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Regulatory Text26PART 1926—[AMENDED]1. Subpart L of Part 1926 is revised to read asfollows:SUBPART L—SCAFFOLDSSec.1926.450Scope, Application, and DefinitionsApplicable to this Subpart1926.451General Requirements1926.452Additional Requirements Appli–cable to Specific Types of Scaffolds1926.453Aerial Lifts1926.454TrainingAppendix A to Subpart L—ScaffoldsAppendix B to Subpart L—ScaffoldsAppendix C to Subpart L—ScaffoldsAppendix D to Subpart L—ScaffoldsAppendix E to Subpart L—ScaffoldsAuthority: Section 107, Contract Work Hoursand Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act)(40 U.S.C. 333); Secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational Safetyand Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657);Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 1-90 (55 FR9033);and 29 CFR Part 1911.SUBPART L—SCAFFOLDS§1926.450 Scope, application and definitionsapplicable to this Subpart.(a) Scope and application. This subpart appliesto all scaffolds used in workplaces covered by thisPart. It does not apply to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, which are covered by§1926.550(g). The criteria for aerial lifts are set outexclusively in §1926.453.(b) Definitions. “Adjustable suspension scaffold” means a suspension scaffold equipped with ahoist(s) that can be operated by an employee(s) onthe scaffold.“Bearer (putlog)” means a horizontal transversescaffold member (which may be supported byledgers or runners) upon which the scaffold platform rests and which joins scaffold uprights, posts,poles, and similar members.“Boatswains’ chair” means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat orsling designed to support one employee in a sittingposition.“Body belt (safety belt)” means a strap withmeans both for securing it about the waist and forattaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or decelerationdevice.“Body harness” means a design of straps whichmay be secured about the employee in a manner todistribute the fall arrest forces over at least thethighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, withmeans for attaching it to other components of apersonal fall arrest system.“Brace” means a rigid connection that holds onescaffold member in a fixed position with respect toanother member, or to a building or structure.“Bricklayers’ square scaffold” means a supportedscaffold composed of framed squares which supporta platform.“Carpenters’ bracket scaffold” means a supportedscaffold consisting of a platform supported bybrackets attached to building or structural walls.“Catenary scaffold” means a suspension scaffoldconsisting of a platform supported by two essentially horizontal and parallel ropes attached tostructural members of a building or other structure.Additional support may be provided by verticalpickups.“Chimney hoist” means a multi-point adjustablesuspension scaffold used to provide access to workinside chimneys. (See “Multi-point adjustablesuspension scaffold”.)“Cleat” means a structural block used at the endof a platform to prevent the platform from slippingoff its supports. Cleats are also used to providefooting on sloped surfaces such as crawling boards.“Competent person” means one who is capableof identifying existing and predictable hazards inthe surroundings or working conditions which areunsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees,and who has authorization to take prompt correctivemeasures to eliminate them.“Continuous run scaffold” (Run scaffold) meansa two-point or multi-point adjustable suspensionscaffold constructed using a series of interconnected braced scaffold members or supportingstructures erected to form a continuous scaffold.“Coupler” means a device for locking togetherthe tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold.“Crawling board (chicken ladder)” means asupported scaffold consisting of a plank with cleatsspaced and secured to provide footing, for use onsloped surfaces such as roofs.“Deceleration device” means any mechanism,such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, speciallywoven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, orautomatic self-retracting lifeline lanyard, whichdissipates a substantial amount of energy during aRegulatory Text

27fall arrest or limits the energy imposed on anemployee during fall arrest.“Double pole (independent pole) scaffold” meansa supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s)resting on cross beams (bearers) supported byledgers and a double row of uprights independent ofsupport (except ties, guys, braces) from anystructure.“Equivalent” means alternative designs, materialsor methods to protect against a hazard which theemployer can demonstrate will provide an equal orgreater degree of safety for employees than themethods, materials or designs specified in thestandard.“Eye” or “Eye Splice” means a loop with orwithout a thimble at the end of a wire rope.“Exposed power lines” means electrical powerlines which are accessible to employees and whichare not shielded from contact. Such lines do notinclude extension cords or power tool cords.“Fabricated decking and planking” meansmanufactured platforms made of wood (includinglaminated wood, and solid sawn wood planks),metal or other materials.“Fabricated frame scaffold (tubular welded framescaffold)” means a scaffold consisting of aplatform(s) supported on fabricated end frames withintegral posts, horizontal bearers, and intermediatemembers.“Failure” means load refusal, breakage, orseparation of component parts. Load refusal is thepoint where the ultimate strength is exceeded.“Float (ship) scaffold” means a suspensionscaffold consisting of a braced platform resting ontwo parallel bearers and hung from overheadsupports by ropes of fixed length.“Form scaffold” means a supported scaffoldconsisting of a platform supported by bracketsattached to formwork.“Guardrail system” means a vertical barrier,consisting of, but not limited to, toprails, midrails,and posts, erected to prevent employees fromfalling off a scaffold platform or walkway to lowerlevels.“Hoist” means a manual or power-operatedmechanical device to raise or lower a suspendedscaffold.“Horse scaffold” means a supported scaffoldconsisting of a platform supported by constructionhorses (saw horses). Horse scaffolds constructed ofmetal are sometimes known as trestle scaffolds.“Independent pole scaffold” (see “Double polescaffold”).“Interior hung scaffold” means a suspensionscaffold consisting of a platform suspended fromthe ceiling or roof structure by fixed length supports.“Ladder jack scaffold” means a supportedscaffold consisting of a platform resting on bracketsattached to ladders.“Ladder stand” means a mobile, fixed-size, selfsupporting ladder consisting of a wide flat treadladder in the form of stairs.“Landing” means a platform at the end of a flightof stairs.“Large area scaffold” means a pole scaffold, tubeand coupler scaffold, systems scaffold, or fabricatedframe scaffold erected over substantially the entirework area. For example: a scaffold erected over theentire floor area of a room.“Lean-to scaffold” means a supported scaffoldwhich is kept erect by tilting it toward and resting itagainst a building or structure.“Lifeline” means a component consisting of aflexible line that connects to an anchorage at oneend to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or thatconnects to anchorages at both ends to stretchhorizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which servesas a means for connecting other components of apersonal fall arrest system to the anchorage.“Lower levels” means areas below the levelwhere the employee is located and to which anemployee can fall. Such areas include, but are notlimited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps,runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water,and equipment.“Masons’ adjustable supported scaffold” (see“Self-contained adjustable scaffold”).“Masons’ multi-point adjustable suspensionscaffold” means a continuous run suspensionscaffold designed and used for masonry operations.“Maximum intended load” means the total loadof all persons, equipment, tools, materials, transmitted loads, and other loads reasonably anticipated tobe applied to a scaffold or scaffold component atany one time.“Mobile scaffold” means a powered orunpowered, portable, caster or wheel-mountedsupported scaffold.“Multi-level suspended scaffold” means a twopoint or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffoldRegulatory Text

28with a series of platforms at various levels restingon common stirrups.“Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold”means a suspension scaffold consisting of aplatform(s) which is suspended by more than tworopes from overhead supports and equipped withmeans to raise and lower the platform to desiredwork levels. Such scaffolds include chimneyhoists.“Needle beam scaffold” means a platformsuspended from needle beams.“Open sides and ends” means the edges of aplatform that are more than 14 inches (36 cm) awayhorizontally from a sturdy, continuous, verticalsurface (such as a building wall) or a sturdy, continuous horizontal surface (such as a floor), or apoint of access. Exception: For plastering andlathing operations the horizontal threshold distanceis 18 inches (46 cm).“Outrigger” means the structural member of asupported scaffold used to increase the base widthof a scaffold in order to provide support for andincreased stability of the scaffold.“Outrigger beam (Thrustout)” means the structural member of a suspension scaffold or outriggerscaffold which provides support for the scaffold byextending the scaffold point of attachment to apoint out and away from the structure or building.“Outrigger scaffold” means a supported scaffoldconsisting of a platform resting on outrigger beams(thrustouts) projecting beyond the wall or face ofthe building or structure, the inboard ends of whichare secured inside the building or structure.“Overhand bricklaying” means the process oflaying bricks and masonry units such that thesurface of the wall to be jointed is on the oppositeside of the wall from the mason, requiring themason to lean over the wall to complete the work.It includes mason tending and electrical installationincorporated into the brick wall during the overhandbricklaying process.“Personal fall arrest system” means a systemused to arrest an employee’s fall. It consists of ananchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harnessand may include a lanyard, deceleration device,lifeline, or combinations of these.“Platform” means a work surface elevated abovelower levels. Platforms can be constructed usingindividual wood planks, fabricated planks, fabricated decks, and fabricated platforms.“Pole scaffold” (see definitions for “Single-polescaffold” and “Double (independent) pole scaffold”).“Power operated hoist” means a hoist which ispowered by other than human energy.“Pump jack scaffold” means a supported scaffoldconsisting of a platform supported by vertical polesand movable support brackets.“Qualified” means one who, by possession of arecognized degree, certificate, or professionalstanding, or who by extensive knowledge, training,and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related tothe subject matter, the work, or the project.“Rated load” means the manufacturer’s specifiedmaximum load to be lifted by a hoist or to beapplied to a scaffold or scaffold component.“Repair bracket scaffold” means a supportedscaffold consisting of a platform supported bybrackets which are secured in place around thecircumference or perimeter of a chimney, stack,tank or other supporting structure by one or morewire ropes placed around the supporting structure.“Roof bracket scaffold” means a rooftop supportedscaffold consisting of a platform resting on angularshaped supports.“Runner” (ledger or ribbon)” means the lengthwise horizontal spacing or bracing member whichmay support the bearers.“Scaffold” means any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supportingstructure (including points of anchorage), used forsupporting employees or materials or both.“Self-contained adjustable scaffold” means acombination supported and suspension scaffoldconsisting of an adjustable platform(s) mounted onan independent supporting frame(s) not a part of theobject being worked on, and which is equippedwith a means to permit the raising and lowering ofthe platform(s). Such systems include rolling roofrigs, rolling outrigger systems, and some masons’adjustable supported scaffolds.“Shore scaffold” means a supported scaffoldwhich is placed against a building or structure andheld in place with props.“Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold”means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended by one rope from an overheadsupport and equipped with means to permit themovement of the platform to desired work levels.“Single-pole scaffold” means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s) resting on bearers,Regulatory Text

29the outside ends of which are supported on runnerssecured to a single row of posts or uprights, and theinner ends of which are supported on or in astructure or building wall.“Stair tower (Scaffold stairway/tower)” means atower comprised of scaffold components and whichcontains internal stairway units and rest platforms.These towers are used to provide access to scaffoldplatforms and other elevated points such as floorsand roofs.“Stall load” means the load at which the primemover of a power-operated hoist stalls or the powerto the prime-mover is automatically disconnected.“Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffold”means a platform resting directly on the rungs ofstep ladders or trestle ladders.“Stilts” means a pair of poles or similar supportswith raised footrests, used to permit walking abovethe ground or working surface.“Stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable suspensionscaffold” means a continuous run suspensionscaffold designed and used for stonesetters’operations.“Supported scaffold” means one or more platforms supported by outrigger beams, brackets,poles, legs, uprights, posts, frames, or similar rigidsupport.“Suspension scaffold” means one or moreplatforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigidmeans from an overhead structure(s).“System scaffold” means a scaffold consisting ofposts with fixed connection points that acceptrunners, bearers, and diagonals that can beinterconnected at predetermined levels.“Tank builders’ scaffold” means a supportedscaffold consisting of a platform resting on bracketsthat are either directly attached to a cylindrical tankor attached to devices that are attached to such atank.“Top plate bracket scaffold” means a scaffoldsupported by brackets that hook over or are attached to the top of a wall. This type of scaffold issimilar to carpenters’ bracket scaffolds and formscaffolds and is used in residential construction forsetting trusses.“Tube and coupler scaffold” means a supportedor suspended scaffold consisting of a platform(s)supported by tubing, erected with coupling devicesconnecting uprights, braces, bearers, and runners.“Tubular welded frame scaffold” (see “Fabricated frame scaffold”).“Two-point suspension scaffold (swing stage)”means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by hangers (stirrups) suspended bytwo ropes from overhead supports and equippedwith means to permit the raising and lowering ofthe platform to desired work levels.“Unstable objects” means items whose strength,configuration, or lack of stability may allow them tobecome dislocated and shift and therefore may notproperly support the loads imposed on them.Unstable objects do not constitute a safe basesupport for scaffolds, platforms, or employees.Examples include, but are not limited to, barrels,boxes, loose brick, and concrete blocks.“Vertical pickup” means a rope used to supportthe horizontal rope in catenary scaffolds.“Walkway” means a portion of a scaffold platform used only for access and not as a work level.“Window jack scaffold” means a platform restingon a bracket or jack which projects through awindow opening.§1926.451 General requirements. This sectiondoes not apply to aerial lifts, the criteria for whichare set out in §1926.453.(a) Capacity (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5) and (g) of thissection, each scaffold and scaffold component shallbe capable of supporting, without failure, its ownweight and at least 4 times the maximum intendedload applied or transmitted to it.(2) Direct connections to roofs and floors, andcounterweights used to balance adjustable suspension scaffolds, shall be capable of resisting at least4 times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffoldoperating at the rated load of the hoist, or 1.5(minimum) times the tipping moment imposed bythe scaffold operating at the stall load of the hoist,whichever is greater.(3) Each suspension rope, including connectinghardware, used on non-adjustable suspensionscaffolds shall be capable of supporting, withoutfailure, at least 6 times the maximum intended loadapplied or transmitted to that rope.(4) Each suspension rope, including connectinghardware, used on adjustable suspension scaffoldsshall be capable of supporting, without failure, atleast 6 times the maximum intended load applied ortransmitted to that rope with the scaffold operatingat either the rated load of the hoist, or 2 (minimum)times the stall load of the hoist, whichever isgreater.Regulatory Text

30(1926.451(a) continued)(5) The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall notexceed 3 times its rated load.(6) Scaffolds shall be designed by a qualifiedperson and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Non-mandatory Appendix Ato this subpart contains examples of criteria that willenable an employer to comply with paragraph (a) ofthis section.(b) Scaffold platform construction.(1) Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between thefront uprights and the guardrail supports as follows:(i) Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold plank, fabricated plank, fabricated deck, or fabricated platform)shall be installed so that the space between adjacentunits and the space between the platform and theuprights is no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, exceptwhere the employer can demonstrate that a widerspace is necessary (for example, to fit around uprightswhen side brackets are used to extend the width of theplatform).(ii) Where the employer makes the demonstrationprovided for in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, theplatform shall be planked or decked as fully aspossible and the remaining open space between theplatform and the uprights shall not exceed 9 inches(24.1 cm).Exception to paragraph (b)(1): The requirement toprovide full planking or decking does not apply toplatforms used solely as walkways or solely byemployees performing scaffold erection or dismantling. In these situations, only the planking that theemployer establishes is necessary to provide safeworking conditions is required.(2) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and(b)(2)(ii) of this section, each scaffold platform andwalkway shall be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide.(i) Each ladder jack scaffold, top plate bracketscaffold, roof bracket scaffold, and pump jack scaffoldshall be at least 12 inches (30 cm) wide. There is nominimum width requirement for boatswains’ chairs.(ii) Where scaffolds must be used in areas that theemployer can demonstrate are so narrow that platforms and walkways cannot be at least 18 inches (46cm) wide, such platforms and walkways shall be aswide as feasible, and employees on those platformsand walkways shall be protected from fall hazards bythe use of guardrails and/or personal fall arrestsystems.(3) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(i)and (ii) of this section, the front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches (36 cm)from the face of the work, unless guardrail systemsare erected along the front edge and/or personal fallarrest systems are used in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section to protect employees fromfalling.(i) The maximum distance from the face foroutrigger scaffolds shall be 3 inches (8 cm);(ii) The maxim

and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 1-90 (55 FR 9033);and 29 CFR Part 1911. SUBPART L—SCAFFOLDS §1926.450 Scope, application and definitions applicable to this Subpart. (a) Scope and application. This subpart applies

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