Articulatory-Acoustic-Auditory Phonetics

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Articulatory-Acoustic-AuditoryPhonetics when we look at speech (sounds) we look at how it is(1) produced, (2) transmitted, and (3) perceived (1) articulatory phonetics looks at the production side(how speech sounds are, for example, articulated) (2) acoustic phonetics looks at the transmission ofthese sounds (what are the acoustic properties ofspeech(duration, frequency, energy (all physicalproperties)) (3) auditory phonetics looks at how humans perceivetheses speech sounds (what happens in the ear)

acoustic phoneticsauditory phoneticsfundemental frequency(Hz)pitch (how high or low dowe perceive a sound)intensity (dB)loudness (how loud or softdo we perceive a sound)duration (t)speech tempo (how fast orslow we perceive a speechsignal)

Amplitude The amplitude is simply a displacementof the vibrating medium from its restposition

Amplitude The amplitude of a waverefers to the maximumamount of displacement of aa particle on the mediumfrom its rest position. In asense, the amplitude is thedistance from rest to crest(positives Maximum).Similarly, the amplitude canbe measured from the restposition to the trough(negatives Maximum)position.

Fundamental Frequency The term fundamental frequency stands forthe course of the lowest frequency in aharmonic vibration, therefore it is also calledF0. „Frequency is a technical term for an acousticproperty of a sound – namely the number ofcomplete repetitions (cycles) of variationsin air pressure occuring in a second“(Ladefoged 1975, 162)

the fundamental frequency is the lowestfrequency of all other sinus componentsin a spectrum therefore it is called F0 its whole-numbered multiples (2x, 3x,4x,.) are the so-called harmonics

For example if F0 has 100 Hz, its harmonics are:200 Hz300 Hz400 Hz.if F0 has 150 Hz, its harmonics are:300 Hz450 Hz600 Hz.if F0 has 90 Hz, its harmonics are:180 Hz270 Hz360 Hz.

Where are all the otherfrequencies produced? all frequencies that you find a speechsignal come from the larynx

Formants when we look at the vocal tract as a cylindric pipe which isclosed at one end (glottis) and open at the other end (mouth) itswavelength is four times its lengtha female vocal tract is about 15 cm long, which means that itswavelength is 60 cmat about 35 C sound travels at about 352 m/sec¾ 352 m/s : (4 * 0,15m) 352 m/s * 0,6 m 587 * 1/s 600 Hz the resonance frequency of a simplified female vocal tract lies atabout 600 Hzaside from this fundamental frequency there are resonancefrequencies; in this case 1800, 3000, 4200,. Hz (1:3:5:7:.)

Schematic Vocal Tract

[a]

acoustically the vocal tract is not a verygood pipe energy is dampened in every frequencyof the source signal (coming from thelarynx) what is not dampened so much are theresonance frequencies, which show asdark shadings in the spectrogram

the laryngeal signal has many higherharmonics which means that energy can alsobe found in higher frequencies than simplythe fundamental frequency as said before, the vocal tract dampenscertain frequencies more and others less(depending on the formation of thearticulators) these resonance frequencies are calledformants

formants are a property of the vocaltract and completely independent fromany source signal (it does not matterwhether there is a source signal ornot!!!) try this:whisper the following:heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood,who‘d

Formants

Formants The first two formants F1 and F2 areimportant for the intelligibility of vowels Their position characterizes the spokenvowel. In order to understand each other, it isimportant that these formants aresimilar in every speaker

Formants J. Clark und C.Yallop: "The tractresonances themselves are sometimesreferred to as formants, but this istechnically imprecise. Formants are aconsequence of resonance, notresonance itself." (An Introduction toPhonetics and Phonology, 2nded.,1995, S.246)

CochleaPetursson & Neppert

Cochlea

Organ of Corti

Ear

properties)) (3) auditory phonetics looks at how humans perceive theses speech sounds (what happens in the ear) acoustic phonetics auditory phonetics fundemental frequency . (it does not matter whether there is a source signal or not!!!) try this: whisper the following:

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