JURISPRUDENCE CASES AND MATERIALS: An Introduction To The .

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Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.JURISPRUDENCE CASESAND MATERIALS:An Introduction to thePhilosophy of Law andIts Applications

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.LexisNexis Law School PublishingAdvisory BoardBridgette CarrClinical Professor of LawUniversity of Michigan Law SchoolSteven I. FriedlandProfessor of Law and Senior ScholarElon University School of LawCarole GoldbergJonathan D. Varat Distinguished Professor of LawUCLA School of LawOliver GoodenoughProfessor of LawVermont Law SchoolPaul MarcusHaynes Professor of LawWilliam and Mary Law SchoolJohn SpranklingDistinguished Professor of LawMcGeorge School of Law

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.JURISPRUDENCE CASESAND MATERIALSAn Introduction to thePhilosophy of Law andIts ApplicationsThird EditionSTEPHEN E. GOTTLIEBProfessor of LawAlbany Law SchoolBRIAN H. BIXFrederick W. Thomas Professor of Law and PhilosophyUniversity of MinnesotaTIMOTHY D. LYTTONAlbert & Angela Farone Distinguished Professor of LawAlbany Law SchoolROBIN L. WESTProfessor of LawGeorgetown University Law Center

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.ISBN: 978-1-6328-0961-2Ebook ISBN: 978-0-3271-7830-9Looseleaf ISBN: 978-1-6328-0962-9Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataJurisprudence cases and materials : an introduction to the philosophy of law and its applications / Stephen E. Gottlieb,Professor of Law, Albany Law School, Brian H. Bix, Frederick W. Thomas Professor of Law and Philosophy,University of Minnesota Timothy D. Lytton, Professor of Law, Albany Law School, Robin L. West, Professor of Law,Georgetown University Law Center.— Third edition.pages cmIncludes index.ISBN 978-1-63280-961-2 (hardbound)1. Jurisprudence — United States — Cases. 2. Law — United States — Cases. I. Gottlieb, Stephen E. II. Bix, Brian III.Lytton, Timothy D., 1965- IV. West, Robin, 1954KF379.G68 2015349.73—dc232014046768This publication is designed to provide authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is soldwith the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professionalservices. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional shouldbe sought.LexisNexis and the Knowledge Burst logo are registered trademarks of Reed Elsevier Properties Inc., used underlicense. Matthew Bender and the Matthew Bender Flame Design are registered trademarks of Matthew BenderProperties Inc.Copyright 2015 Matthew Bender & Company, Inc., a member of LexisNexis. All Rights Reserved.No copyright is claimed by LexisNexis or Matthew Bender & Company, Inc., in the text of statutes, regulations,and excerpts from court opinions quoted within this work. Permission to copy material may be licensed for a feefrom the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Mass. 01923, telephone (978) 750-8400.NOTE TO USERSTo ensure that you are using the latest materials available in this area, please besure to periodically check the LexisNexis Law School web site for downloadableupdates and supplements at www.lexisnexis.com/lawschool.Editorial Offices630 Central Ave., New Providence, NJ 07974 (908) 464-6800201 Mission St., San Francisco, CA 94105-1831 (415) 908-3200www.lexisnexis.com(2015–Pub.3071)

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.AcknowledgmentsSteve Gottlieb would like to acknowledge the research assistance of DeborahBuchanan.Timothy Lytton would like to thank Rachel Anisfeld, Pamela Barmash, BethBerkowitz, Peter Berkowitz, Charles Donahue, and Natalie Dohrmann for helpfulcomments on Part I of the text, as well as Alexandra Harrington and Kelly Egan foressential research assistance.Robin West would like to acknowledge the assistance of Lisa Jabaily, LauraAlexander, and Scott Meisler.iii

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Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.Table of ContentsPart ITHE ORIGINS OF LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE . . . . . . . 1INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Chapter 1A.B.MESOPOTAMIAN LAW COLLECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Time Line of Ancient Near Eastern History from 9000 B.C.E. to 1750B.C.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Historical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Introductory Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Laws of Ur-Namma (LU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Laws of Lipit-Ishtar (LL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Laws of Hammurabi (LH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Inscription of Yahdun-Lim (IY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17THE HEBREW BIBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Historical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18The Ten Commandments and the Book of the Covenant: Exodus19–23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Chapter 2A.1.2.B.THE ORIGINS OF LAW IN THE ANCIENT NEAREAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3THE BIRTH OF JURISPRUDENCE IN THEANCIENT WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Time Line of Greek History from 1700 B.C.E. to 323 B.C.E. . . . . . . . .Historical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Trial of Socrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Apology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Euthyphro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Crito . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, Book V and Politics, Book V . . . . . . .Nicomachean Ethics, Book V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Politics, Book V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v27282829293038394646515253596061

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.Table of Contents1.2.C.1.2.3.Time Line of Roman History from 753 B.C.E. to 1453 C.E. . . . . . . . . .Historical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cicero’s on the Commonwealth, Book III and on the Laws,Books I & II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cicero, on the Commonwealth, Book III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cicero, on the Laws, Book I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cicero, on the Laws, Book II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Justinian’s Institutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Introductory Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Institutes 3:13, 14, 15, 21, 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RABBINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Time Line of Israelite and Rabbinic History from 1200S B.C.E.to 600 C.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Historical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commentary on the Covenant at Sinai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 88a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Law of the Stubborn and Rebellious Son . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Biblical Law of the Stubborn and Rebellious Son:Deuteronomy 21:18–21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elaboration of the Law of the Stubborn and Rebellious Son:Mishnah Sanhedrin 8:1–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commentary on the Law of the Stubborn and Rebellious Son:Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 71A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Oven of Achnai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metsia 59A–59B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Study Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PART ANALYTICAL LEGAL PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Chapter 3A.B.6162QUESTIONS OF APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGICAL QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93H.L.A. HART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94H.L.A. Hart, Persistent Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Brian Bix, Conceptual Questions and Jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104vi

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.Table of ContentsD.BRIAN LEITER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. Brian Leiter, Beyond the Hart/Dworkin Debate:The Methodology Problem in Jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 4A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.110115116LEGAL POSITIVISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117AN OVERVIEW OF LEGAL POSITIVISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H.L.A. HART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H.L.A. Hart, Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .THE DETAILS OF HART’S THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTE ON INCLUSIVE AND EXCLUSIVE LEGAL POSITIVISM . . .SCOTT SHAPIRO’S PLANNING THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scott J. Shapiro, Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HANS KELSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hans Kelsen, What Is the Pure Theory of Law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTE ON KELSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTE ON HART AND KELSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter RITICS OF LEGAL POSITIVISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NATURAL LAW THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ST. THOMAS AQUINAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ST. THOMAS AQUINAS, SUMMA THEOLOGIAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JOHN FINNIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Finnis, On the Incoherence of Legal Positivism . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LON L. FULLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lon L. Fuller, Positivism and Fidelity to Law — A Reply toProfessor Hart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTE ON FULLER’S THEORY, AND ITS CRITICS . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTE: FULLER AND THE LEGAL PROCESS SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . .RONALD DWORKIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ronald Dworkin, Legal Theory and the Problem of Sense . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.Table of ContentsI.NOTE: DWORKIN AND HIS CRITICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216Chapter 6A.B.C.D.E.F.OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JOHN RAWLS AND SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . .JOHN RAWLS AND DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Rawls, Distributive Justice: Some Addenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JEREMY WALDRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jeremy Waldron, The Plight of the Poor in the Midst of Plenty . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SUSAN MOLLER OKIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Susan Moller Okin, Justice and Gender: An Unfinished Debate . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OTHER APPROACHES TO JUSTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 7A.B.C.JUSTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219219220223223239239239245245245263263266THE NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RIGHTS . . . . 267NOTE ON RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JOEL FEINBERG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joel Feinberg, The Nature and Value of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .N.E. SIMMONDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .N.E. Simmonds, The “Will” and “Interest” Theories . . . . . . . . . . . .Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267271271281281281283PART IIICRITICAL JURISPRUDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285Chapter 8LEGALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289A.B.LEGALISM AS A PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JUDITH SHKLAR, LEGALISM: LAW, MORALS, AND POLITICALTRIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAUL KAHN, THE CULTURAL STUDY OF LAW: RECONSTRUCTINGLEGAL SCHOLARSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions on Shklar and Kahn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LEGALISM AND OBJECTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Owen Fiss, Objectivity and Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paul D. Carrington, Of Law and River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii289289293297298299307

Copyright Carolina Academic Press, LLC. All rights reserved.Table of ContentsC.D.E.Questions on Fiss and Carrington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LEGALISM AS TRADITIONALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Anthony Kronman, Precedent and Tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Comments and Questions on Kronman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thomas Paine, Rights of Man: Part Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Path of the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Comments and Questions on Kronman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LEGALISM AS FORMALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ANTHONY T. KRONMAN, THE LOST LAWYER: FAILING IDEALSOF THE LEGAL PROFESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Comments on Langdellian Formalism, and an Introduction toLegal Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LEGALISM AS LIBERALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JOHN RAWLS, A THEORY OF JUSTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Question on Rawls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter ITICAL JURISPRUDENCE: AN OVERVIEWOF THE MOVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341THE LEGAL REALIST MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Path of the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JUSTICE OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, THE COMMON LAW . . . . . . . . .Lochner v. New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Karl Llewellyn, Some Realism About Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Notes and Comments on Legal Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LON FULLER, THE LAW IN QUEST OF ITSELF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROSCOE POUND, JUSTICE ACCORDING TO LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Notes and Comments on Legal Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .THE CRITICAL LEGAL STUDIES MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Roberto Unger, The CLS Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Duncan Kennedy, Legal Training as Training for Hierarchy . . . . . . .Robert W. Gordon, Unfreezing Legal Reality: CriticalApproaches to Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Questions and Comments on Critical Legal Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDENTITY-BASED CRITIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Some Historical Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .State v. Mann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROBERT COVER, JUSTICE ACCUSED: ANTISLAVERY ANDTHE JUDICIAL PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bradley v. State . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Jurisprudence cases and materials : an introduction to the philosophy of law and its applications / Stephen E. Gottlieb, Professor of Law, Albany Law School, Brian H. Bix, Frederick W. Thomas Professor of Law and Philosophy, University of Minnesota Timothy D. Lytton, Professor of Law, Albany Law School, Robin L. West, Professor of Law,

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Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence Kamali 3 Preface I. Apart from the fact that the existing works on Islamic Jurisprudence in the English language do not offer an exclusive treatment of usul al-fiqh, there is also a need to pay greater attention to the source materials, namely the Qur'an and sunnah, in the study of this science. In the .File Size: 1MBPage Count: 338

LIBERTARIAN PAPERS VOL. 3, ART.NO. 19 (2011) 1 ACTION-BASED JURISPRUDENCE: PRAXEOLOGICAL LEGAL THEORY IN RELATION TO ECONOMIC THEORY, ETHICS, AND LEGAL PRACTICE KONRAD GRAF* THEORIZING ABOUT LAW and legal concepts falls under the field of jurisprudence, as do certain aspects of the assessment of legal institutions, procedures, and processes. Theorists in this field are typically des

Jurisprudence and legal theory 6 University of London External Programme Essential reading for this chapter1 Freeman, M. (ed.) Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence. (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2001) seventh edition [ISBN 0421690208]. Dworkin, R. Law’s Empire. (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1998). [ISBN 1841130419] Chapter 1.

1. Schools of Jurisprudence Jurisprudence is the philosophy and examination of legislation. It considers the law's cause and principle. The law has an unforeseeable concept. His interpretation varies from person to person. Everyone has an alternative interpretation of the rules. This piece of research reflects five schools of jurisprudence namely:

jurisprudence itself. Conventional jurisprudence ignores the vast systemic latticework that surrounds and sustains us. Convinced of law's exceptionalism, legal theorists assume an alternate reality—one that separates man from nature in apparent defiance of the natural order. Under this view, the world consists of natural

Kata Kunci : Asam folat, Anemia, Gagal Ginjal Kronik, Rawat Inap . ii ABSTRACT A STUDY OF FOLIC ACID USE IN ANEMIC CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED IN RSUD SIDOARJO Chronic renal failure is disturbance of kidney functions that progressive and irreversible where the ability of kidney to maintain the metabolism and liquid balance also electrolit causes uremic. Anemic is a complication .