Why We Count The Omer Like Paul

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BEIT TEFILLAHOmer CountWhy We Count the Omer Like Paul(and Not the Sadducees)http://www.BeitTefillah.orgWayne Ingalls1

Why This is ImportantHow You Count the OmerDetermines When You CelebrateShavu’ot/Feast of Weeks, akaPentecosthttp://www.BeitTefillah.org2

How Would Paul Have Counted theOmer?6And after Paul knew that some of the peoplewere of the Sadducees and some [were] of thePharisees, he cried out in the assembly, "Men,my brothers, I am a Pharisee, the son ofPharisees and concerning the hope of theresurrection of the dead, I am being judged."(Acts 23:6, Magiera Translation of the Peshitta)http://www.BeitTefillah.org3

How Would Paul Have Counted the Omer?Premise 1: Pharisees used the Pharisaic methodof counting the days/omer to Shavu’ot.Premise 2: Paul was a Pharisee.Conclusion: Paul used the Pharisaic method ofcounting the days/omer to Shavu’ot.Following the Logical Argument form Modus Ponens (MP):If P, then Q.P.Therefore, Q.http://www.BeitTefillah.org4

Outline BackgroundMimacharat HaShabbatTwo VignettesJoshua 5Majority View vs Rabbinic Viewvs Evidence that PredatesChanukah Summary Conclusionshttp://www.BeitTefillah.org5

Background 1 Why do most Messianics count thedays to Shavuot like Sadduceesinstead of like Paul? Why do Orthodox Jews count likePaul, but most followers of Yeshuado not?http://www.BeitTefillah.org6

Background 2 Orthodox Jews (and Pharisees like Paul)counted from the day after the annualSabbath on the first day of UnleavenedBread Sadducees counted from the YomRishon/Sunday in the midst ofUnleavened Breadhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org7

Background 3 The Essenes/Qumran community used afixed, solar calendar and also started thecount on a Sunday, but on the Sundayafter Unleavened Bread was complete(i.e. the 26th day of the month)http://www.BeitTefillah.org8

Acknowledgment Insights into mimacharat hashabbatin this study were either derivedfrom or inspired by the research ofDaniel Gregg in his work, The Scrollof Biblical Chronology, Vols 1 and 2,available at torahtimes.orgmimacharat hashabbathttp://www.BeitTefillah.org9

ReadVayyiqra/Leviticus 23: 5 – 17Devarim/Deuteronomy 16: 9-10http://www.BeitTefillah.org10

Now, Let’s Study The Karaite sect of Judaism, founded inthe 7th-9th century CE in areas conqueredby Islam (particularly Egypt and what isnow known as Iraq) claims a spiritualheritage from the Sadducees. They makea claim that the Sadducee’s method ofcounting is the only correct way to count,based solely on the Scriptures.- Now, let’s study and examine this claim,bearing in mind that “words mean things.”http://www.BeitTefillah.org11

The מ Means Something From in Hebrew is ִמן ,and when prefixed to aword only one letter is used: מ ִִ It occurs in all three texts:- Vayyiqra/Leviticus 23:11, 23:15, & 23:16 Most translations render the mem as "from" invs. 15, but as "on" in vs. 11, and not at all in vs.16. How does your translation read?http://www.BeitTefillah.org12

The מ Means Something According to the Gesenius Hebrew Lexicon מָ חָ ר is derived from יֹום ַאחֵ ר - “Day After,” “Morrow/Tomorrow” or“Time to Come”- First use of machar: Bereshiyt/Genesis30:33 (in the phrase b’yom machar)- How is machar used in its first use?http://www.BeitTefillah.org13

The מ Means SomethingVayyiqra/Leviticus 23:16A Ay yViämix] WrßPs. .Ti t[iêybiV.h; ‘tB'V;h; tr:xÛ \M'mi( d[;ä Literally: Until from the morrow of the seventhSabbath counting a fiftieth day (not count fifty days) What this means: If we we’re consistent inunderstanding “ מ from,” when we get to Vayyiqra23:16 we see “until from the morrow of the seventhSabbath counting a fiftieth day." The Hebrew text onlyindicates that the "fiftieth day" is located somewherebeyond the seventh Sabbath just like the seven sabbathsin vs. 15 are located beyond the Sabbath. Most Englishtranslations omit this מ . Does yours?http://www.BeitTefillah.org14

Which Shabbat is “the Shabbat”? Is the weekly Sabbath meant, or is it theFestival Sabbath (the first day of UnleavenedBread)? Two vignettes indicate which is one meant- Exodus and the Giving of the Torah- Crucifixion, Waving, Resurrection and theRuach HaQodeshhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org15

Does “Shabbat” Only Mean “The 7thDay of the Week”?Shabbat 7th Day of the Week is theprimary but not the exclusive meaning:See Vayyiqra/Leviticus 25:8: (NJB) "You will count seven weeks of yearssheva shabbatot shanim ( ynIëv' ttoåB.v; [b;v, ) -seven times seven years, that is to say a period ofseven weeks of years, forty-nine years. Joshua 5:12a:. tr"ªx\M'mi( !M'øh; tBo’v.YwI :And the manna ceased from the morrow after http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Which Shabbat is “the Shabbat”? One scholar’s view/conjecture is that the word“Shabbat” is meant to be in a participleformulation meaning “ceasing” (as in “theDay after ceasing to eat leaven”) but since theKaraites were the ones who “vowel pointed”the Masoretic text, it was pointed as“Shabbat.”http://www.BeitTefillah.org17

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torahhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org18

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah To start with, the Karaites would argue that theonly feast called a “Sabbath” in Scripture isYom Kippur. We will address that in Vignette 2 Although the Scriptures do not specifically saythis, a very ancient tradition associates thegiving of the Torah with Shavuot The math from the Passover in Egypt to the TenWords from Mount Sinai supports this viewhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org19

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah If the giving of the Ten Words was on a Sunday,that means the previous two days were “Friday”and “Sabbath” Israel is told to wash their garments andprepare themselves for two days and to be readyfor the third day (Exodus 19:10-11) Thus, if the Ten Words were given on a Sunday,then that previous Sabbath . is a work dayhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org20

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah Does it really make any sense for YHWH toorder Israel to work on (desecrate) Sabbath,then tell them:Shemot 20: 8 – 11 (HRV) Remember the Sabbath day, to keepit, Set-Apart. 9 Six days shall you labor and do all your work,10 But the seventh day is a Sabbath unto YHWH your Elohim.In it, you shall not do any manner of work: you, nor your son,nor your daughter, nor your manservant, nor yourmaidservant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger that is withinyour gates. 11 For in six days, YHWH made heaven and earth;the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day.Wherefore YHWH blessed the Sabbath day, and Set-It-Apart.http://www.BeitTefillah.org21

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah Is “the Seventh Day” a Sunday?We may be able to determine which day of the week the Ten Wordswere given by a close look at Shemot/Exodus 24:- After meeting with the Seventy Elders of Israel on the dayYHWH spoke from the Mountain, Moshe goes further up themountain. Then we read:Shemot/Exodus 24: 16 – 18 (HRV) 16 And the glory of YHWHabode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and theseventh day He called unto Moshe, out of the midst of the cloud. 17And the appearance of the glory of YHWH, was like devouring fireon the top of the mount, in the eyes of the children of Yisra’el. 18And Moshe entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into themount: and Moshe was in the mount forty days and forty nights.“Torah Day”http://www.BeitTefillah.org“Six Days”“Seventh Day”Thus, “Torah Day” 7th Day Shabbat22

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah Is “the Seventh Day” a Sunday? What if “the seventh day” really means“the seventh day”? Thus .if six moredays pass, and then the seventh daycomes, it is the Sabbath day. If so, this shows us that the day of the feast,after which the six days are counted, wasalso Shabbat .Thus, from Scripture, thegiving of the Ten Words was on Sabbath,not Sunday23http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 1: Giving of the Torah If you believe that Shavuot is the anniversary ofthe giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai .and you believe that Shavuot is aways on aSunday .then do you also believe that YHWH orderedthe Children of Israel to work on the Sabbathbefore Shavuot? Do you really believe that?http://www.BeitTefillah.org24

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org25

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh These topics of the execution of Yeshuaof Nazareth, the waving of the Omer,the Resurrection and the coming ofthe Ruach HaQodesh are all interconnected. One person has describedit as a “Rubik’s Cube.”http://www.BeitTefillah.org26

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshThe 50 days ending at Shavuot arecounted from the waving of the omerof BarleyThe day the count begins determineswhen it endsSo, the question is: When was theomer of barley waved?This brings us back to the readingsfrom Vayyiqra 23 and Devarim 16 27http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh It also brings us back to the Karaiteassertion that the first day of UnleavenedBread is never referred to as a Sabbath inthe Tanakh. This assertion assumes that the word“Shabbat” in Vayyiqra/Leviticus 23:11 and23:15-16 must refer to the weekly Sabbath.This assumption is problematic .http://www.BeitTefillah.org28

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Karaites admit that not every time“Sabbath” is used it speaks of the 7th Dayof the week. The festival Sabbath of YomKippur is called Shabbat Shabbaton,Sabbath of Sabbaths. This is exactly thesame phrase used for the 7th day of theweek in Shemot/Exodus 31:15.http://www.BeitTefillah.org29

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Karaites admit that not every time“Sabbath” is used it speaks of the 7th Dayof the week. The festival Sabbath of YomKippur is called Shabbat Shabbaton,Sabbath of Sabbaths. What don’t they admit? That otherfestival Sabbaths are also called Sabbathsin Scripture.http://www.BeitTefillah.org30

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh What don’t they admit? That there areother exceptions besides Yom Kippur, andother festival Sabbaths are also calledSabbaths in Scripture. For example, in Vayyiqra 23:24, YomTeruah is called Shabbaton. The first dayof Sukkot and Shemini Atzeret are calledShabbaton in Vayyiqra 23:39.http://www.BeitTefillah.org31

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh We also see in Vayyiqra 25:4 that in the 7thyear the Land is to have a ShabbatShabbaton and a Shabbat to YHWH.Israel is also to count 7 Shabbatot(Sabbaths) of years to consecrate the 50thyear for the Yovel/Jubilee year. Shabbathere does not mean “7th day of the week”but refers to the 3 letter root ( שבת to cease)http://www.BeitTefillah.org32

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh The Karaites might respond: Wait, YomTeruah and Sukkot are called Shabbaton,not Shabbat – you are trying to trickpeople! Our point still stands! Karaites may not be convinced by whatfollowers, but for those who hold theKetuvim Netzavim/Brit Chadashah to beinspired there is another data point toconsider.33http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh John 19:31 (NASB) Then the Jews, because itwas the day of preparation, so that the bodieswould not remain on the cross on the Sabbath(for that Sabbath was a high day), asked Pilatethat their legs might be broken, and that theymight be taken away. (See also Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1;and John 20:1) Takeaway: After sunset, it was a High Sabbathhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org34

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Based on this passage below, I don’t think thestandard Friday evening – Sunday morningchronology is possible: Matthew 12:40 (NASB) for just as JONAH WASTHREE DAYS AND THREE NIGHTS IN THEBELLY OF THE SEA MONSTER, so will theSon of Man be three days and three nights in theheart of the earth.http://www.BeitTefillah.org35

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Most Messianics and Hebrew Roots people Iknow agree that the standard Friday evening –Sunday morning chronology is flawed based onMatthew 12:40. However, most also hold that “Shabbat”Vayyiqra/Leviticus 23:11 and 23:15-16 mustrefer to the weekly 7th day Sabbath. If you hold both of these views, you have anunsolvable Rubik’s cube – the colors just willnot line up.http://www.BeitTefillah.org36

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh To continue to hold that “Sabbath” in Leviticus23:11 and 23:15-16 must refer to the weekly 7thday Sabbath, one must now say: “Well, maybeit was Friday – Sunday after all.” This is added to the previous concession fromVignette 1 to maintain “Shavuot is always on aSunday.” Remember? Either the giving of theTorah did not happen on Shavu’ot or theShabbat before Shavu’ot was a work day.http://www.BeitTefillah.org37

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Let’s continue. The determination of thechronology of the Passover and Crucifixionreally are a study on their own .however, if itis NOT the standard Fri-Sun chronology itmeans: There are two Sabbaths during that week The day the omer was waved in the Temple wasnot on a Sunday.http://www.BeitTefillah.org38

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodesh Back to the vignette: Some assume that the Sadduceescontrolled the Temple and thus thecalendar. The Jewish historian Josephusrefutes this:http://www.BeitTefillah.org39

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshJosephus writes:“But on the second day of unleavened bread, which isthe sixteenth day of the month, they first partake ofthe fruits of the earth, for before that day they do nottouch them (Antiquities of the Jews 3.250).Comment: Elsewhere Josephus tells us that theSadducees, when they were in authority, had to adoptthe doctrines of the Pharisees due to the popularity ofthose views (their own views here being held only by arich and well off few). (See Josephus, Antiquities,Book XVIII, 1:3-4).http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshJosephus and First Fruits What this means is that the 2nd Temple operatedon the Pharisaic determination of First Fruits,Aviv/Nisan 16. At dark after Aviv/Nisan 15 (even if it was nowSabbath), they would reap the omer in order for itto be waved at dawn in the Temple, and the grainoffering is placed on the altar until the followingdawn. Meaning: At the time of the Second Temple, the50 day count started on the day the omer of barleywas waved: Aviv/Nisan 16http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshFirst Fruits“Thurs” “Fri” “Sabbath” “Sun”14 Aviv 15 Aviv 16 Aviv17 Aviv If the crucifixion was on “Thurs,” the FestivalSabbath is on 15 Aviv and First Fruits omer waswaved on Sabbath, 16 Aviv at dawn If Yeshua arose at havdallah at the end of thatSabbath or dawn on 17 Aviv, his resurrection is stillassociated with First Fruits. It is only in the(untenable, in my view) Fri-Sun chronology thatYeshua arose as the omer was being wavedhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving,Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshAnother View(This view is from of Daniel Gregg, author of The Scroll of Biblical Chronology andtranslator/editor of the Good News of Messiah)http://www.BeitTefillah.org43

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving, Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshThe Ruach’s Shavuot SealActs 2:1-4 (CJB) 1 The festival of Shavu'ot arrived,and the believers all gathered together in one place. 2Suddenly there came a sound from the sky like theroar of a violent wind, and it filled the whole housewhere they were sitting. 3 Then they saw what lookedlike tongues of fire, which separated and came to reston each one of them. 4 They were all filled with theRuach HaKodesh and began to talk in differentlanguages, as the Spirit enabled them to speak.Comment: The “converts” or exiles we read about later thischapter would have been associated with the Pharisees. Bycoming on Shavu’ot when they were in “the House,” theRuach confirmed their counting methodhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org

Vignette 2: Crucifixion, Waving, Resurrection and the Ruach HaQodeshWhich Calendar Would Paul Use?Acts 20:16 (CJB) For Sha'ul had decided tobypass Ephesus on his voyage, in order toavoid losing time in the province of Asia,because he was hurrying to get toYerushalayim, if possible in time to celebrateShavu'ot.1 Corinthians 16:8 (CJB) But I will remain inEphesus until Shavu'ot,Question/Comment: Remember, Paul describedhimself as a (present tense) Pharisee (Acts 23:6).http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Joshua 5http://www.BeitTefillah.org46

Joshua 5Joshua 5 is often used as proof that theAviv/Nisan 16 method of counting is incorrect.An examination of this passage will show that itjust is not so.Let’s examine:Joshua 4:19 (NASB) Now the people came upfrom the Jordan on the tenth of the first month andcamped at Gilgal on the eastern edge of Jericho.http://www.BeitTefillah.org47

Joshua 5Joshua 5:10-12 (NASB) 10 While the sons ofIsrael camped at Gilgal they observed the Passoveron the evening of the fourteenth day of the monthon the desert plains of Jericho. 11 On the day afterthe Passover, on that very day, they ate some of theproduce of the land, unleavened cakes and parchedgrain. 12 The manna ceased on the day after theyhad eaten some of the produce of the land, so thatthe sons of Israel no longer had manna, but theyate some of the yield of the land of Canaan duringthat year.http://www.BeitTefillah.org

Joshua 5Thus, some conclude that since Israel celebrated Passoveron the 14th and ate the grain of Canaan on the next day,they must have waved the omer on the 15th (presumably aSunday), though the text does not say they did wave theomer of barley at all. This conclusion is disproved by re-reading Exodus23:16 and Leviticus 23:10.It is from “your harvest” that is waved, not capturedgrain grown by someone else.The Talmud (Rosh Hashanah 13a) has a discussionabout Joshua 5, and answers the argument by asking ifthe barley could have grown from nothing to ripeness injust five days (or as above, if the heathen could raise thecrop to be harvested by the Israelites and waved) .http://www.BeitTefillah.org49

Majority View vs Rabbinic Viewvs Evidence that PredatesChanukahhttp://www.BeitTefillah.org50

The Majority ViewThe majority of Nazarenes/Messianics follow the logicof the Karaite sect of Judaism on this topic. KaraiteJudaism holds that Shavuot (Pentecost) always comeson Yom Rishon/Sunday. Hence, they believe that theoriginal, historical Shavuot, (when God met with theseventy elders of Israel on Mt. Sinai) was on YomRishon. The reason is that calculating the correct dateof Shavuot depends on counting 50 days which start"in the day after the Sabbath" and they believe this"Sabbath" to be the weekly Sabbath (and that“Sabbath” always means “the seventh day of theweek” with the exception of when the Scripture callsYom Kippur a “Sabbath”).http://www.BeitTefillah.org51

The Rabbinic View The rabbis understand “the sabbath”reference in Vayyiqra 23:11 as the “sabbath” ofthe first day of Unleavened Bread, i.e. always onNisan/Aviv 15. Thus the waving of first fruits isalways on the next day, Nisan/Aviv 16. Therabbis “solved” the “seven sabbaths” problemby interpreting ‘sabbaths’ as ‘weeks’ in vs. 15and 16. Some who defend the Karaiteinterpretation have scolded me, saying: “Youshouldn’t always follow the rabbis.”http://www.BeitTefillah.org52

The Rabbinic ViewWe agree, of course, that a follower of Yeshuashould not always follow

What don’t they admit? That there are other exceptions besides Yom Kippur, and other festival Sabbaths are also called Sabbaths in Scripture. For example, in Vayyiqra 23:24, Yom Teruah is called Shabbaton. The first day of Sukkot an

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