dictionary.When two words are put together in a phrase, the main stress in the first word mayshift to the place of secondary stress to avoid a clash between two stressed syllablesnext to each other. For instance “ «well-:known ” has the main stress on known,but in the phrase ”«well-known :author” the stress on known is missing. This kind of‘stress-shift’ is shown by stress marks on many of the examples in this dictionary.4. Stress in idiomsMost idioms are shown in the dictionary with at least one main stress. The learnershould not change the position of this stress when speaking, or the special meaning ofthe idiom may be lost.P. 4

Self-learning Resources on CUHK campus / 1The self-learning resources are available in the Independent Learning Centre (ILC) which is locatedon the 4 th Floor of Ting Ka Ping Building.The following is a list of materials for improving pronunciation in the Independent Learning Centre(ILC)Audio-tapes (available at the Pronunciation shelf)Baker, A. 1993 Tree or Three?: An Elementary Pronunciation Course. Cambridge University Press.Baker, A. 1992 Ship or Sheep?: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course. Cambridge University Press.Bowler, B. & Cunningham, S. 1991 Headway Upper-intermediate Pronunciation. Oxford UniversityPress.Bowler, B. & Parminter, S. 1992 Headway Pre-intermediate Pronunciation. Oxford University Press.Cunningham, S. & Bowler, B. 1990 Headway Intermediate Pronunciation. Oxford University Press.Cunningham, S. & Moor, P. 1996 Headway Elementary Pronunciation. Oxford University Press.Hewings, M. 1993 Pronunciation Tasks: A Course for Pre-intermediate Pronunciation Learners.Cambridge University Press.Gilbert, J. B. 1994 Clear Speech: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in North AmericanEnglish Cambridge University Press.Mortimer, C. 1990 Elements of Pronunciation. Cambridge University Press.O'Connor, J.D. 1991 Better English Pronunciation. Cambridge University Press.O'Connor, J.D. & Fletcher, C. Fletcher, C. 1989 Sounds English: A Pronunciation Practice Book.Longman.Ponsonby, M. 1995 How Now, Brown Cow? : A Course in the Pronunciation of English, withExercises and Dialogues. Phoenix ELT.Rogerson, P. & Gilbert, J. B. 1990 Speaking Clearly: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension forLearners of English. Cambridge University Press.Trim, J. 1995 English Pronunciation Illustrated. Cambridge University Press.Willes, M. 1993 A Programmed Introduction to The Mechanism of Speech.Willes,M. 1993 A Programmed Introduction to The Sounds of English.CD-ROMs (available at the counter)Kluhara, S. 1995 Pronunciation Plus. (used on 7200 Mac)Payne, J. 1996 Pronunciation Power. (used on either Mac or PC)See it, Hear it, SAY IT! (used on PC)PCE / Handbook

Self-learning Resources on CUHK campus / 2Muller, E.A. & Samson, E Pronunciation & Speech Tutor (used on either Mac or PC) The EnglishCentre, The University of Hong Kong, 1998.Software (available at PCs in the Writing Lab)HK Polytechnic University 1997 Sounds.Websites (available at the PCs in the Writing Lab)Lai, E. & Cheung, Y.L. , 1997 Exercises of IPA Symbols (available at the PCs in the Writing Lab)http://www/cuhk.edu. hk.cgi-custom/ilc/ipa/index.cgiBoozer, B. & Johnson, P., 1997. An Introduction to the International Phonetic Symbols for thePronunciation of English (available at the PCs in the Writing Lab and Mac stations, better effect onPC’s)Videotapes (available at the ILC counter)Tape 1http://www.ilc.cuhk.edu.hk/ipa/tape1.htmlTape 2http://www.ilc.cuhk.edu.hk/ipa/tape2.htmlTape 3http://www.ilc.cuhk.edu.hk/ipa/tape3.htmlPCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 1Can you pronounce every one of them? BODY PARTSOesophagusDuodenumDiaphragmForehead/i::sÅf g s//«dju: :di:n m//:daI frQm//:fÅrId / /:fç:hed/Vocal chord/v Vkl/ / kç:d/Tongue/t N/Jaw/dZç:/Temples/:templz/Skull/sk lCalfKneecapPancreasAppendixRectumTonsils/:stŒ:n m//:st m k//In:testInz//:kIdnI//:lIv //grçIn//TaI//:QNklz//:elb Uz//T m//:S Uld //:n klz//weIst//rIst//:nÅstr lz//:I l :kQp//:pQNkrI s//e:pendIks//:rekt m//:tÅnslz/Aorta/eI:ç:t /PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 2PalmSole /pA:m//s ailcampingPCE / Handbook/ fIlm //»reIdI U //»mju:zIk //»SÅpIN //»trQvl //»TI t //»f nfe //»drA:m // f »tÅgr fI //»kÅm d I //»trQdZdI //»TrIl //»bA:sk tbç:1//»bQdmInt n //»swImIN //»dZÅgIN //»tenIs //»leZ //»ri:dIN //»bQleI //»Åp r //»sŒ:k s// fA:s//»Qktr s // tSes //»res lIN //»snu:k //»ski:IN //»sŒ:fIN //»ç:k str // »haIkIN // k »nu: // pI»Qn U // flu:t // A:»keId // treIl // »kQmpIN /

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 3parachutingexplorepicnicyachtclowncinema / »pQr Su:tIN // Ik»splç: (r) // »pIknIk // jÅt // klaUn //»sIn m /FOODS & DRINKSBloody Mary/'bl dI/ /'me rI/Daiquiri/'dQk rI/Martini/mA:'ti:nI/Screw Driver/skru:/ /'draIv /Lager/'lA:g /Stout/staUt/Apple Cider/'Qp l/ /'saId /Lemon Squash/'lem n/ /skwÅS/Virgin Mary/'vŒ:dZIn/ /'me rI/Champagne/SQm'peIn/Expresso/Ik'spres U/Cappuccino/kQpU'tSi:n U/Jasmine/'dZQsmIn/Chamomile/'kQm maIl/Earl Grey/Œ:l/ /greI/Coke/k Uk/Sprite/spraIt/Asparagus/ 'spQr g s/Apple Strudel/'Qp l/ /'stru:dl/Mussel/'m sl/Spinach/'spInItS/Parsley/'pA:slI/Yogurt/'jÅg t/Apricot/'eIprIkÅt/Croissant/'krws Ånt/Muffin/'m fIn/Blueberry/'blu:b rI/Avocado/Qv 'kA:d U/Lettuce/'letIs/Salami/s 'lA:mI/Salmon/'sQm n/Tuna/'tju:n /PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 4Oyster/'çIst /Basil/'bQzl/Tandoori/tQn'dU rI/Pasta/'pQst /Brownie/'braUnI/Vanilla/v 'nIl /Relish/'relIS/Quiche/ki:S/Mustard/'m st d/Tart/tA:t/Samosa/s 'm Us /Bagel/'beIgl/Prawn/prç:n/Crumble/'kr mbl/Grapefruit/'greIpfru:t/Mayonnaise/meI 'neIz/Raisin/'reIzn/ COMMON FIRST NAMESAaronAbbyAdrianAlan, Allan, AllenAlanaAlbanyAlbertAlec/e »r n//»QbI//»eIdrI n//»æl n// »læn //»ç lb nI//»Qlb t//»QlIk/Alex/»QlIks/Alexander/QlIg»zA nd /AlexisAlfredAlfredaAlvisAnnette/ »leksIs//»QlfrId//»Ql»frId //»QlvIs// »net/Anthea/»QnTI /Arthur/»A:T (r)/Audrey/»ç drI/Beatrice/»bI trIs/Bernadette/bŒ n »det/Bernard/»bŒ n d/PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 5Brian, Bryan/»braI n/Charlene/»SA li n/Cheryl/»tSer l/Chloe/»kl UI/Daphne/»dQfnI/Deirdre/»dI drI/Denise/d »ni z/Douglas/»d gl s/ElaineEllenElvisErica/I»leIn//»el n//»elvIs//»erIk /FionFionaGareth/fI»Ån//fI» Un //»gQreT/Gillian/»dZIlI n/Harry/»hQrI/Henry/»henrI/Ian/»i n/Laurence, Lawrence/»lÅr ns/Liam/»li m/Lily/»lIlI/Lyle/»laIl/Madeleine/»mQd lIn/Marian, Marion/»mQrI n/Miriam/»mIrI m/Naomi/»neI mI/Penelope/p »nel pI/PhoebeReginaRichardSeanSharon/»fi bI//rI»dZi n //»rItS d//Sç n//»SQr n/Trudie, TrudyVinceVincentVirginiaVivien, Vivienne, VivianWinstonYvonne/»tru dI//vIns//»vInsnt//v »dZInI //»vIvI n//»wInst n//I»vÅn/Zoe/»z UI/PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 6 HONG KONG STREET NAMESArgyle StreetBowring StreetBute StreetCarnavon RoadChater RoadChatham Road/ :A:gaIl // :b UrIN // bju:t // k :nA:v n // :tSeIt (r)// tSQt m /Conduit Road/ :kÅndIt /Connaught Road/ :kÅnç:t /D’Aguilar Street/ :dQgwIé (r) /Des Voeux Road/ deI:vŒ: /Dundas Street/ :d ndQs /Durham Road/ :d r m /Fife StreetGascoigne Road/ faIf // :gQskçIn /Gloucester Road/ :glÅst (r) /Hennessy RoadLeighton Road/ :henIsI // :leItn /Macdonnell Road/ «mek:dÅnl /Nathan RoadSalisbury RoadWylie road/ :neIT n // :sç:lzb rI // :waIlI /Wyndham Street/ :wInd m / / dI:v U /HEALTH PROBLEMSallergyAlzheimer’s diseaseanaemia/anemia/»Ql dZi//Qlts haIm z dIzi:z// »ni:mI /appendicitis/ «pend :s ItIs /arteriosclerosis/ A:«tI rI UsklI »r UsIs /arthritis/ A:»TraItIs /asthma/ »Qsm /benign tumor/bI'naIn//:tju:m (r)/bronchitis/ brÅN»kaItIs /cholera/ »kÅl r /constipation/«kÅnstI »peISn/cough/ »kÅf /diabetes/ «daI »bi:ti:z /PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 7diarrhoea/diarrheahepatitisinfluenza/ «daI »rI // «hep »taItIs // «InflU»enz // In»sÅmnI /insomniajaundice/ »dZç:ndIs /malignant tumormeasles/m :éIgn nt/ /:tju:m (r)// »mi:z lz // «menIn»dZaItIs /meningitismigrainemumpspneumoniasenile dementia/ »mi:greIn/ / »maIgreIn// »m mps // nju:»m UnI //:si:naIé/ /dI:menS /tonsilitis/«tÅnsI»laItIs/tuberculosis/ tju:«bŒ:kU»l UsIs /ulcer/ » és (r) / OTHERSApartheidBuffetencoreEndoscopyFatigueGauge TheorygauzearomatherapyindictindicateThe ThamestametimeManchester bustious/ »pA theIt//bUfeI//ÅNkç(r)//en:dÅsk pI//en:dA:sk pI//f »ti:g//geIdZ/ /TI ri//gç:z// «r Um :Ter pi//In:daIt//:IndIkeIt//D / /temz//teIm//taIm//:mQntSIst (r)/ /ju:naItId//laUndZ//ki://:rÅndIvu://«sQvwA: :fe (r) //:tent tIv//r m:b stS s/- The End -PCE / Handbook

Lists of commonly used words for IPA transcription / 8PCE / Handbook

AcknowledgementThis Handbook has made use of the following references:1.Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, OUP.2.Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman.3.Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, Longman.4.Cambridge Pronunciation Dictionary, 15th Edition, Daniel Jones, Cambridge.5.Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers.6.Collins Cobuild English Guides 6: Homophones, HarperCollins Publishers.7.Tree or Three? An elementary pronunciation course, Ann Baker, 1993, CUP.8.Ship or Sheep? An intermediate pronunciation course, Ann Baker, 1992, CUP.PCE / Handbook

How to use this Handbook This Handbook is used to complement the rest of the course materials. For your easy reference and use, this Handbook is downloadable. This Handbook provides some basic information about the IPA system for English pronunciation in order to help you master phonetic transcription. This Handbook includes the following sections:

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