Social Psychology - Pearson

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Social PsychologySixth Canadian EditionElliot AronsonTimothy D. WilsonBeverley FehrRobin M. AkertTorontoA01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd i10/1/15 12:07 PM

Editorial Director: Claudine O’DonnellAcquisitions Editor: Matthew ChristianMarketing Manager: Claire VarleyProgram Manager: Madhu RanadiveProject Manager: Andrea FalkenbergDevelopmental Editor: Patti SayleProduction Services: Cenveo Publisher ServicesPermissions Project Manager: Kathryn O’HandleyPhoto Permissions Research: Lumina DatamaticsText Permissions Research: Lumina DatamaticsCover and Interior Designer: Anthony LeungCover Image: Denis Cristo, ShutterstockVice-President, Cross Media and Publishing Services: Gary BennettCredits and acknowledgments for material borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear onthe appropriate page within the text.Original edition published by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education,Inc. This edition is authorized for sale only in Canada.If you purchased this book outside the United States or Canada, you should be aware that it has been imported without the approvalof the publisher or the author.Copyright 2017 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in [the United States of America]. This publication isprotected by copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in aretrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtainpermission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Canada Inc., Permissions Department, 26Prince Andrew Place, Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 2T8, or fax your request to 416-447-3126, or submit a request to PermissionsRequests at www.pearsoncanada.ca.10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 [V0SA]Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in PublicationAronson, Elliot.Social psychology / Elliot Aronson, Timothy D. Wilson,Robin M. Akert, Beverley Fehr. — Sixth Canadian edition.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-205-97003-2 (bound)1. Social psychology—Textbooks. I. Aronson, Elliot, authorII. Fehr, Beverley Anne, 1958-, author III. Akert, Robin M., authorIV. Wilson, Timothy D., authorHM1033.S62 2015302C2015-905562-8ISBN 978-0-205-97003-2A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd ii10/1/15 12:07 PM

To my grandchildren: Jacob, Jason, Ruth, Eliana, Natalie, Rachel andLeo Aronson. My hope is that your wonderful capacity for empathyand compassion will help make the world a better place.—E.A.To my family, Deirdre Smith, Christopher Wilson, and Leigh Wilson—T.D.W.To my children, Genevieve and Everett—B.F.To my mentor, colleague, and friend, Dane Archer—R.M.A.A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd iii10/1/15 12:07 PM

A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd iv10/1/15 12:07 PM

Brief ContentsC HAPTER 1Introduction to Social Psychology 1C HAPTER 2Methodology: How Social Psychologists Do Research 20C HAPTER 3Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World 48C HAPTER 4Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People 74C HAPTER 5The Self: Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context 106C HAPTER 6Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts,Feelings, and Behaviour136C HAPTER 7Conformity: Influencing Others 172C HAPTER 8Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups 212C HAPTER 9Interpersonal Attraction: From First Impressions to Close Relationships 244C HAPTER 10Prosocial Behaviour: Why Do People Help? 282C HAPTER 11Aggression: Why We Hurt Other People 310C HAPTER 12Prejudice: Causes and Cures 342vA01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd v10/1/15 12:07 PM

ContentsPreface xviiAbout the Authors xxSpecial Tips for Students xxiiiCHAPTER1Introduction to Social Psychology 1What Is Social Psychology? 2The Power of Social Interpretation 2CON N E CTIONSThe Role of Construal in Conflict Negotiations 3Social Psychology, Science, and Common Sense 4Social Psychology Compared with Sociology 6Social Psychology Compared with Personality Psychology 7TRY IT! Social Situations and Behaviour8The Power of the Situation 9CON N E CTIONSThe Fundamental Attribution Error:When We Blame the Victims of Violence 10The Power of Social Interpretation 11Where Construals Come From: Basic Human Motives 12The Self-Esteem Approach: The Need to Feel Good About Ourselves 13Justifying Past Behaviour13Suffering and Self-Justification 14The Social Cognition Approach: The Need to Be Accurate 15Social Cognition15Expectations About the Social World 15Social Psychology and Social Problems 16USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER218Methodology: How Social Psychologists Do Research 20Social Psychology: An Empirical Science 22Formulating Hypotheses and Theories 22Inspiration from Earlier Theories and Research 22TRY IT! Social Psychology Quiz23Hypotheses Based on Personal Observations 23Research Designs 24The Observational Method 25Ethnography 25viA01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd vi10/1/15 12:07 PM

viiCONTENTSCON N E CT IO NSUsing Observational Research to Develop Anti-BullyingPrograms 27Archival Analysis 27The Correlational Method 29TRY IT! Archival Analysis: Body Image and the Media29Surveys 30CON N E CT IO NSRandom Selection in Political Polls 31Limits of the Correlational Method: Correlation Does Not Equal Causation 32TRY IT! Correlation Does Not Equal Causation33The Experimental Method: Answering Causal Questions 34Independent and Dependent Variables 35Internal Validity in Experiments 36External Validity in Experiments 37Generalizability across Situations 37Generalizability across People 38Field Research 39The Basic Dilemma of the Social Psychologist 39Replications and Meta-Analysis 40Basic Versus Applied Research 41New Frontiers in Social Psychology 41Culture and Social Psychology 41Social Neuroscience 42Ethical Issues in Social Psychology 43Guidelines for Ethical Research 44USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER346Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World 48On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking 50People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas 51The Function of Schemas: Why Do We Have Them? 51Which Schemas Are Applied? Accessibility and Priming 53CON N E CT IO NSDo Schemas Affect What You Eat?56Embodied Cognition: Physical Sensations Can Prime Cognitive Schemas 56Making Our Schemas Come True: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 57Cultural Determinants of Schemas 59TRY IT! Avoiding Self-Fulfilling Prophecies60Mental Strategies and Shortcuts: Heuristics 60How Easily Does It Come to Mind? The Availability Heuristic 61How Similar Is A to B? The Representativeness Heuristic 64CON N E CT IO NSPersonality Tests and the Representativeness Heuristic 64Cultural Differences in Automatic Thinking 65A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd vii10/1/15 12:07 PM

viiiCO N T EN T STRY IT! Reasoning Quiz65The Power of Automatic Thinking 67Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking 69Thinking about What Might Have Been: Counterfactual Reasoning 69Improving Human Thinking 72USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER473Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People 74Nonverbal Behaviour 76Facial Expressions of Emotion 77Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal? 79Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Expressions 80TRY IT! How Many Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion Are There?81Why Is Decoding Sometimes Inaccurate? 82Other Channels of Nonverbal Communication 83CONNECTIONS The Email Dilemma: Communicating without Nonverbal Cues 85Implicit Personality Theories: Filling in the Blanks 86Culture and Implicit Personality Theories 86Causal Attribution: Answering the “Why” Question 88The Nature of the Attributional Process 89TRY IT! Listen as People Make Attributions90The Covariation Model: Internal versus External Attributions 90The Fundamental Attribution Error: People as Personality Psychologists 92Blaming the Victim: A Consequence of the Fundamental Attribution Error 94The Role of Perceptual Salience in the Fundamental Attribution Error 94The Two-Step Process of Making Attributions 96Culture and the Fundamental Attribution Error 97Self-Serving Attributions 99TRY IT! Self-Serving Attributions in the Sports Pages100Culture and the Self-Serving Bias 100Defensive Attributions 101CON N E CTIONSAttributional Biases: Present in the Courtroom?USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER5A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd viii103104The Self: Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context 106The Origins of the Self 108The Content of the Self: Self-Schemas 109Self-Concept Clarity 110Cultural Differences in Defining the Self 11010/1/15 12:07 PM

CONTENTSTRY IT! A Measure of Self-Concept Clarityix111Gender Differences in Defining the Self 113Knowing Ourselves through Introspection 113TRY IT! A Measure of Relational Interdependence114Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory 114Cultural Differences in Self-Awareness 116Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More than We Can Know 116Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behaviour 118Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation 118The Overjustification Effect120Preserving Intrinsic Interest 120Knowing Ourselves through Social Interaction 121Seeing Ourselves through the Eyes of Others: The Looking-Glass Self 121Knowing Ourselves by Comparing Ourselves with Others 122Self Control: The Executive Function of the Self 123Self-Esteem: How We Evaluate Ourselves 124Social Comparison Revisited 124CON N E CT IO NSDo Models Make Us Feel Bad about Ourselves? 127Social Comparison and Culture 128Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem: Sociometer Theory 129Self-Evaluation: Biased or Accurate? 130Self-Enhancement: Wanting to Feel Good about Ourselves, Regardless of the Facts 131Self-Enhancement and Culture 131Self-Verification: Wanting to Know the Truth about Ourselves 133USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER6134Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts,Feelings, and Behaviour 136The Nature and Origin of Attitudes 137Where Do Attitudes Come From? 138Affectively Based Attitudes138Cognitively Based Attitudes139Behaviourally Based Attitudes 139Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes 140TRY IT! Affective and Cognitive Bases of Attitudes140When Do Attitudes Predict Behaviour? 141The Theory of Planned Behaviour 142Specific Attitudes142Subjective Norms143Perceived Behavioural Control 143The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Implications for Safer Sex 144Subjective Norms145Perceived Behavioural Control145Behavioural Intentions 145How Do Attitudes Change? 146Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change 146The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion 148A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd ix10/1/15 12:07 PM

xCONT EN T SFear and Attitude Change 149Advertising and Attitude Change 151Tailoring Advertisements to People’s AttitudesCON N E CTIONS151Culture and Advertising 152Are Media Campaigns to Reduce Drug Use Work? 153Subliminal Advertising: A Form of Mind Control? 153Debunking the Claims about Subliminal AdvertisingTRY IT! Advertising and Mind Control154Evidence for Subliminal Influence in the Lab 154155Resisting Persuasive Messages 155Attitude Inoculation 155Being Alert to Product Placement 156Changing Our Attitudes because of Our Behaviour:The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance 157Decisions, Decisions, Decisions 159The Permanence of the Decision160The Decision to Behave Immorally 160Dissonance and the Brain 161The Justification of Effort 162Internal versus External Justification 163Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy 163Using Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy to Tackle Social Problems 164The Power of Mild Punishment 165The Aftermath of Bad Deeds 166Avoiding the Rationalization Trap 168Dissonance, Self-Affirmation, and Culture 169The Solar Temple Revisited 170USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER7170Conformity: Influencing Others 172Conformity: When and Why 174Informational Social Influence: The Need to Know What’s “Right” 175When People Conform to Informational Social Influence 177When the Situation Is Ambiguous 177When the Situation Is a Crisis 177When Other People Are Experts 178When Informational Conformity Backfires 178Resisting Informational Social Influence 179Normative Social Influence: The Need to Be Accepted 181Conformity and Social Approval: The Asch Line Judgment Studies 182When Will People Conform to Normative Social Influence? 185Strength and Immediacy185Number 186Other Conditions under Which People Conform to Normative Social Influence 187TRY IT! Fashion: Normative Social Influence in ActionA01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd x18710/1/15 12:07 PM

CONTENTSxiWhen the Group Is Unanimous 188Gender Differences in Conformity 188When the Group’s Culture Is Collectivist 189The Consequences of Normative Social Influence 190CON N E CT IO NSCan Normative Social Influence Be Used to ReduceStudents’ Binge Drinking? 192Normative Social Influence in Everyday Life 193Normative Social Influence and Women’s Body Image 193Normative Social Influence and Men’s Body Image 196Minority Influence: When the Few Influence the Many 197Compliance: Requests to Change Your Behaviour 198The Door-in-the-Face Technique 198The Foot-in-the-Door Technique 199Lowballing 200CON N E CT IO NSDo You Use “Reverse” Psychology? 201Obedience to Authority 202The Role of Normative Social Influence 205The Role of Informational Social Influence 206Other Reasons Why We Obey 207Conforming to the Wrong Norm 207Self-Justification 208It’s Not about Aggression 208Epilogue: A Look at the Minority Who Disobeyed 209USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER8210Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups 212What Is a Group? 214Why Do People Join Groups? 214The Composition and Functions of Groups 215Social Norms215Social Roles216Gender Roles 217TRY IT! What Happens When You Violate a Role?217Group Cohesiveness 219How Groups Influence the Behaviour of Individuals 219Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us 219Simple versus Difficult Tasks 220Arousal and the Dominant Response 220Why the Presence of Others Causes Arousal 221Social Loafing: When the Presence of Others Relaxes Us 222Gender and Cultural Differences in Social Loafing: Who Slacks Off the Most? 223Deindividuation: Getting Lost in the Crowd 224Why Does Deindividuation Lead to Impulsive Acts? 225A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd xi10/1/15 12:07 PM

xiiCON T EN T SGroup Decisions: Are Two (or More) Heads Better than One? 225Process Loss: When Group Interactions Inhibit Good Problem Solving 226Failure to Share Unique Information 226Groupthink: Many Heads, One Mind 227CON N E CTIONSWas the Failure of Canada’s Meech Lake Accordthe Result of Groupthink? 229Avoiding the Groupthink Trap 229Group Polarization: Going to Extremes 230TRY IT! Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire230Leadership in Groups 231Leadership and Personality 231Leadership Styles 232Leadership: The Right Person in the Right Situation 233Gender and Leadership 234Conflict and Cooperation 236Social Dilemmas 237TRY IT! The Prisoner’s Dilemma237Increasing Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma 238Using Threats to Resolve Conflict 239Effects of Communication 240Negotiation and Bargaining 241USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER9242Interpersonal Attraction: From First Impressions to CloseRelationships 244What Causes Attraction? 246The Person Next Door: The Propinquity Effect 246TRY IT! Mapping the Effect of Propinquity in Your Life248Forming Relationships Online 249Similarity 250Reciprocal Liking 252Physical Attractiveness and Liking 252What Is Attractive?253Cultural Standards of Beauty 255Assumptions about Attractive People 255Attraction and the Misattribution of Arousal 256Forming Close Relationships 257Defining Love 258Companionate versus Passionate Love 258TRY IT! The Passionate Love Scale259“Ordinary” People’s Definition of Love 260A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd xii10/1/15 12:07 PM

CONTENTSxiiiGender and Love 261Culture and Love 261Why Do We Love? 263Evolutionary Explanations of Love 263CON N E CT IO NSDoes Your Face Reveal Your “Intentions”? 265Attachment Styles and Intimate Relationships 266Two Kinds of Avoidance? 269Multiple Attachment Representations 269Maintaining Close Relationships 270Social Exchange Theories 270Equity Theory 272Exchange versus Communal Relationships 273The Role of Commitment in Maintaining Relationships 274Commitment and Resisting Attractive Alternatives 275Commitment and Forgiveness 275The Role of Positive Illusions 276Ending Close Relationships 278Why Relationships End 278The Process of Breaking Up 279The Experience of Breaking Up 279USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER10280Prosocial Behaviour: Why Do People Help? 282Why Do People Help? 284Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes 285Kin Selection285The Reciprocity Norm 286TRY IT! Does the Reciprocity Norm Increase Helping?287Learning Social Norms 287Social Exchange: The Costs and Rewards of Helping 287Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for Helping 288Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behaviour: Why Do Some PeopleHelp More than Others? 291Individual Differences: The Altruistic Personality 291Gender Differences in Prosocial Behaviour 292Socioeconomic Status Differences in Prosocial Behaviour 292Cultural Differences in Prosocial Behaviour 293Religion and Prosocial Behaviour 294The Effects of Mood on Prosocial Behaviour 294Effects of Positive Moods: Feel Good, Do Good 294A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd xiii10/1/15 12:07 PM

xivCO N T EN T SCON N E CTIONSDoes “Do Good, Feel Good” Apply to Spending Moneyon Others? 295Negative-State Relief: Feel Bad, Do Good 296Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behaviour: When Will People Help? 296Environment: Rural versus Urban 296Residential Mobility 297Bystander Intervention: The Latané and Darley Model 298Noticing an Event 299Interpreting the Event as an Emergency 300Assuming Responsibility 302Knowing How to Help 303Deciding to Implement Help 303How Can Helping Be Increased? 304Increasing the Likelihood That Bystanders Will Intervene 304Instilling Helpfulness with Rewards and Models 305Can Playing Prosocial Video Games and Music Lyrics Increase Helpfulness? 306CHAPTER11TRY IT! The Lost Letter Technique307USE IT! How Would You Use This?308Aggression: Why We Hurt Other People 310What Is Aggression? 312Gender and Aggression 312Does the Target Make a Difference? 313Gender Differences in Aggression: The Role of Testosterone 314Culture and Aggression 314TRY IT! The Incidence of Violence in Intimate Relationships315Cultures of Honour and Aggression 316The Evolutionary Approach to Aggression 317Aggression among Animals 317Physiological Influences on Aggression 318Alcohol and Aggression 318Pain, Discomfort, and Aggression 319CON N E CTIONSIs There a Link between Climate Change and Aggression? 320Situational Causes of Aggression 321Frustration as a Cause of Aggression 321Relative Deprivation 322Direct Provocation and Reciprocation 323Social Exclusion 324Aggressive Objects as Aggressive Cues 325Learning to Behave Aggressively 326The Effects of Violence in the Media 326A01 ARON0032 06 SE FM.indd xiv10/1/15 12:07 PM

CONTENTSxvLongitudinal Studies on the Effects of Media Violence 328Violence in Video Games 329Violent Pornography and Violence against Women 330The Numbing and Dehumanizing Effects of Media Violence 331Putting Media Violence in Perspective: Some Final Thoughts 332How to Reduce Aggression 333Does Punishing Aggression Reduce Aggressive Behaviour? 333Catharsis and Aggression 334Blaming the Victim of Our Aggression 336What Are We Supposed to Do with Our Anger? 336Communication and Problem Solving 337Defusing Anger through Apology 337The Modelling of Nonaggressive Behaviour 338Building Empathy 338CON N E CT IO NSTeaching Empathy in School 338USE IT! How Would You Use This?CHAPTER12340Prejudice: Causes and Cures 342What Is Prejudice? 344Prejudice: The Affective Component 344TRY IT! Multiculturalism: Is It Working?345Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component 346Stereotypes of Gender 347TRY IT! Stereotype Content: Where Does It Come From?347Discrimination: The Behavioural Component 349Modern Racism and Other Implicit Prejudices 351

Leo Aronson. My hope is that your wonderful capacity for empathy and compassion will help make the world a better place. —E.A. To my family, Deirdre Smith, Christopher Wilson, and Leigh Wilson —T.D.W. To my children, Genevieve and Everett —B.F. To my mentor, colleague, and friend, Dane Archer —R.M.A.

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