Chapter 1 Historical Overview Of Assessment In Texas

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TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018Chapter1 Historical Overview ofAssessment in TexasTimelineAssessment Provisions in State LawCurriculum Guidelines for AssessmentTimelineThe State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR )program was administered to Texas students for the first time in 2011–2012. However, Texas’ long history of student assessment dates backto 1979 when its first statewide testing program was implemented. Overthe years, changes in legislation and policy have generated changes inthe size and scope of the assessment program. This chapter providesan overview of these changes, starting with a timeline of key events,followed by a summary of recent changes in state law, and concludingwith a review of changes in the state curriculum.—1979The Texas assessment program began when the 66th TexasLegislature, 1979, enacted a law requiring basic skills competencies inmathematics, reading, and writing for grades 3, 5, and 9.— 1980As required by statute, Texas assessed minimum skills in mathematics,reading, and writing with the Texas Assessment of Basic Skills (TABS)assessments.—1986The Texas Education Agency (TEA) implemented the TexasEducational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) examinations.TEAMS was the first state assessment that students were required topass to be eligible to receive a high school diploma.CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas1-1

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018—1990The implementation of another criterion-referenced testing program, theTexas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), shifted the focus ofassessment from minimum skills to academic skills. The TAAS reading,writing, and mathematics assessments were administered in the fall tostudents in grades 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11.—1993The administration of TAAS assessments was shifted to the spring, andthe grades and subjects assessed were reconfigured.Until 2002, TAAS was administered every spring to students in grades3–8 and 10 in mathematics and reading; grades 4, 8, and 10 in writing;and grade 8 in science and social studies. Passing the exit-level tests inmathematics, reading, and writing at grade 10 was a requirement forhigh school graduation.—1994The State Board of Education (SBOE) approved a plan to developSpanish-language versions of assessments for grades 3–6.Algebra I and Biology end-of-course (EOC) assessments wereadministered to students who had completed those courses.—1995As part of Senate Bill (SB) 1, 74th Texas Legislature, 1995, TEA wasrequired to develop English II and U.S. History EOC assessments to befirst administered by the 1998–1999 school year. In addition to Algebra Iand Biology EOC assessments that were administered beginning in1994, the new English II and U.S. History EOC assessments could beused to fulfill the assessment graduation requirements instead of TAAS.—1996The Spanish-language TAAS assessments for grades 3–6 wereincorporated into the testing program in 1996 for grades 3 and 4mathematics and reading, and in 1997 for grades 5 and 6 mathematicsand reading.—1998Per SB 1, 74th Texas Legislature, 1995, English II and U.S. HistoryEOC assessments were first administered to students who hadcompleted those courses. Including Algebra I and Biology, these four1-2CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018EOC assessments were administered as state-mandated assessmentsand as an option for meeting graduation requirements through 2002.—1999With passage of SB 103, the 76th Texas Legislature, 1999, required thedevelopment of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)in grades 3–10, and 11 to replace TAAS as the assessment graduationexit-level requirement. The TAKS assessments were administeredbeginning in 2003.SB 103 also required the development of a system to assess thereading proficiency and language acquisition of English learners (ELs).As a result, the Reading Proficiency Tests in English (RPTE) systemwas developed.—2000The RPTE system was first administered in 2000 to ELs in grades 3–12.—2001The State-Developed Alternative Assessment (SDAA) was introducedand administered to eligible students receiving special educationservices in grades 3–8.—2002Due to the replacement of TAAS with TAKS, as required by SB 103,76th Texas Legislature, 1999, TAAS was administered for the last timein grades 3–8. Exit-level TAAS remained the graduation requirement forstudents who were in grade 9 or above on January 1, 2001.—2003TAKS replaced TAAS as the primary state assessment program. Tosatisfy legislative requirements, TAKS was designed to be morecomprehensive than its predecessors and to measure more of the statemandated curriculum known as the Texas Essential Knowledge andSkills (TEKS). As required by law, students for whom TAKS was thegraduation testing requirement had to pass exit-level assessments infour content areas—mathematics, English language arts, science, andsocial studies—to graduate from a Texas public high school. Spanishversions of TAKS were administered in grades 3–6.CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas1-3

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018The Student Success Initiative (SSI), enacted by the Texas Legislaturein 1999, made satisfactory performance on the grade 3 readingassessment, the grade 5 mathematics and reading assessments, andthe grade 8 mathematics and reading assessments a promotionrequirement for Texas students. The first cohort of students affected bythis law was the grade 3 class of 2002–2003. Student performance onthe grade 5 mathematics and reading assessments was included for thefirst time in the 2004–2005 school year. Grade 8 promotionrequirements became effective in the 2007–2008 school year. In 2009,the Texas Legislature amended the SSI to remove the grade 3promotion requirement.—2004In order to fulfill requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act(NCLB), the Texas Observation Protocol (TOP) was developed. TheTOP assessment program provided training and guidelines so thatholistic English language proficiency ratings could be assigned tostudents based on observations during regular instructional time. Theseholistic ratings were developed in the language domains of listening,speaking, and writing in grades K–12 and in reading in grades K–2.Together, TOP and the RPTE assessments for grades 3–12 formed theTexas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS).—2005In response to NCLB regulations, TEA first reported assessment resultsusing a linguistically accommodated testing (LAT) administrationprocess in order to include eligible recent immigrant ELs in the state’smathematics assessments in grades 3–8 and 10.In order to align SDAA to the statewide TAKS testing program, TEAdeveloped SDAA II and administered it for the first time in spring 2005.SDAA II, offered in mathematics, English language arts, reading, andwriting, was available to students enrolled in grades 3–10 who receivedspecial education services and who were instructed in the statemandated curriculum, but for whom TAKS was an inappropriatemeasure of their academic achievement and progress.Student performance on the grade 5 mathematics and readingassessments was included as an SSI requirement for the first time in the2004–2005 school year.In response to the Governor’s 2004 Algebra Incentive Program, theAlgebra I EOC assessment was revised and was administered on avoluntary basis to students who completed Algebra I coursework.1-4CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018Executive Order RP53, issued by the Governor in December 2005,called for increased college readiness programs in Texas schools andauthorized the development of a series of EOC assessments in subjectsassessed by TAKS in the 11th grade.As a result of the 2004 Algebra Incentive Program and Executive OrderRP53, the state reestablished development of the Algebra I EOCassessment, and began developing EOC assessments in Geometry,Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and U.S. History.—2006TAKS–Inclusive (TAKS–I) was offered for the first time in 2006 forstudents receiving special education services and for whom TAKS, evenwith allowable accommodations, was not an appropriate measure ofacademic progress. TAKS–I met the Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 requirements for thosesubjects and grade levels that were assessed with TAKS but not withSDAA II. TAKS–I was administered in science at grades 5, 8, and 10and at exit level; in science in Spanish at grade 5; in social studies atgrades 8 and 10 and at exit level; and in English language arts andmathematics at exit level.—2007TAKS–I and SDAA II were administered for the final time.LAT administrations of the state’s reading and English language artsassessments were first implemented for eligible recent immigrant ELs ingrades 3–8 and 10.In May 2007, the Texas Legislature enacted SB 1031, expanding therole of the EOC assessment program. The bill phased out the TAKSassessments for grades 9, 10, and 11 and replaced them with the EOCassessments as a component of the new high school graduationrequirements, beginning with the incoming freshman class of 2011–2012. The bill required the development of the following six EOCassessments in addition to those required by the 2004 Algebra IncentiveProgram and the December 2005 Executive Order RP53: Algebra II English I English II English III World GeographyCHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas1-5

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018 World HistoryAs a result of SB 1031, the high school, grade-level-based testingrepresented by TAKS would be replaced with the course-specific EOCassessments in Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, World Geography,World History, U.S. History, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and English I,II, and III beginning in spring 2012.—2008Student performance on the grade 8 mathematics and readingassessments was an SSI requirement for the first time in the 2007–2008school year.EOC assessments in Geometry and Biology were first administered on avoluntary basis in response to the Governor’s 2005 executive order.To fulfill federal accountability requirements, the TAKS–Alternate(TAKS–Alt) assessment was implemented. TAKS–Alt was an alternateassessment based on alternate achievement standards designed forstudents with significant cognitive disabilities.The TAKS (Accommodated) assessment replaced TAKS–I for studentsreceiving special education services who met the eligibility requirementsfor specific accommodations. TAKS (Accommodated) was a generalassessment based on the same grade-level academic achievementstandards as TAKS, but it included format changes (larger font, fewerquestions per page) and contained no embedded field-test items.The TAKS–Modified (TAKS–M) assessment was administered for thefirst time for grades and subjects required for federal accountability.TAKS–M was an alternate assessment based on modified academicachievement standards designed for students receiving specialeducation services who met participation requirements.In response to NCLB regulations, LAT administrations of the state’sscience assessments were first implemented for eligible recentimmigrant ELs in grades 5, 8, and 10.Revised TELPAS reading assessments were first administered forgrades 2–12 to more fully address NCLB goals for assessing Englishlanguage proficiency. TELPAS reading for grades 2–12 was designed tobe administered as an online testing program.—2009The TAKS–M assessment was administered for all grades and subjects.Exit-level TAAS was administered for the final time.1-6CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018A vertical scale was implemented for TAKS mathematics and readingassessments in grades 3–8, as required by the Texas Legislature.With passage of House Bill (HB) 3, the 81st Texas Legislature, 2009,placed emphasis on postsecondary readiness by requiring that theperformance standards for mathematics and reading assessments ingrades 3–8 be linked from grade to grade to the college readinessperformance standards for the Algebra II and English III assessments.The required vertical linking along with the phase-out of TAKS at the exitlevel necessitated the design of a new series of assessments toultimately indicate college-readiness.HB 3 also removed the SSI requirement for students in grade 3 to passthe TAKS reading assessment to be promoted to grade 4.EOC assessments in Chemistry and U.S. History were firstadministered.—2010EOC assessments in Physics and World Geography were firstadministered.—2011New STAAR 3–8 field-test items were embedded in most TAKSoperational test forms, with the exception of grades 4 and 7 writing,which were field tested using stand-alone field tests.EOC assessments in English I and Algebra II were administered for thefirst time. In addition, the other EOC assessments—Algebra I,Geometry, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, World Geography, and U.S.History—were administered as operational assessments.—2012In spring 2012, the STAAR program replaced TAKS. At grades 3–8,STAAR assessments were administered for the same subjects andgrades that were assessed with TAKS. At high school, grade-specificassessments were replaced with 15 STAAR EOC assessments: AlgebraI, Geometry, Algebra II, English I reading, English I writing, English IIreading, English II writing, English III reading, English III writing, Biology,Chemistry, Physics, World Geography, World History, and U.S. History.Depending on their graduation program, students were required underHB 3 to meet the passing standard, Level II: Satisfactory AcademicPerformance (or at least achieve a predetermined minimum score), on11 to 15 STAAR EOC assessments. In order to graduate, a studentneeded to achieve a cumulative score requirement in each content area.CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas1-7

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018STAAR Modified and STAAR Alternate replaced TAKS–M and TAKS–Alt at grades 3–8 and high school. At grades 3–8, STAAR Modified andSTAAR Alternate assessed the same subjects and grades as STAAR.At high school, STAAR Modified included nine EOC assessments foradministration in 2012–2013: Algebra I, Geometry, English I reading,English I writing, English II reading, English II writing, Biology, WorldGeography, and World History. STAAR Modified English III reading,English III writing, and U.S. History were scheduled to be administeredfor the first time in 2013–2014. STAAR Alternate included nine EOCassessments at high school: Algebra I, Geometry, English I, English II,English III, Biology, World Geography, World History, and U.S. History.A phase-in period was implemented for the STAAR performancestandards in order to provide school districts with sufficient time to adjustinstruction, provide new professional development, increase teachereffectiveness, and close knowledge gaps. The Commissioner ofEducation determined the appropriate timeline for phasing in theperformance standards. Initially, a two-step phase-in for Level II:Satisfactory Academic Performance was set in place for all STAAR 3–8and EOC assessments. Phase-in 1 performance standards for Level IIwere planned to be effective during the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013school years.—2013In spring 2013, exit-level TAKS was administered as a primaryassessment for the final time to grade 11 students. Retests continued tobe administered for students who were eligible and who had TAKS astheir graduation requirement. TAKS–M was also administered for thelast time in spring 2013.The STAAR progress measure, which provides information aboutstudents’ academic improvement or growth, was reported for the firsttime.In June 2013, the 83rd Texas Legislature enacted HB 5, which reducedthe number of STAAR EOC assessments from 15 to 5: Algebra I,English I, English II, Biology, and U.S. History. Consequently, spring2013 was the final administration of STAAR World Geography, WorldHistory, Chemistry, Physics, and Geometry. STAAR Algebra II andEnglish III were administered again in 2015–2016 as optionalassessments. The legislation also mandated the creation of combinedreading and writing assessments for English I and English II andrequired the redesign of the STAAR Alternate program by 2014–2015.After reviewing changes in STAAR performance between spring 2012and 2013, the Commissioner of Education extended phase-in 1 throughthe 2013–2014 school year.1-8CHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018—2014The redesigned STAAR English I and English II assessments wereadministered for the first time in spring 2014.The STAAR On-Track Measure, which provides information aboutwhether a student is on track to be at or above the Level II passingstandard in a future target year, was reported for the first time. The ELLprogress measure was also reported for the first time to provide a gaugeof annual improvement on STAAR for ELs.In response to new federal accountability requirements, STAARModified was administered for the final time in spring 2014. A new,accommodated version of the STAAR assessment, STAAR A, wasdeveloped.STAAR Alternate was administered for the final time in spring 2014. Asrequired by HB 5, STAAR Alternate 2 was developed as an assessmentthat would not require teachers to prepare tasks or materials.After reviewing changes in STAAR performance between spring 2012and 2014, the Commissioner of Education implemented a new threestep phase-in plan, wherein phase-in 1 would be extended through the2014–2015 school year, phase-in 2 would be implemented in 2015–2016 through 2017–2018, phase-in 3 would be implemented in 2018–2019 through 2020–2021, and the final recommended performancestandards would be implemented in 2021–2022 and beyond.—2015STAAR 3–8 mathematics assessments aligned to the revised TEKSwere administered in spring 2015. A standard setting committee wasconvened and new performance standards were establishedThe online assessment STAAR A was administered for the first time inspring 2015. This assessment provided embedded accommodationsdesigned to help students who meet eligibility requirements access thecontent being assessed. STAAR A had the same performancestandards as STAAR.STAAR Alternate 2 was administered for the first time in spring 2015.Although the assessment has standardized administration materials,test administrators may apply appropriate accommodations to test itemsin order to help students access the content being assessed.—2016To meet the legislative requirements of HB 743, 84th Texas Legislature,2015, the length of each STAAR grades 3–8 assessment was reducedCHAPTER 1Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas1-9

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018by five to eight questions by removing all embedded field-test items.STAAR grades 4 and 7 writing tests were also redesigned to becompleted in one four-hour administration.In 2016, the STAAR reading grades 3–5 assessments in English andSpanish were linked with the Lexile Framework and El Systema Lexile,respectively. These are tools that can help teachers, parents, andstudents locate challenging reading materials. Lexile measures typicallyrange from 200L to 1600L; Spanish Lexile measures typically rangefrom 200L to 1400L.—2017In the 2016–2017 school year, to meet the legislative requirements ofHB 743, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, the total length of each STAARgrades 3–8 assessment was reduced so that students in grades 3–5could complete each test within 2 hours and students in grades 6–8could complete each test within 3 hours.STAAR A and STAAR L were replaced by STAAR online with theaccommodations of Content Supports and/or Language and VocabularySupports. The change was made to offer a wider range ofaccommodations and accessibility features according to the needs ofeach student.In 2017, the STAAR reading grades 6–8 assessments were linked withthe Lexile Framework.The new STAAR Report Card was launched to offer Texas parentsgreater individualized student information. This information inc

TECHNICAL DIGEST 2017 – 2018 CHAPTER 1 Historical Overview of Assessment in Texas 1 - 1 Chapter 1 Historical Overview of . Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and English I, II, and III beginning in spring 2012. —2008 . Student performance on the grade 8 mathematics and reading assessments

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