Evaluation Of Coping Strategies With Stress Of Parents Who .

3y ago
49 Views
2 Downloads
1.92 MB
12 Pages
Last View : 18d ago
Last Download : 4m ago
Upload by : Mya Leung
Transcription

Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(6): 1129-1140, 2018DOI: ation of Coping Strategies with Stress of ParentsWho Have Mentally Disabled Children inNorthern CyprusRamazan Atasoy1,*, Cengiz Sevim21Turkish MoNE, Ankara, TurkeyTurkish MoNE, Bursa, Turkey2Copyright 2018 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access underthe terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International LicenseAbstract In this research, it’s aimed to determine theproblems that faced by parents who have mentallydisabled children and evaluate coping strategies of them.Interview technique is performed in this study which isdesigned in qualitative model. Study group which wasdetermined by purposeful sampling method is consistedfrom the parents of mentally disabled children who arestudying in private education centres in TRNC. Data areevaluated by content analysis. According to the findingsin this research, the problems of parents which they facedare determined as related with their each other that areeducational, physical, psychological, sociological,economical and also health care problems and problemswith siblings. It’s found that parents are focusedespecially on educational problems. According to theresults that were emerged in the research that educationalproblems are cumulated in two categories as problemsrelated with the quality of education that given to childrenand acceptance of children in educational environment,and the problems on the need for training of parents. It’sdetermined in this research that increasing educational andconsciousness level of parents has more efficiency forcoping with stress. Also it’s found that, parents useemotional focused coping strategies for struggle withmental disability which is the main source of stress; butthey prefer problem focused coping strategies forstruggling with external problems that causes increasingthe stress. It’s suggested that qualified and continuouseducational service for both mentally disabled childrenand their parents could direct them to problem focusedcoping strategies instead of emotional focused copingstrategies.KeywordsEmotional Focused Coping Strategies,Problem Focused Coping Strategies, Mental Disabilities,Education1. IntroductionFuture of the society depends on qualified training ofchildren. The first education is given in familyenvironment. One of the most important aims of familymembers is to provide a healthy environment for thegrowing up of individuals [1]. But many children areborne with disabilities or become disabled for variousreasons. One of these disabilities is mental disability.Mental disability is a common disability and it’s asituation that causes limitation on mental functions andskills for conceptual, social and practical harmony [2].Mental disabled people have difficulties in differentgrades for self-care, communication, keeping self-health,and solving problems in daily life [2, 3]. There is a greatresponsibility and mission for parents in the period oftraining and gaining to the society and coping with theproblems that they experienced.Mental disability is defined as limitations on bothmental functions and adaptive fields occur before 18 yearsold in the instructions of AAMR (Association ofAmerican Mental Disability) and AAIDD (AmericanAssociation of Mental and Developmental Inadequacy).Limitations on mental functions are the limitations thatoccur in basic processing skills. Adaptive skills fields arelisted as communication, social skills, social benefits,health, spare times and job [2]. Mental disability could bedefined as “inadequacy for solving daily problems” in thiscontext.An individual with mental disability is defined asindividual who has two levels under the standarddeviation for mental functions in Special EducationServices Instruction of National Education Ministry whichwas published in 2006. According to the differentiation onthese mental functions an individual with mental disabilityis defined as who has limitations or lack on conceptual ,social or practical adaptation and these aspects of themhas emerged before age 18 and who needs special

1130Evaluation of Coping Strategies with Stress of Parents Who Have Mentally Disabled Children in Northern Cypruseducation and supportive education [4].Mental disability is also defined as being in a situationthat significantly lowers level for mental functions in theinstruction of AAIDD 2002. Mentally disabled individualsare under the 97% of the society for performing mentalfunctions and mental capacity. Intelligence tests are usedfor diagnosing of mental disability. Individuals who have70 and lower scores in standard intelligence test whichevaluates IQ score on 100 point are assessed as mentallydisabled [5].There are different approaches directed to classificationof mentally disabled children. In The literature there areclassifications for medical, psychological and educationalfields. Performing of that kind of classification is deemedas important for determining of differences belonged toeach of children and providing special educationalpossibilities for them. Most accepting method forclassification of mentally disabled individuals in recentyears is classification for educational diagnosisclassification. Classification according to approach isshown in Table 1.Table 1. Classifications directed to Mentally Disabled IndividualsIQMedicalDiagnosis70 - 55Debilitated55 - 35Imbecile35 - 25Idiot25 - 0IdiotPsychologicalDiagnosisMildly mentaldisabledModeratemental disabledSeriouslymental disabledSeriously heavymental dedFullyDependentHuman is a social existence. This existence is formedaccording to relationship of the other individuals andenvironmental factors. These economic, social, culturaland technological changes that experienced nowadays arethe factors that formed the life of an individual. Humanbeings affected by this change inevitably. Alteration anddevelopment on living conditions force and threat thephysical and physiological limits of individuals. Humanbeing should live by forcing their limitation in everysituation and in every stage of the life. This is the reasonof stress. Therefore stress is assumed as a disease ofmodern ages and daily life [6]. Stress is a reality of humanlife and has become a concept that confronted frequentlyin our both daily life and business environment [7].Stress is a situation that emerged when the limitation ofan individual has forced both physically andpsychologically [8]. In another word stress is awidespread response of an individual to every changing inhis /her life [9].Some psychological and physical disease could beoccurring in person who exposed and has to live withstress. Person could be in a burnout period if the factorswhich cause stress and stress would keep its effect on theperson [10]. In stressful situation, there would be fear,anxiety or tension that are psychological responses such asphysiological response those are sweating, blushing andincreasing of heart rate according to characteristic of aperson. Instead of complaining and bewailing from theconfronted problem, person who is under the stress shouldfocus both emotional and mental energy on methodswhich are directed to solving the problem [11]. Howeverstress in a certain level is necessary to increase the qualityof life.Coping with negativities which cause stress is define asstress management. In other statement; stress managementis defined as changing the situation that causes stress orthe responses to that situation for the sense of coping withstress and increasing the life quality. Stress managementis expressed as coping with negativity that causes stress[12]. The aim of stress management is to increase thequality of life of individuals. Another goal of the stressmanagement is to help for rightly defining of the problemsand protect the individuals from both physical andpsychological damages. The other object of stressmanagement is to present the causes that create stress andresponses to them and teaching and developing methodsfor coping with them [13].The first step for coping with stress is to realize thestress and find out how stress affects the person. Differentcoping strategies which could be varied from person toperson could be performed after this first stage [14]. Anindividual doesn’t give reaction in same way wheneverthey confronted with a stressful situation. Thereforeindividuals comprehend in different ways the stress. Thiscomprehension varies with age gender, culture and socialenvironment where the individual lives [15].Literature describes the ways of coping with stress indifferent forms [8, 16, 17, 18]. It’s possible to classify themethods for coping with stress as problem focused copingstrategies and emotional coping strategies with stress.Problem focused coping is aimed to decrease the effect ofsource of stress or to develop coping strategies of theperson in stressful situation. Individuals who preferproblem focused coping strategy which defined as activecoping strategy are try to understand and change source ofstress directly [14, 17, 19]. Emotion focused copingstrategy includes to decrease or regulate the emotionalresults of stressful situation. The individual tries todecrease or change the direction of the emotional resultsof the stressful situation by emotion focused copingstrategy [20]. The most significant difference betweenthose two method is while active, logic and consciousmethods are applying that directed to change the stressfulsituation with problem focused coping strategy, passivemethods prefer in emotion focused coping strategy [17].While problem focused strategy intends to change thesituation, emotion focused strategy intends to change thereactions to the stressful situation.Mental disability is unchangeable and persistentsituation according to Friedrich et al. [16]. A persistentdisability is a source of stress that needs to be constantly

Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(6): 1129-1140, 2018challenged by parents. Families often remain incapable tocope with this intense stressful, long-term problem andexperience a variety of behavioural and emotionalproblems. A child with mental disability depends to parentsand surroundings in a certain extent [21, 22]. It has beenshown that milieu of the children with mental disabilityexperience stress and has difficulties to perform their rolesboth in family life and their social life and experiencesocial exclusion in literature [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,30].The problems which parents of children with mentaldisability are confronted are determined and strategies forcoping with stress of them are evaluated in this research.In order to reach this aim, the answers to the followingquestions are searched.1. What are the problems that you confronted as afamily of a mentally disabled child?2. What are the signs for stress on parents of amentally disabled child?3. What kind of methods do you exert to cope withstress through disability of your child?1131It is revealed that main resource of the stress that parentshave experienced is mental disability of their children inthis model. The other stress factors which are developedconsequence to this main stress resource are problemswhich have interwoven characteristic. Respectivelycognitive, material and behavioural strategies are appliedas emotion focused coping strategies for coping withmental disability. Parents resort to problem-focused oremotion-focused strategies for coping with external orrelative stressors depending on circumstances.2.2. Universe of the Research and Study Group2. MethodStudy of the research is parents of 304 of mentaldisabled students who are studying in Special EducationCentres in TRNC. Purpose sampling method wasperformed for creating the study group of the research.Maximum diversity and easily accessibility is consideredfor assigning of the sampling [32]. The sampling isconsisted from parents of students who have diagnosed fordiverse mental disability (n 21 mother, n 4 father). Theinterviews were conducted on the basis of volunteerismwith the parents of students. Descriptive information forparticipants is given in Table 2.2.1. Model of the ResearchTable 2.researchThis research that evaluates the stress management ofthe parents of mentally disabled children in TurkishRepublic of Northern Cyprus is performed in qualitativeresearch methodology, pattern of phenomenology and byinterview technique. Researches of phenomenology revealexamples, explanations and experiences which could helpto understand and recognize a phenomenon [31]. Theobject of the interview technique is to enter into the innerworld and to understand point of view of an individual [32].This research has been modelled as shown in figure 1below in the direction of the findings.Descriptive Aspects of Parents who participates to theVariablesCaregiver to thechildEducational Levelof ParentsEconomical Levelof ParentsFirst time to getaid for theproblem of childAge at whichparents discerndisability in theirchildrenFigure 1. Model of the researchn%Mother520FatherBoth Mother andMotherMother and anothermember of the familyor caretakerElementary and less0093611441560Secondary School624High 12 month52013-24 month41625-36 month83237-48 month31249-60 month2860-72 month28Don’t remembered14In pregnancy14At delivery7280-1 age11441 age624According to the Table 2, these results are found:Caregiving is mostly done by “mother and the other

1132Evaluation of Coping Strategies with Stress of Parents Who Have Mentally Disabled Children in Northern Cyprusmembers of the family” (n 11; 44%); education level ofthe families are mostly elementary school and underelementary school level (n 15; 60%); Most of theparents have lower income (n 12; 48%). Usually 25th –36th month range is most common period in whichparents receive help at first time for their children (n 8;36%) and parents noticed the disability of their children in0 – 1 age range (n 11; 44%).2.3. Data Collection Tools and Process“Semi-structured Interview Form” which developed byresearchers was used for data collection. In order to ensurethe validity of the interview form, two expert opinions weretaken to ensure that questions were reasonably relevant andunderstandable, pilot interviews were held with threeparticipants and final form was given. The survey datawere collected from 20 September to 20 December 2017 atthe times when the participants were available andinterviews were held at predetermined locations. In orderto obtain rich data, interviews with parents of mentaldisabled children were held in a comfortable environmentand in a face – to –face conversation ambience. Everyinterview has endured about 25 – 30 minutes. Data werecollected by voice recording and noting. Speeches of theparticipants are recorded without changing of theirauthenticity.2.4. Analysis of the DataData which were collected by semi-structured interviewtechnique were analysed by content analysis. The aim ofthe content analysis is to reach the concepts that couldexplain the collected data and relations between concepts[31]. Participants were coded as [E1 ], [E2] [E25 ].Collected data in the research were also codified. Codes arecategorized by cross - sectioning method after arranged in aformat that suitable to the content. Then data of theresearch were read by two different researchers and madecodifying by them. 84% of similarity has found betweencodifying of the researchers. Over 70% of this similarityreflects the reliability of the study [33]. Consensus anddisagreements were discussed and necessary adjustmentshave done.3. Findings3.1. Confronted Problems TypesSeven categories consisted relevant answers of parentsof mental disabled children to confronted problems relatedwith the first question of the research. Frequency of theproblems according to the types is given in the Table 3.There are 92 different problems when the table 3 isexamined. Problems which are stated by participants areeducational problems (f 18), physical problems (f 15),psychological problems (f 14), sociological problems(f 13), economical problems (f 13), Caregiving andhealth problems (f 11) and sibling problems (f 8).Table 3. Frequencies of the problems according to the typesConfronted Problem conomicalCare-HealthSiblingsn181514131311892

Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(6): 1129-1140, 20183.1.1. Educational ProblemsWith respect to the opinion of the parents it’s possibleto collect the problems into two different categories whichare problems related with the education of mental disabledchildren and problems related with education of parents.It’s seen that difficulties for school enrolment andaccepting into the classes are the main problems which arethe most common confronted problem of parents ofchildren with mental disability. It’s found that especiallyschool administrators and classroom teachers don’t preferto accept the mentally disabled children into educationalenvironment and show resistance for not to accept them.Also it’s revealed that there are problems related with thequality and characteristic of education that given to thementally disabled children. In this context inadequacy ofthe period of education, lack of the capacity of teachers,and needs for special supportive education and isolation ofmentally disabled children from educational activities arecome to the forefront in this research. Some participantsexpressed their opinions related with education ofmentally disabled children as below:“They didn’t accept my child to school [E8; E10; E11E24].” “They didn’t accept Yılmaz for he hasdisposable nappies. I talked with 3 -4 teachers butthey didn’t [E6]”. “ Once he fainted in the day carecentre of municipality then they didn’t want to accepthim again [E7].” “Schools didn’t accept us. Weapplied to the ministry for get acceptance fromschools. They send us to Polatpaşa ElementarySchool. Then we went to Şehit Zeki Salih. Iexplained the situation of my child. Then theyaccepted. [E4 ]”. “WE have had problem for acceptinginto the day care centre. All of the centres haverefused us from beginning. Then a centre hasaccepted us. We had too much problem in first classof elementary school. They didn’t want to take intothe classroom. We registered by forcibly to the class.One week a teacher has accepted him in her class,and the other week another teacher has accepted. Istruggle for changing of this situation. I don’t wanthim to keep away from some activities. They didn’taccept my children to painting contest [E14]” “Thereare deficiency for treatment, there’s not any speechtherapist even if it is difficult and costly to go toNicosia [E2]”. “He was eating the crayons at day carecenter, and they didn’t want to accept him [E12].” “Icarried him since four years old. His friends prickedher, locked her into bathroom [E18].” “The otherparents didn’t want her to accept into the classroomduring combining process [E20].” “Social educationshouldn’t be for short term. I’d prefer continuouseducation. I begged to the principal of the elementaryschool but he didn’t accept my child into the school[E5].” “Schools shouldn’t be half of a day, Educationshould be every day, up to 6 pm and there could be1133institutions that provide weekend education [E2].”Here are the some statements of parents of mentallydisabled children on their education levels:“I am graduated from primary school. If I could bewell educated I can much better understand my child[E20].” “ We don’t know how to take care to ourchild as parents. It would be better if we could findsupport on this issue [E15].” “I wish I would haveeducated [E19].” “I want to have graduated fromuniversity for much more helpful to my child [E16].”3.1.2. Physical ProblemsPhysical problems include inappropriate livingcondit

Coping with negativities which cause stress is define as stress management. In other statement; stress management is defined as changing the situation that causes stress or the responses to that situation for the sense of coping with stress and increasing the life quality. Stress management is expressed as coping

Related Documents:

Coping Successfully with Pain Neville Shone Coping Successfully with Panic Attacks Shirley Trickett Coping Successfully with Prostate Cancer Dr Tom Smith Coping Successfully with Shyness Margaret Oakes, Professor Robert Bor and Dr Carina Eriksen Coping Successfully with Ulcerative Colitis Peter Cartwright Coping Successfully with Varicose Veins

A way of coping is a broader category of coping that explains specific coping instances. For instance, reading a book on stress management falls under the way of coping named “reading.” Playing the video game “Tetris” is a way of coping that is referred to as “distraction.” In Fig. 1 and Fig.

focused and problem-focused coping into a functional coping scale and added dysfunctional coping to the existing model, in order to distinguish between helpful and unhelpful coping techniques. Dysfunc-tional coping can take different forms (Car

A cope-cake is another way of saying coping skill. A coping skill is something that makes me feel better when I am mad, worried or sad. Some coping skills are healthy.I can take deep breaths, go for a walk or take a nap. Some coping skills

al., 2001, pg. 89). Coping skills change with development and the skills available to an individual are constrained by their biological, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Coping behaviors can be further categorized into primary control engagement coping, secondary control engagement coping, and disengagement (Connor-Smith et al., 2000).

greater pain tolerance for an acceptance coping approach [19], while Keogh et al. [20] showed gender differences in cold pain ratings under different coping instructions (emo-tion- and sensory-focused coping). These results emphasize the impact of coping strategy on pain modulation. We propose that pain and somatosensory processing may also

patients’ pain coping profiles can successfully predict their engage-ment in or receptiveness to psychological interventions. With research linking pediatric patients’ pain coping profiles cross-sectionally with their emotional and physical functioning, we ques-tioned whether patients’ pain coping profiles would also be associated

Alex Rider had made his own choices. He should have been at school, but instead, for whatever reason, he had allowed the Special Operations Division of MI6 to recruit him. From schoolboy to spy. It was certainly unusual – but the truth was, he had been remarkably successful. Beginner’s luck, maybe, but he had brought an end to an operation that had been several years in the planning. He .