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SETTING UP AUTOCAD TO WORK WITH ARCHITECTURALDRAFTING STYLEYou will need to make some changes to AutoCAD to use it as a drafting tool forarchitectural drawings. AutoCAD “out-of-the-box” is set up primarily formechanical drafting: drawing small parts for machinery using the metric systembecause that is the type of drafting is the most practiced in the world. However,making drawings of a building is quite different from making drawings of anautomobile part. Not only is the scale of the object drawn very different, but theconventions of drafting are significantly different between architectural andmechanical parts. In order to make the drafting environment correct forarchitectural drafting conventions, several changes must be made. Thesechanges are relatively simple to accomplish, and involve the following three typesof setup:CREATING A TEMPLATE FILE that has desirable variables set, aswell as layers, text styles, dimension styles, layouts and plottingstandards created specifically for architectural drafting purposes. YourTemplate file can then be used to open new drawings to eliminatehaving to set up these changes again in the future.CREATING A USER PROFILE that will save the way you want thescreen to look and where AutoCAD will search for files. Your personalProfile can be loaded when you start a new AutoCAD session atwhatever computer you are working.TEMPLATE FILESWhen you begin a drawing using AutoCAD, you will be drawing in anenvironment which has pre-set variables setup by Autodesk for what theyconsider to be the most common use. However, the settings which comewith the software "out of the box" are not good for drawings used in thearchitectural and interior design industry, so they must be changed by youto comply to standard drafting conventions in those fields.USING TEMPLATE FILES:To use a template file to begin a new drawing, select "File" from the pulldown menu, then "New." The "Select template" dialogue box will open upas shown in the following illustration:

Templates have the filename extension of *.dwt. Select your template filefrom the list and pick "Open." To continue drawing, save it to any nameand folder you want using the "Save" command. The Template file youstarted with will now be automatically saved as a DWG file.The easiest way to make your standard settings permanent for later reuseis to create your own Template File. Begin a new drawing, set the drawingvariables as you want them to be set, and then save the drawing as a"Template" file for reuse to begin with on future drawings. This new file willhave no "entities" in it (lines, arcs, or circles), but it will include thefollowing variables:Your list of LAYERS, with associated linetypes, colors, and lineweightsYour preferred text stylesYour preferred dimension stylesYour preferred AutoCAD variable settingsYour layout settingsViewport(s)Name of each viewportScale of each viewportPlotting parameters of each viewport, such as what printer to plotto, paper size, plot scale, drawing orientation, and plot style table(pen assignments)Title sheet information, such as a title block

To make a new Template file in AutoCAD, follow the steps in the order as listedbelow:1. Change the variable Startup to 1 (turn on): type startup RET 1 RET 2. Type new RET 3. Select the “Start from Scratch” radio button to set up a new drawing.4. Select Imperial (feet and inches). Click OK.Note that this unit type is known in the industry as "Imperial" units. Thistype of measurement system is used only in the United States, Liberiaand Myanmar (Burma). All other countries in the world use the "SystemInternational" (or "SI") for drawing units. This is based on the metricsystem where all dimensions are measured in millimeters. The UnitedStates is slowly "inching" toward using the “Système Internationald'unités” (SI system) measurement, but because our industrial base isso entrenched in the Imperial system, it will take many years toaccomplish. The U.S. Government has mandated that all drawingsmade for federal construction projects use both the Imperial and the SIsystem beginning in 1993. AutoCAD is flexible in that one may beginusing Imperial units of measurement, and switch to metric units later byselecting "Decimal" units under the "Units Control" dialogue box andscaling the drawing up by a scale factor of 25.4 (since there are 25.4millimeters in a inch).5. Save your drawing. A blank drawing will appear (called"Drawing1.dwg). Immediately save it to your own assigned H: drive byclicking on the "Save" icon on the Toolbar (the one that looks like afloppy disk). Save it to your drive with your initials like this: [yourinitials]-A This will save it to H:\[your folder] as [your initials]-D.DWG.For instance in my case, I would save it to my H: drive as "FEHD.DWG." The reason for the -D after your initials is to remind you thatthis is a template to be used for D-sized drawings (24" x 36")6. Set the AutoCAD "Units" variable for use in architectural draftingType UNITS In the drop-down selection box "Type:" select: ArchitecturalPrecision: 1/32"Insertion Scale: select drop-down list and pick "Inches"Angle Type: Decimal DegreesAngle Precision: select drop-down list and pick 0Click the OK button

Below is how your Drawing Units dialogue box should look:7. Set the following AutoCAD System Variables to their proper valuesa. Type VIEWRES RET RET 20000 RET This will makecircles and arcs appear smooth. (The default value is 200 whichmakes circles look like octagons on the screen)b. Type UCSICON RET OR RET This will place the ModelSpace "User Coordinate System" (UCS) icon at the drawing orUCS "origin" point (0,0,0) in the Model and in each Viewport.8. Set up the Status Bar:The Status Bar is at the bottom of the screen on the left side anddisplays ten pictorial icons representing drawing status settings. If youprefer, you can turn the pictorial icons to words to help remember whatthey stand for. To do this, right-click one of the buttons and turn off"Use Icons." If you never want to see a particular button in the StatusBar, you can make it invisible by right clicking on any button and selectthe "Display" command, then uncheck the ones you don't want to see

on the status bar.Set the Status Bar buttons to the following settings - buttons that havebeen pushed in are turned on and turned light blue color.Turn On only the following buttons on the Status Bar (turn off all therest):Polar TrackingObject Snap9. Set the following Object Snap functions. Right click on the Object Snapbutton in the Status Bar and select “Settings antIntersectionPerpendicularNearest10. Set the following Polar Tracking functions. Right click on the Polarbutton in the Status Bar and select “Settings ” then select the PolarTracking tab.a. Change Increment angle to 45 degrees and additional angles to30 degreesb. In the “Polar Angle measurement” area, select the radio button“Absolute”11. Set up Layers.In the Home Tab of the Ribbon, there is a Layers panel that looks likethis:

Create the following layers and assign color, linetype and lineweight.Select the icon for the Layer Properties Manager (on the Home tab inthe Ribbon looks like this)on the toolbar.Click on the "New Layer" icon to make a new layer.These layer names are based on CAD Layer Guidelines, Second Edition,Michael K. Schley, ed., published in 1997 by the American Institute ofArchitects in Washington, D.C. I have assigned colors, linetypes, andlineweights.LayerObjects to BeDrawn on nsMagentaContinuous.1500 mmA-ANNONOTENotesCyanContinuous.3500 mmA-ANNOSYMBSymbols, Keys andTargets (Such asDoor Numbers,Window Numbers,Furniture Numbers,EquipmentNumbers, ToiletAccessory Numbers)CyanContinuous.3500 mmA-ANNOVPRTViewportsCyanContinuous.1000 mmA-AREAArea Calculations,Hatch Patterns, andNumbers60Continuous.1000 mmRemarksNonPrinting

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on thisLayerColorLinetypeLineweightA-CEILCeiling Information(Soffits, Holes,Skylights, CeilingGrid)10Continuous.1000 mmA-DOORDoors and DoorFrames in Plan orElevation (But NotSwing Arcs orElevation SwingIndications of Doors)BlueContinuous.2500 mmA-DOORGLAZWindows in DoorsGreenContinuous.2500 mmA-DOORSWNGSwing Arcs orElevation SwingIndications of Doors30Hidden2.1000 mmA-ELEVElevation Drawings,Interior or ExteriorblueContinuous.2000 mmA-ELEVPATTHatch Patterns forElevations30Continuous.0500 mmA-ELEVOTLNElevation OutlineyellowContinuous.5000 mmA-FLORAny InformationRelating to FloorsWhich Would Not BeShown on AnotherLayer, Such asHoles in Floors,Edges of Slabs,Guardrails AroundFloor Openings, orCurbsredContinuous.2500 mmA-FLORAPPLAppliances:Refrigerators,Ovens, Stoves, and30Continuous.2000 mmRemarks

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on thisLayerColorLinetypeLineweightAny Fixed ElementWhich Requires aPlumbing orElectricalConnection to 0 mmA-FLORSTRSStairs and Laddersin Plan or ElevationredContinuous.2500 mmA-FLORSTRSRAILStair Handrails inPlan or ElevationgreenContinuous.2000 mmA-FLORSTRSAROWDirection Arrows andBreak Lines forStairscyanContinuous.1500 mmA-FLORSTRSRISERisers of StairsShould Be on aSeparate Layer SoThat They Can BeTurned off on aReflected CeilingPlangreenContinuous.1500 mmA-FLORTPTNToilet Partitions,Doors, Door Swingsgreen,but doorswingshouldbe color30Continuous.2500 mmA-FLORELEVElevators Cars inPlangreenContinuous.2500 mmA-FLORRAMPRamps in Plan orElevationgreenContinuous.2500 mmRemarks

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on thisLayerColorLinetypeLineweightA-FLORRAMPRAILRamp Handrails inPlan or ElevationgreenContinuous.2000 mmA-FLORRAMPAROWDirection Arrows andBreak Lines ForRampscyanContinuous.1500 mmA-FLORACCSToilet AccessoriesgreenContinuous.2000 mmA-FURNFurnituremagentaContinuous.2000 mmA-FURNPLNTInterior Plants60Continuous.2000 mmA-FURNPATTFurniture FinishPatterns30Continuous.0500 mmA-GLAZWindowsblueContinuous.2500 mmA-ROOFRoof, Gutters,SkylightsredContinuous.2500 mmA-ROOFPATTHatch Patterns forRoofs30Continuous.0500 mmA-SECTSectionsredContinuous.3500 mmA-SECTHIDDMaterial Hidden inSection30hidden2.1500 mmA-SECTPATTHatch Patterns ofSection30Continuous.0500 mmA-WALLWallsyellowContinuous.7000 mmA-WALLPATTWall Hatch Pattern(Poché)30Continuous.0000 mmA-WALLHEADDoor and WindowHeaders30Continuous.2500 mmRemarks

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on thisLayerColorLinetypeLineweightA-WALLHIDDWalls behind otherobjects30Hidden 2.1500 mmA-WALLSILLDoor and windowsills30Continuous.2500 mmC-PKNGCARSCarsgreenContinuous.1500 mmC-PKNGSTRPParking Lot Striping30Continuous.0500 mmC-PROPProperty LinesMagentaPhantom2.3500 mmC-COMMSite communicationpoles and any otherobject above ground140CommunicationsLinetype----- C ----- C -----.3500 mmC-WATRSite Water Meterand any objectabove ground140Water Linetype---- W ---- W -----.3500 mmC-NGASSite Gas Meter andany object aboveground140Gas Linetype----- G ----- G -----.3500 mmC-STRMSite Storm SewerManholes140Storm WaterLinetype----- ST ----- ST -.3500 mmC-FIRESite Fire Hydrants,pumps, and anyobject above ground140Fire WaterLinetype----- F ----- F -----.3500 mmC-SSWRSanitary SewerManholes140Sanitary SewerLinetype----- S ----- S -----.3500 mmC-ROADCURBCurbs10Continuous.2000 mmRemarks

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on ontinuous.2000 mmC-TOPOProposed Contours35Continuous.2500 mmC-TOPODEMOContours, Existing toBe Changed60Hidden.1500 mmC-TOPOEXSTContours, Existing toRemain35Continuous.1500 mmE-COMMTelephoneReceptaclesredContinuous.3500 mmE-CTRLControl SystemsredContinuous.1500 mmE-LITELighting30Continuous.2500 mmE-LITEEMEREmergency Lighting30Continuous.2500 mmE-LITESWITLight SwitchredContinuous.2500 mmE-POWRElectrical Power,ReceptaclesredContinuous.2500 mmEPOWRPANLPower PanelsredContinuous.2500 mmL-PLNTLandscape Materials40Continuous.2500 mmL-PLNTTREEEXSTTrees - Existing toRemain40Continuous.1000 mmL-PLNTTREE-Trees - to beremoved60Continuous.1000 mmRemarksScreen60%

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on s - New40Continuous.3000 mmL-SITEFNCEFencesyellowContinuous.1500 mmM-HVACHVAC System,Ductwork,EquipmentblueContinuous.2500 mmM-HVACCDFFHVAC CeilingDiffusers30Continuous.2500 mmM-HVACODFFHVAC Wall andOther Diffusers30Continuous.2500 mmP-FIXTPlumbing FixturesGreenContinuous.2000 mmS-BEAMStructural Beams(Any Material)RedContinuous.2500 mmS-BEAMHIDDStructural BeamsHidden Elements30Hidden2.1000 mmS-COLSStructural Columns(Any Material)YellowContinuous.3500 mmS-COLSHIDDStructural ColumnsHidden Elements30Hidden2.1000 mmS-JOISStructural Joists(Any Material)MagentaContinuous.3500 mmS-JOIS-Structural Joists30Hidden2.1000 mmRemarksDEMOScreen

LayerObjects to BeDrawn on thisLayerColorLinetypeLineweightHIDDHidden .4000 mmS-FNDNHIDDStructuralFoundation HiddenElements30Hidden2.1000 mmS-METLMiscellaneous MetalShapes & PlatesMagentaContinuous.3500 mmS-METLHIDDMiscellaneousMetal, Hidden Lines30Hidden2.1000 mmS-DECKMetal DeckMagentaContinuous.2000 mmS-GRIDStructural ColumnGrid20Center2.2500 mmRemarks50%Assign linetypes to layers:Most layers will have the "Continuous" linetype (i.e. a solid, non-dashed line)assigned to them. However, you may note in the chart of standard layers thatthere are several layers which will need to have special linetypes assigned tothem. To change the linetype assigned to a layer, click on the layer name tohighlight it. Then click on the word "Continuous" at the right end of that line. Thiswill bring up a list of linetypes. If the name of the linetype you want to assign tothe layer does not appear on the list, click on the "Show Linetypes in File" buttonand select it from the list. Note that the new name of the linetype will now beshown in the list at the right end of the layer name.Assign Lineweights to each layer."Default" lineweight is 0.35mm. If you did not change the lineweight associatedwith a layer, that is what they would all be set to.It seems to us a quaint fact that in AutoCAD, lineweights are measured by defaultin millimeters. For example, new layers created in the Layer Property managerhave as their default lineweight 0.35mm. This derives from the traditional manualdrafting technique of using technical pens for ink drafting on vellum such as

manufactured by the Rotring pen company in Hamburg, Germany( since the 1928. Because the design ofthese technical pens originated in Germany, they followed a European draftingtradition and system of dimensional measurement. A full set of technical penshad the following point sizes: 0.13, 0.18, 0.25, 0.35, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, and2.0 mm. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) called for fourpen widths and set a color code for each: 0.25 (white), 0.35 (yellow), 0.5 (brown),0.7 (blue). These point sizes produced lines that related proportionally to varioustext character heights and the ISO paper sizes. All ISO paper sizes have thesame aspect ratio, 1 to 2. So any drawing made on one size of paper may beenlarged or reduced to any other size and will fit perfectly. The “zoom ratio”between any two adjacent size designations (e.g. A4 to A3) is also always 1 to 2. Given this ease of changing sizes, it is of course common to copy or print agiven document on different sizes of paper, Text made with technical pen of5 mm in height has a stroke or line thickness of 0.5 mm, and so requires abrown-nibbed 0.5 mm technical pen. If this text were drawn on an ISO-sizeddocument (e.g. A0), and the document were reproduced at half its original size(A1), the text would be rendered 3.5 mm high with a stroke thickness of 0.35 mm- the yellow-nib size. Thus, changes to reductions or enlargements can be madeeasily as everything is in proportion. This standard ensures that drawings canalways be legible even after microfilming, photocopying, and faxing.Below is the European standard paper sizes and their relationship:

A technical pen that is still widely-used in America is the Rapidograph penmanufactured by the Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth company located in ČeskéBudějovice in the Czech Republic. It has made fine drafting supplies since 1790.Their pen sizes have a number associated with a metric line width as follows:Koh-i-Noor Rapidograph pen sizes7 2.00mm6 1.40mm4 1.20mm3 ½ 1.00mm3 .80mm2 ½ .70mm2 .60mm1 .50mm

0 .35mm00 .30mm000 (3x0) .25mm0000 (4x0) .18mm000000 (6x0) .13mmWhen plotters were first manufactured for use with computers to make CAD inkplots, they made use of Rapidograph numbered pens and millimeter widths infitted into an 8-pen carousel.Set the current layer:Highlight the layer on the list you want to make current and right click - pick"Make Current." You should make A-Wall layer current for the template, becausethat is the layer you would want to use first.

12. Create the following Text StylesAnnotative Text Style:Click on the Annotate Tab in the RibbonOpen the Text Style dialogue box by clicking the clicking on the arrow thatpoints diagonally down and to the right on the "Text" panelSelect the "Standard" styleFont Name: Stylus BTCheck the box to the left of "Annotative"Check the box to the left of "Match text orientation to layoutSet "Paper Text Height" to 3/32"Click the "Apply" buttonClick the "Close" button

Text style to assign to dimensions.This text style will not need to be "Annotative," but it will be compressedhorizontally in order to facilitate placing dimension numbers betweenextension lines. It will also give dimension text a distinctive look so theywill not be confused with notes.Open the Text Style dialogue box by clicking the clicking on the arrow thatpoints diagonally down and to the right on the "Text" panelSelect the "New " buttonType the name of the new style: DIMENSIONS and Click the OK buttonFont Name: Stylus BTLeave the box to the left of "Annotative" uncheckedSet "Height" to 0Set "Width Factor" to 0.75Click the "Apply" buttonClick the "Close" buttonYour dialogue box should; look like this:

A variable height text style to use with the drawing titles in paper spaceOpen the Text Style dialogue box by clicking the clicking on the arrow thatpoints diagonally down and to the right on the "Text" panelSelect the "New " buttonType the name of the new style: TITLE and Click the OK buttonFont Name: Stylus BTLeave the box to the left of "Annotative" uncheckedSet "Height" to 0Set "Width Factor" to 1Click the "Apply" buttonClick the "Close" buttonYour dialogue box should look like this:

13. Create the following Dimension StylesClick on the Annotate Tab in the RibbonOpen the Text Style dialogue box by clicking the clicking on the arrow that pointsdiagonally down and to the right on the "Dimensions" panelSelect the Standard styleClick the "Modify " button to make the following changes to the Standard style:Select the "Symbols and Arrows" tabArrowheads First: select drop-down list and pick Architectural tickArrowheads Second: select drop-down list and pick Architectural tickArrowheads Leader: select drop-down list and pick Right angleArrow size: 3/32"Your dialogue box should look like this:

Select the "Lines" tabColor: BylayerLinetype: ByLayerLineweight: ByLayerExtend beyond ticks: 1/16"Baseline spacing: 0Extension lines Color: ByLayerLinetype ext line 1: ByLayerLinetype ext line 2: ByLayerExtension lines Linetype: ByLayerExtend beyond dim lines: 1/16"Offset from origin: 1/16"Your dialogue box should look like this:

Select the "Text" tabText style: Dimensions (you made this text style earlier in this exercise)Text color: ByLayerText height: 3/32"Fraction height scale: 0.75 (this is the height proportion of numerator anddenominator in stacked fractions)Text placement Vertical: select drop-down list and pick "Above"Text placement Horizontal: select drop-down list and pick "Centered"Offset from dim line: 1/32"Text alignment: select the radio

SETTING UP AUTOCAD TO WORK WITH ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING STYLE You will need to make some changes to AutoCAD to use it as a drafting tool for architectural drawings. AutoCAD “out-of-the-box” is set up primarily for mechanical drafting: drawing small parts for machinery using the metric system because that is the type of drafting is the most practiced in the world. However, making drawings of .

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