TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013

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TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 20131

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013Ege Reklam Basım Sanatları San.Tic. Ltd. Sti.Esatpasa Mahallesi Ziyapasa Caddesi No:434704 Atasehir / ISTANBULT. : 90 216 470 44 70F.: 90 216 472 84 05W. : www.egebasim.com.tr2.Basım: İstanbul / Ocak 2013ISBN: 978-60563018102

TURKISHGRAMMARTURKISH GRAMMARUPDATEDACADEMIC EDITION 2013FOREWORDThe Turkish Grammar book that you have just started reading is quite differentfrom the grammar books that you read in schools. This kind of Grammar is known astraditional grammar. The main difference of a traditional grammar and that of atransformational one is that the first one describes a natural language as a staticobject, but the second one describes both the parts of the language engine and howit runs. This is like learning about a motionless car. There is something lacking in thisdescription. It is the dynamics of the parts of a car that runs a hundred and twentykilometers an hour.Traditional grammars describe only the physical appearance of a language; theydo not mind what goes on behind the curtain. The mind of a human being works likethe engine of a sports car. It arranges and chooses words matching one another,transforms simple sentence units to use in different parts of sentences, and recollectsmorphemes and phonemes to be produced by the human speech organs. All theseactivities are simultaneously carried out by the human mind.Another point that the traditional grammarians generally miss is that they write thegrammar of a certain language to teach it to those who have been learning it from thetime when they were born up to the time when they discover something calledgrammar. This is like teaching a language to professional speakers.Then, what is the use of a grammar? I believe most people were acquainted withit when they started learning a foreign language. Therefore, a grammar written forthose who are trying to learn a second language is very useful both in teaching andlearning a second language.I started teaching English as a second language in 1952, a long time ago. Yearspassed and one day I found myself as a postgraduate Fulbright student at theUniversity of Texas at Austin in 1960. Although I studied there for only a short period,I learnt enough from Prof. Archibald A. Hill and Dr. De Camp to stimulate me to learnmore about Linguistics.After I came back to Turkey, it was difficult to find books on linguistics inbooksellers in Istanbul. Thanks to The American Library in Istanbul, I was able toborrow the books that attracted my attention.In those books, I discovered Noam Chomsky, whose name I had not heard during mystay in the U.S.A.I must confess that I am indebted to the scholars and the library above in writingthis Turkish Grammar.I am also grateful to my son Dr. Özgür Göknel who encouraged me to write thisbook and to Vivatinell Warwick U.K., which sponsored to publish it.YÜKSEL GÖKNELI3

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TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013TURKISH GRAMMARUPDATED ACADEMIC EDITIONYÜKSEL GÖKNELEmail: niyazi.269.yuksel.goknel@outlook.comVivatinell Bilim-Kültür Yayınları2013Grafik Tasarım UygulamalarıVivatinell PressSelami Burhan GÖKAYİletişim:Vivatinell CosmopharmaceuticsFetih Mah. Tunca Sk. No:2 34704Ataşehir / İstanbul / TÜRKİYETel: 90 216 470 09 44Faks: 90 216 470 09 487

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TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013CONTENTSForewordContentsLogical, Morphemic, and Oral SequencingThe Turkish GrammarThe Turkish Vowel and Consonant HarmonyThe Vowel Harmony SequenceThe Consonant HarmonyMorphemes and Their AllomorphsDerivational Morphemes and Their AllomorphsMorphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce NounsMorphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce AdjectivesMorphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce NounsMorphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce NounsMorphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce AdjectivesMorphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce VerbsMorphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce VerbsInflectional Morphemes and Their AllomorphsNominal PhrasesAdverbs and AdverbialsThe Transformational Activity of the LogicForm and Function in LanguagesUsing Adjectives as AdverbsThe Inflectional MorphemesThe Defining [İ] Morpheme and Its Allomorphs [i, ı, ü, u]The [LE], [LE.YIN] and [E], [DE], [DEN] Inflectional Morphemes[LE] allomorphs: [le, la][LE.YIN]:[E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] Morphemes[E] allomorphs: [e, a][DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta][DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan]“Possessor Possessed” Noun Compounds (İsim Tamlamaları)Definite Noun Compounds (Belirtili İsim Tamlamaları)Indefinite Noun Compounds (Belirtisiz İsim Tamlamaları)Noun Compounds Without Suffixes (Takısız Tamlamalar)Noun Infinitive Compounds (İsim Mastar Tamlamaları)Prepositions and Postpositions (Edatlar or İlgeçler)Primary Stress, Secondary Stress, and 54749505555565658646668687575777879

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013[E], [DE], [DEN] Morphemes PostpositionsThe Inflectional Morphemes Attached to VerbsThe Simple Present “be”The Present Modals with Verb “be”must becan’t bemay bemay not beThe Interrogative Sentences Whose answers are "Yes" or "No"have to be, should be, ought to be, needn’t behave to be (zorundayım)needn’t be (gerek yok)The Simple Past Verb “be”Interrogative Words[MİŞ] (Rumor, Inference) (söylenti, anlam çıkarma)The Future Form of “be” (will be)“there is”, “there are”; “have, (have got)”there used to be, there used to havethere must (may) be, there can’t be, there is going to beImperatıves and WıshesWıshThe Simple Present Tense (Geniş Zaman)The Verbs Ending with Vowels or ConsonantsSome Nouns Used Together With “et”, yap”, “işle” to Produce VerbsThe Negative Form of The Simple Present TenseThe Simple Present Positive QuestionThe Simple Present Negative QuestionThe Question Words Used in the Simple Present TenseThe Present Continuous and the Present Perfect ContinuousThe Verbs That Are Not Used in the Simple Present in TurkishTurkish Verb Frames (Türkçede Fiil Çatıları)Transitive and Intransitive Verb FramesReflexive Verb FramesThe Passive Transformation of the Intransitive Verb FramesReciprocal Verb Frames (İşteş Fiil Çatıları)Both Transitively and Intransitively Used English VerbsThe Simple Past and the Present PerfectMiş’li Past Tense (Rumor and Inference) (Miş’li Geçmiş)The Simple Future and “be going 151153154156162170174

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013The Past Continuous TenseThe Past Perfect Continuous TenseWas (were) going toused toThe Rumor Forms of The Simple and The Continuous TensesThe Past Perfect TenseThe Future Continuous TenseThe Future Perfect TenseInfinitives (Mastarar)The [mek, mak] InfinitivesThe [me, ma] InfinitivesThe [iş, ış, üş, uş] InfinitivesThe [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] InfinitivesWhere and How the Infinitives Are Used1.(a) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Subject1.(b) The [mak, mak] Infinitives Used before Postpositions1.(c) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Objects of “iste”1.(d) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used Attached to [DEN] Morph.2.(a) The [me, ma] Infinitives Used Attached to Noun Compounds2.(b) “noun infinitive”-[İ], and “V-[me-/y/i], V-[ma]-/y/ı]2.(c) “noun infinitive”-[e, a]2.(d) “noun infinitive” Compounds Followed by [den, dan]3.(a) “noun infinitive”-[İ], [E], [DE], [DEN]4.(a) possessor noun V-[dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]The Passive InfinitiveModalsPresent Modalscan, may [ebil, abil]must [meli, malı]have to (zorunda)needn’t (don’t have to)should (ought to)Past ModalsCouldwas (were) able towould, could (polite request)Perfect Modalsmust havecan’t (couldn’t) 12214214215216217217219

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013should have (ought to have)may havemight haveneedn’t havedidn’t need toTransformations (English)The Nominalization of the Simple English SentencesThe Transformation of the Simple Sentences into DeterminersThe Productivity of the Natural LanguagesTheTransformed Simple Sentences Used as Adverbial ClausesTurkish Sentence NominalizationsTurkish Simple Sentence NominalizationTransformed Nominal PhrasesThe infinitives with [me, ma]:The infinitives with [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]:Simple Sentence Nominalization 1: V - [DİK] - [pers] - ([İ])The Simple Future Tense: “V-[ecek, acak]-[pers]-[İ]”The Past Perfect: “V-[miş, mış, müş, muş] ol-[duk]-[pers]-[İ]”The Future Perfect “V-[miş, mış, müş, muş] ol-[duk]]-[pers]-[İ]Simple Sentences with the Verb root “ol” (be)Chain Noun Compounds2. V- [DİK]- [pers]-([İ])V-[MİŞ] ol-[duk]-[pers]-([İ])Nominalized Sentences Containing “question words”Turkish “Determiner Determined” CompoundsSimple Sentences and Transformed Nominal PhrasesThe Passive Transformation and the Passive Verb FramesThe Verb FramesThe Structural Composition of the Causative Verb FramesA Short List of Verb FramesThe Order of MorphemesCausative Verb Frame ExamplesThe Passive CausativeSyllabicationDividing the Verb Compositions into SyllablesThe Rumor Forms of the Simple Present, Continuous and Future TensesNegative Verb CompositionsSome Example Sentences of the Verb FramesAdverbial Clauses (Postpositional Adverbial 271272273273282294297298343

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013Timebeforeafterwhen and whilewhileas soon asuntil“by” and “by the time”sinceCause or ReasonContrast (Rağmen)PurposePlaceMannerasas if (as though)Resultso thatsuch thato kadar adjective noun-time ki“too adjective to V için” and “adjective enough to Verb”DegreeComparative DegreeSuperlative DegreePositive or Negative EqualityParallel Proportion (Koşut Uyum)Wishwish wouldwish past subjunctivewish past perfect or perfect modalConditional SentencesPresent Real SuppositionPresent Unreal (contrary to fact) SuppositionPast Real SuppositionPast Unreal (contrary to fact) SuppositionOrders and RequestsPlain Orders and RequestsPolite RequestsPolite 385386386389390391393393394395395

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013{ V [İP] }Question Tags ( değil mi?)So do I (Neither do I)Conjunctions and Transitional PhrasesIntensifiersReported SpeechRoots, Stems and Verb FramesRational SequencingMorphemic SequencingThe Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Nouns and Nominal PhrasesThe Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Action VebsDual Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Verb Roots, Stems and FramesThe Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to "be" (ol) VerbsModal Auxiliary VerbsOral Harmonic SequencingMorphemic and Oral SequencesSymbols and 21421423424425426428431434435

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013LOGICAL, MORPHEMIC, AND ORAL SEQUENCINGNoam Chomsky and Steven Pinker in their books assert that the humanmind has an inborn logical ability which seperates a body of thought (asentence) into two parts to produce sentences. A person thinks logically thata sentence should be about something or someone, and uses them assubjects, and uses all the information given about the subjects as predicates.Chomsky calls them Nominal Phrase and Verbal Phrase, in short "NP VP". Additionally, the predicate part (VP) is also logically seperated into twoparts as a verb, and an object 'V NP'. These logical storages are emptybefore one starts learning his/her native language. When someone startshearing the sounds of his language, he loads these sounds with meaning,and inserts them into these empty logical storages. Arranging these storagesin succession is also learned while someone is being exposed to his nativelanguage. Therefore, the order of the logical storages change from languageto language. These logical storages, and their learned succession are calledthe logical sequence of a sentence. The so called storages are also flexibleenough to hold the shortest and the longest language units.The word verb "V" covers a verb root, a verb stem, or a verb frame, andall the inflectional suffixes attached to them such as "ed", "ing", "s", andauxiliary verbs such as "must", "may", "might", "can", "could", etc. precededby them. The verbs together with these inflectional suffixes and auxiliaryverbs constitude a verb composition concept and called a verb "V".All subjects and objects, whether long or short, are Nominal Phrases. If averb is intransitive, it does not need an object (NP), so the predicate parthas only a verb, and some adverbs or adverbials. The predicates that have"be" verbs are also considered Verbal Phrases.The sentences described above are of three kinds:1. A subject, a transitive verb, and an object: Jack killed a mouse.subjNP2. A subject and an intransitive verb: Jack sleeps.subjNPVVP3. A subject and a "be" complement: Jack is brave.subjNP15VVPVobj (NP)VP

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013Although these logical storages are inborn, their sequencing is learnedthrough the experiences of an individual. Therefore, the sequencing of thesubject and predicate, and that of the subject, verb, and object changefrom language to language. For instance in English:Iam coming.Subj (NP)pred (VP)(There are no personal suffixes attached to verbs in English.)In Turkish: Geliyor –Vum (ge*li*yo*rum)subj (NP)In Turkish, a personal concept is expressed by a personal suffix either attached to a verb at the end of a sentence, or expressed by both a pronoun inthe beginning and a suffix at the end of a sentence. Using personal suffixesattached to the ends of the Turkish sentences (except for the third personsingular) is a grammatical necessity.Furthermore, the subject, verb, and object sequence of the English language differs in Turkish as subject (pronoun), object, verb, subject (suffix);or object, verb, subject (suffix):English:Weare pickingsubj (pron)VçiçekTurkish 1: Bizsubj (pron)objflowers.objtopluyor-uz. We are picking flowers.V-subj (suffix)Turkish 2: Çiçek topluyor-uz. We are picking flowers.objV-subj (suffix)The reason why there may be two identical alternative sentences in Turkishis that one should compulsorily use a personal suffix attached to the verb ina sentence, but if he wants to emphasize the subject, he could also use apronoun in the beginning of a sentence as well as a personal suffix representing the pronoun at the end.If we use a sentence without a personal suffix, the sentence becomes ungrammatical although it is understandable:*Ben yarın Ankara'ya gidiyor. (ungrammatical)(Ben) yarın Ankara'ya gidiyor-um. (grammatical) (“Ben” could be ignored.)*Ben sen-i seviyor. (ungrammatical)(Ben) sen-i veviyor-um. (grammatical) (“Ben” could be ignored.)As a general syllabication rule in Turkish, the single underlined consonants of the words or allomorphs detach from their syllables, and attach tothe first vowels of the following morphemes as in the examples above. This16

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013operation of the oral sequence of the Turkish language reorganizes themorphemic sequence to produce harmonic syllable sequences. The linesthat are put under the consonants are not used in writing.One could estimate that there exist empty inborn logical subject-predicate,and subject-verb-object storages in one's mind ready to be filled with thelearned sequences of phonemes and morphemes in a newborn baby. Anewborn baby hears the sounds of his/her native language, learns whichsounds convey which words and morphemes. He/she also hears the sequences of subject-predicate, and subject-verb-object, and the syllablesof his/her native language. All these sounds and information gather in itsmemory, and are inserted into the inborn storages to produce sensiblesentences.All human beings are born eager to learn. Learning his/her language is aninherent instinct in everybody, which Steven Pinker calls it "Language Instinct". Children do not know what a subject, or an object is, but as soon asthey learn the interrogative concepts “who?”, “what?”, “when?”, ”where?”,“why?”, “how?”, etc., they start asking questions. In all languages, questionwords ask for the essential parts of a sentence such as “subject”, “object”,and “adverbs of time, place, reason”, etc. So, he logically knows that “who”and “what” asks for the subject, and “whom” and “what” asks for the object,and he also understands that all the answers to the questions “who”, and“what” are subjects, and “whom”, and “what” are the objects. For instance:Jack found a watch.whowhatJack’s sister found a watch.whowhatThe boy who was walking along the street found a watch.whowhatThe boy who was walking along the street found the watch that I lost.whowhatJack saw a rabbit in the garden yesterday.whowhatwherewhenThe house that Jack built collapsed suddenly last night.whathowwhenJack found a watch while he was walking down the streed.whowhatwhenJack passed his examination with difficulty because he was lazy.whowhathow17why

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013Jack saw Mary among the crowd.whowhomwhereJack bought some flowers for his mother.whowhatfor whomJack was coming from school.whofrom whereThe parts that are not underlined in the sentences above are verbs. Ifsomeone wants to ask about these verbs he says, “What did jack do?”, andfor the underlined parts he says, “From where was Jack coming?”, “Wherewas Jack coming from?”, “Whom did Jack see?”, etc.Consequently, it is possible to say that a person fills the subject and predicate logical storages using interrogative instruments.As in all natural languages, the Turkish language production system governsthree groups of sequences. The first sequence is the logical sequencewhich governs the basic network of a sentence in which all sentences takeform.The second sequence is the morphemic sequence which arranges the sequence of the morphemes, and allomorphs in the Turkish words.The third sequence is the oral or phonological sequence, which arrangesthe syllables and the overall harmony of the words in a sentence.THE TURKISH GRAMMARAfter the above short survey of the universal Transformational GenerativeGrammar (with some interpretations of my own), we can begin with thesound system of The Turkish language.Turkish has 29 letters in its alphabet. Some of these letters / o, u, a, ı / and /ö, ü, e, i / are vowels (ünlüler), and the others / b, c, ç, d, f, g, ğ, h, j, k, l,m, n, p, r, s, ş, t, v, y, z / are consonants (ünsüzler).All the letters above represent phonemes, that is why they are shown between “/ /” signs. Phonemics is not interested in detailed phonetic differences. Some of the vowels / ı, ö, ü / do not exist in English. They are pronounced: /ı/ as in English “again”; /ö/ as in German “schön”; and /ü/ as inGerman “hütte” respectively.Among the consonants, there are the / ç, ş, ğ / phonemes, which are pronounced as “ch” as in “church”, “sh” as in “fish”; and to produce the /ğ/18

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013phoneme, which does not exist in English, first produce /g/ phoneme, andmake it longer by letting your breath pass between your tongue and the hardpalate of your mouth while vibrating your vocal cords.THE TURKISH VOWEL AND CONSONANT HARMONYTurkish is said to be an agglutinative language, which means that suffixesare attached to word roots or stems one following the other in a sequence toarrange words. To understand how these suffix chains are arranged, oneshould understand the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkishlanguage before one begins to atta

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION 2013 3 TURKISH GRAMMAR I FOREWORD The Turkish Grammar book that you have just started reading is quite different from the grammar books that you read in schools. This kind of Grammar is known as tradit ional grammar. The main differenc

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