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Methodological BriefsImpact Evaluation No. 2Theory of ChangePatricia Rogers

UNICEF OFFICE OF RESEARCHThe Office of Research is UNICEF’s dedicated research arm. Its prime objectives are to improveinternational understanding of issues relating to children’s rights and to help facilitate full implementation ofthe Convention on the Rights of the Child across the world. The Office of Research aims to set out acomprehensive framework for research and knowledge within the organization, in support of UNICEF’sglobal programmes and policies, and works with partners to make policies for children evidence-based.Publications produced by the Office are contributions to a global debate on children and child rights issuesand include a wide range of opinions.The views expressed are those of the authors and/or editors and are published in order to stimulate furtherdialogue on impact evaluation methods. They do not necessarily reflect the policies or views of UNICEF.OFFICE OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGICAL BRIEFSUNICEF Office of Research Methodological Briefs are intended to share contemporary research practice,methods, designs, and recommendations from renowned researchers and evaluators. The primaryaudience is UNICEF staff who conduct, commission or interpret research and evaluation findings to makedecisions about programming, policy and advocacy.This brief has undergone an internal peer review.The text has not been edited to official publication standards and UNICEF accepts no responsibility forerrors.Extracts from this publication may be freely reproduced with due acknowledgement. Requests to utilizelarger portions or the full publication should be addressed to the Communication Unit atflorence@unicef.orgTo consult and download the Methodological Briefs, please visit readers wishing to cite this document we suggest the following form:Rogers, P. (2014). Theory of Change, Methodological Briefs: Impact Evaluation 2, UNICEF Officeof Research, Florence.Acknowledgements: This brief benefited from the guidance of many individuals. The author and the Officeof Research wish to thank everyone who contributed and in particular the following:Contributors: Greet PeersmanReviewers: Nikola Balvin, Roberto Benes, Fiachra McAsey, Gustave Nebie 2014 United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)September 2014UNICEF Office of Research - InnocentiPiazza SS. Annunziata, 1250122 Florence, ItalyTel: ( 39) 055 20 330Fax: ( 39) 055 2033

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of Change1.THEORY OF CHANGE: A BRIEF DESCRIPTIONA ‘theory of change’ explains how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute toachieving the final intended impacts. It can be developed for any level of intervention – an event, a project,a programme, a policy, a strategy or an organization.A theory of change can be developed for an intervention: where objectives and activities can be identified and tightly planned beforehand, or that changes and adapts in response to emerging issues and to decisions made by partners andother stakeholders.Sometimes the term is used generally to refer to any version of this process, including a results chain,which shows a series of boxes from inputs to outputs, outcomes and impacts (see figure 1), or a logframe,which represents the same information in a matrix.Figure 1.Schematic depiction of a theory of change, Peer Review Group meetingSource: United Nations Children’s Fund, Supplementary Programme Note on the Theory of Change, Peer Review Groupmeeting, 11 March 2014, UNICEF, New York, 2014, p. 4. See 10Mar2014.pdf.Page 1

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of ChangeFigure 2.Theory of change for multi-country evaluation on increasing access and equity inearly childhood educationSource: UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (2014)Terms of Reference for Multi-country evaluation on increasing access and equity in early childhood education: UNICEF’scontribution to achieving results in six CEE-CIS countries, 2005–2012, p. 7.Other times it is used to refer to specific types of representations – especially those that provide more detailabout different levels of change, different actors and different causal pathways (see figure 2). Sometimesthese representations show the contextual factors that help or hinder this change, and the assumptions onwhich it is built (conditions which are necessary for it to work but which are not under the control ofimplementers).This brief discusses the concept of theory of change in the broader sense of the term, while recognizingthat it is sometimes defined more narrowly.A theory of change can be used for strategic planning or programme/policy planning to identify the currentsituation (in terms of needs and opportunities), the intended situation and what needs to be done to movefrom one to the other. This can help to design more realistic goals, clarify accountabilities and establish acommon understanding of the strategies to be used to achieve the goals.For example, the UNICEF Strategic Plan 2014–2017 is based on a theory of change that builds onUNICEF’s comparative advantages, and encompasses identifying and scaling up effective technological,scientific and programmatic innovations; improving organizational capacity for the implementation ofpolicies and national laws; developing the capacities of children, families and communities to act as agentsof change; and working in national and global partnerships.A theory of change can also be used during implementation to identify which indicators must be monitored,and to explain to staff, funders and partners how the programme or policy works.Page 2

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of ChangeIn an impact evaluation, a theory of change is useful for identifying the data that need to be collected andhow they should be analysed. It can also provide a framework for reporting.Developing a theory of change is not simply a matter of filling in boxes; it is important to ensure that thetheory of change adequately represents what the intervention intends to achieve and how – to thesatisfaction of those who will use it. Ideally, a theory of change explains how change is understood to comeabout, rather than simply linking activities to expected results with an arrow.Main points1. A theory of change explains how activities are understood to contribute to a series of results thatproduce the final intended impacts.2. There are different ways of developing and representing a theory of change.3. In an impact evaluation, the existing theory of change should be reviewed and revised as neededto guide data collection, analysis and reporting2.WHEN IS IT APPROPRIATE TO USE A THEORY OFCHANGE?A theory of change is a building block for impact evaluations and should be used in some form in everyimpact evaluation. It is particularly useful when the intention is to learn from an impact evaluationconducted at one site and then apply these lessons to another site.When planning an impact evaluation and developing the terms of reference, any existing theory of changefor the programme or policy should be reviewed for appropriateness, comprehensiveness and accuracy,and revised as necessary. It should continue to be revised over the course of the evaluation should eitherthe intervention itself or the understanding of how it works – or is intended to work – change.3.HOW TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF CHANGEA theory of change should begin with a good situation analysis. This involves identifying: the problem thatthe intervention seeks to address; the causes and consequences of this problem; and the opportunities, forexample, synergies with other initiatives, or existing resources that can be leveraged or strengthened. Evenin situations where the theory of change is being developed or significantly revised well afterimplementation has commenced, it is important to review the situation that gave rise to the intervention toensure that the intervention is attempting to solve the right problem.The next stage is to clarify which aspects of the problem the intervention will address, and to make explicitthe outcomes and impacts that it seeks to produce.When there is agreement about the current situation and the desired situation that the intervention isintended to contribute to producing, the next step is to develop a theory about how to get from the currentsituation to the desired situation. This should be in two parts – a theory about how this change will comeabout (e.g., deterrence) and a theory about how the intervention will trigger this change (e.g., drawingattention to gaps in service delivery by conducting surveys of availability and publishing the findings). Thisis illustrated in figure 3, which shows some theories about how change might come about and what theintervention might do to trigger each of these changes.Page 3

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of ChangeFigure 3.Theories about how change comes about and how the intervention can trigger thechangeIndividual change: transformative change of acritical mass of individualsInvestment in individual change throughtraining, personal transformation/consciousness-raising workshops or processes;dialogues and encounter groups; traumahealingHealth relationships and connections: breakdown isolation, polarization, division, prejudiceand stereotypes between/among groupsProcess of inter-group dialogue; networking;relationship building processes; joint efforts andpractical programmes on substantive problemsRoot causes/justice: address underlying issuesof injustice, oppression/exploitation, threats toidentity and security, and people’s sense ofinjury/victimizationLong-term campaigns for social and structuralchange; truth and reconciliation; changes insocial institutions, laws, regulations andeconomic systemsInstitutional development: establishstable/reliable social institutions that guaranteedemocracy, equity, justice and fair allocation ofresourcesNew institutional and governancearrangements/entities; development of humanrights, rule of law, anti-corruption; establishmentof democratic/equitable economic structures;decentralizationGrass roots mobilization: mobilizing thecommunity so that politicians have to payattentionMobilize grass roots groups, non-violent directaction campaigns, use of the media,education/mobilization efforts, advocacy groupsSource: Based on Church, Cheyanne and Mark M. Rogers, Designing for Results: Integrating Monitoring and Evaluationin Conflict Transformation Programs, Search for Common Ground, Washington, D.C., 2006, pp. 14–15. See manualpage.html.A theory of change should ideally draw upon a combination of information and processes, including: needs assessment or determinant analysis that identifies what must be in place for success documented objectives previous evaluations and research on similar programmes or policies, particularly those that includeanalysis of how the programmes/policies work expert opinion on these types of programmes/policies perspectives of staff, managers, partners and community members about how (not whether or not)the intervention works, or fails to work feedback from relevant stakeholders on draft versions of the theory of change research-based theories about how change occurs.In many cases, it is helpful to draw on theories from research to inform the development of the theory ofchange. For example, an evaluation conducted in Africa – which examined the impacts of capacitydevelopment on institutionalization, emergency preparedness and response, and disaster risk reduction inPage 4

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of Changethe education sector1 – identified four different research-based theories to inform the evaluation. Lewin’sthree-stage model of change2 focuses on the driving forces that facilitate or hinder change, and how thoseinvolved in the change agree that the change is necessary, collaborate towards the desired result andensure the support of the relevant leadership. Lippitt’s phases of change theory3 sets out seven phases of4change that are brought about by a change agent. Prochaska and DiClemente’s change theory identifiesthe different stages of change, including the maintenance of the change, and acknowledging that changeoften involves failures and restarts, and that different activities are needed at each stage. Social cognitive5theory identifies different elements required to learn to behave differently: observationallearning/modelling, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, goal setting and self-regulation.In evaluations that have a long time frame, and where there has previously been an insubstantial theory ofchange, it could be appropriate to commit more time and budget to this process, including by conveningstakeholders to review and revise draft versions.In evaluations that have a short time frame and a small budget, the process of developing and using thetheory of change should be incorporated into all stages of the evaluation. The evaluation team shouldreview and revise the theory of change as part of an inception report for the evaluation – including using itas a source for reviewing the evaluation questions, and developing or reviewing the planned researchdesign and methods of data collection and analysis – and then use it as a conceptual framework foranalysing and reporting the data.In some evaluations, where there is considerable existing knowledge about how the particular interventionswork, and where the intervention does not need to change and adapt during implementation, it will bepossible to set out a ‘road map’ in advance, and then use this as a reference point for the evaluation.Some interventions cannot be fully planned in advance, however – for example, programmes in settingswhere implementation has to respond to emerging barriers and opportunities such as to support thedevelopment of legislation in a volatile political environment. In such cases, different strategies will beneeded to develop and use a theory of change for impact evaluation.6 For some interventions, it may bepossible to document the emerging theory of change as different strategies are trialled and adapted orreplaced. In other cases, there may be a high-level theory of how change will come about (e.g., through theprovision of incentives) and also an emerging theory about what has to be done in a particular setting tobring this about. Elsewhere, its fundamental basis may revolve around adaptive learning, in which case thetheory of change should focus on articulating how the various actors gather and use information together tomake ongoing improvements and adaptations.123The Post-war Reconstruction & Development Unit and the Institute of Effective Education, Building a Culture of Resilience: Thefinal report of the evaluation of capacity development in, and its impact on institutionalization of, emergency preparedness andresponse (EPR) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the education sector in Eastern and Southern Africa Region, University ofYork, York, June 2012. See a culture %20of resilience UNICEF %20EvaluationReport.pdf .Lewin, Kurt, Field Theory in Social Science: Selected theoretical papers, Harper & Row, New York, 1951.Lippitt, Ronald, et al., The Dynamics of Planned Change, Harcourt, Brace & Company, New York, 1958.4Prochaska, James O., and Carlo C. DiClemente, ‘Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change’,Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 19 (3), 1982, pp. 276–288.5Bandura, Albert, ‘Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective’, Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), February 2001, pp. 1–26. See ev.psych., Sue C. and Patricia J. Rogers, Purposeful Program Theory: Effective Use of Logic Models and Theories of Change,Jossey-Bass/Wiley, San Francisco, 2012, pp. 264–277.Page 5

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of Change4.HOW TO USE A THEORY OF CHANGE FOR AN IMPACTEVALUATIONA theory of change can support an impact evaluation in several ways. It can identify: specific evaluation questions, especially in relation to those elements of the theory of change forwhich there is no substantive evidence yet relevant variables that should be included in data collection intermediate outcomes that can be used as markers of success in situations where the impacts ofinterest will not occur during the time frame of the evaluation aspects of implementation that should be examined potentially relevant contextual factors that should be addressed in data collection and in analysis, tolook for patterns.A good theory of change explains how a programme or intervention is understood to work. For example, aprogramme that aimed to reduce the incidence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) includedmeetings of community members. A good theory of change would show how these meetings were intendedto contribute to the intended final results. Was it by providing new information to community members (e.g.,regarding the health risks)? Was it by changing social norms (e.g., by providing new information about thechanging incidence)? Or was it by creating opportunities for people to share strategies to overcomebarriers (e.g., by sharing ideas for alternative ceremonies to mark the start of adulthood)? A good theory ofchange would also explain how the programme was expected to achieve its intended results of enhancingrelevant legal and policy frameworks at the national and sub-national level. Would this be achieved throughstrengthening the capacity of key actors to coordinate action, through providing models for legal and policyframeworks, by supporting advocacy efforts, or through some other causal processes?An impact evaluation can check for success along the causal chain and, if necessary, examine thesealternative causal paths. For example, in a programme that provided capacity development to support thedevelopment of new policy frameworks, were the sessions delivered as intended? Was the materialrelevant and accessible? Were facilitators seen as credible? Failure to achieve these intermediate resultsmight indicate implementation failure. The capacity development activities might have been implementedadequately, however – thus lack of capacity was not the barrier to developing new policies, rather it wasthe opposition of influential organizations. In this case, a failure to achieve the final intended impacts wouldbe due to theory failure rather than implementation failure. This has important implications for therecommendations that come out of an evaluation. In cases of implementation failure, it is reasonable torecommend actions to improve the quality of implementation; in cases of theory failure, it is necessary torethink the whole strategy for achieving impacts.5.ETHICAL ISSUES AND PRACTICAL LIMITATIONSTime is needed during the evaluation process to develop and use the theory of change. There arestrategies to minimize how much time is required (see above). In programme areas where there has eitherbeen little previous research or evaluation undertaken, or it has not been synthesized into an accessibledocument, it can be useful to undertake a synthesis of existing knowledge – including input from relevantkey informants – before beginning to develop a theory of change.Ethical concerns may arise in regard to articulating the theory of change of certain advocacy interventionswhere the public disclosure of a strategy might allow opponents to undermine future efforts. In such a rarecase, advice should be sought as to what level of detail ought to be disclosed.Page 6

Methodological Brief No.2: Theory of Change6.WHICH OTHER METHODS WORK WELL WITH THIS ONE?The development of a theory of change should ideally draw upon a combination of information andprocesses

Theory of change for multi-country evaluation on increasing access and equity in . This can help to design more realistic goals, clarify accountabilities and establish a . A theory of change is a building block for impact evaluations and should be used in some form in every impact evalua

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