AMERICAN ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE:YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTPrepared byTHE WHITE HOUSEOFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICYFEBRUARY 2020–0–
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTContinued American leadership in AI is ofparamount importance to maintaining theeconomic and national security of the UnitedStates and to shaping the global evolution ofAI in a manner consistent with our Nation'svalues, policies, and priorities.—President Donald J. Trump, February 11, 2019.
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTFebruary 2020Dear Colleagues,As we mark one year since President Donald J. Trump launched the American Artificial IntelligenceInitiative, the Trump Administration has made critical progress in carrying out this national strategyand continues to make United States leadership in AI a top priority. In addition to establishing strategicareas of emphasis for United States AI research and development (R&D) and accelerated adoption ofAI-enabled capabilities, the American AI Initiative directed Federal agencies to take specific actions thatsupport its objectives.President Trump made history when he became the first president to name artificial intelligence as anAdministration R&D priority in 2017 — and since then, America has never looked back. The TrumpAdministration has called for record amounts of AI R&D investment, led the development of the firstinternational statement on AI Principles, issued the first-ever strategy for engagement in AI technicalstandards, published the first-ever reporting of government-wide non-defense AI R&D spending, andreleased the first-ever AI regulatory document for the trustworthy development, testing, deployment,and adoption of AI technologies.Under this Administration, the United States continues to be the best place in the world for AItechnology to flourish and be developed for the benefit of all people. Our Nation is home to the world’stop universities for AI, our research publications and patents stand out among our peers andcompetitors, and our AI industry is booming. American researchers, scientists, and technologists areadvancing AI that improves medical diagnoses, makes our roads safer, assists first responders duringemergencies, and helps farmers and researchers yield healthier crops.America will maintain its global leadership in AI not through top-down government policies, butthrough our unparalleled innovation ecosystem where Federal agencies, the academic community,private sector innovators, and nonprofits each have a unique and necessary role, not to mention thesynergistic effects of collaboration among these stakeholders. The American AI Initiative serves as anorth star guiding this proven innovation model.In a time of global power competition, our leadership in AI has never been more of an imperative. Weremain committed to supporting the development and application of AI in a way that promotes publictrust, protects civil liberties, and respects the privacy and dignity of every individual.Under the American AI Initiative, the United States will continue to embrace AI as a key industry of thefuture that will help all Americans live longer, happier, and healthier lives.Sincerely,Michael KratsiosUnited States Chief Technology OfficerLynne E. ParkerDeputy United States Chief Technology Officer
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTTable of ContentsExecutive Summary . iiiIntroduction . 1Invest in AI Research and Development . 4Prioritize investments in AI R&D . 4Drive future technological breakthroughs in AI . 5Support R&D addressing AI technical hurdles to trust . 6Coordinate cross-agency AI investments . 8Track progress on Federally funded AI R&D . 9Unleash AI Resources . 10Increase access to Federal datasets for AI R&D and testing . 10Prioritize allocation of high-performance computing resources for AI . 11Enable better use of cloud computing to advance Federally funded AI R&D . 11Remove Barriers to AI Innovation . 13Foster trust in applications of AI . 13Provide regulatory guidance for AI . 13Develop relevant technical standards . 15Train an AI-Ready Workforce . 17Align education to future workforce needs . 17Prioritize AI within existing Federal fellowship and service programs . 18Leverage research to improve educational quality and opportunity . 18Promote an International Environment Supportive of American AI Innovation. 20Engage internationally to promote trustworthy AI innovation . 20Promote and implement international principles on AI stewardship . 21Embrace Trustworthy AI for Government Services and Missions . 23Leverage private sector expertise to improve government services using AI . 23Accelerate government adoption through interagency collaboration . 24Advance Federal agency progress . 24Develop an AI-ready Federal workforce . 25Build trust in the use of AI in government . 25Endnotes . 26Abbreviations . 28– ii –
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTExecutive SummaryOn February 11, 2019, President Donald J. Trump launched the American Artificial Intelligence Initiative, 1the Nation’s strategy for promoting American leadership in AI, by signing Executive Order 13859. 2 TheAmerican AI Initiative focuses the resources of the Federal Government to support AI innovation thatwill increase prosperity, enhance national security, and improve quality of life for the American people.Since the signing of the Executive Order, the United States has made significant progress on achievingthe objectives of this national strategy. This document provides both a summary of progress and acontinued long-term vision for the American AI Initiative. This national strategy for promoting UnitedStates leadership in AI emphasizes the following key policies and practices:1) Invest in AI research and development: The United States must promote Federal investment inAI R&D in collaboration with industry, academia, international partners and allies, and other nonFederal entities to generate technological breakthroughs in AI. President Trump called for a2-year doubling of non-defense AI R&D in his fiscal year (FY) 2021 budget proposal, 3 and in 2019the Administration updated its AI R&D strategic plan, 4 developed the first progress reportdescribing the impact of Federal R&D investments, 5 and published the first-ever reporting ofgovernment-wide non-defense AI R&D spending. 62) Unleash AI resources: The United States must enhance access to high-quality Federal data,models, and computing resources to increase their value for AI R&D, while maintaining andextending safety, security, privacy, and confidentiality protections. The American AI Initiativecalled on Federal agencies to identify new opportunities 7 to increase access to and use of Federaldata and models. In 2019, the White House Office of Management and Budget established theFederal Data Strategy 8 as a framework for operational principles and best practices around howFederal agencies use and manage data.3) Remove barriers to AI innovation: The United States must reduce barriers to the safedevelopment, testing, deployment, and adoption of AI technologies by providing guidance forthe governance of AI consistent with our Nation’s values and by driving the development ofappropriate AI technical standards. As part of the American AI Initiative, The White Housepublished for comment the proposed United States AI Regulatory Principles, 9 the first AIregulatory policy that advances innovation underpinned by American values and goodregulatory practices. In addition, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)issued the first-ever strategy for Federal engagement in the development of AI technicalstandards. 104) Train an AI-ready workforce: The United States must empower current and future generationsof American workers through apprenticeships; skills programs; and education in science,technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), with an emphasis on computer science, toensure that American workers, including Federal workers, are capable of taking full advantage ofthe opportunities of AI. President Trump directed all Federal agencies to prioritize AI-related– iii –
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTapprenticeship and job training programs and opportunities. In addition to its R&D focus, theNational Science Foundation’s new National AI Research Institutes 11 program will also contributeto workforce development, particularly of AI researchers.5) Promote an international environment supportive of American AI innovation: The UnitedStates must engage internationally to promote a global environment that supports American AIresearch and innovation and opens markets for American AI industries while also protecting ourtechnological advantage in AI. Last year, the United States led historic efforts at the Organisationfor Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop the first international consensusagreements on fundamental principles for the stewardship of trustworthy AI. 12 The United Statesalso worked with its international partners in the G7 and G20 to adopt similar AI principles.6) Embrace trustworthy AI for government services and missions: The United States mustembrace technology such as artificial intelligence to improve the provision and efficiency ofgovernment services to the American people and ensure its application shows due respect forour Nation’s values, including privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties. The General ServicesAdministration established an AI Center of Excellence 13 to enable Federal agencies to determinebest practices for incorporating AI into their organizations.America’s strong innovation ecosystem, fueled by strategic Federal investments, visionary scientistsand entrepreneurs, and renowned research institutions, has propelled United States global leadershipin AI. However, continued leadership is not predetermined. Maintaining America’s preeminent role inAI can only be realized by continually building upon our progress and pursuing a strategic, forwardlooking approach in partnership with industry, academia, nonprofit organizations, and other nonFederal entities (see box below).Global leadership in AI matters. With the United States in the lead — together with like-minded allies — wewill shape the trajectory of AI development for the good of the American people — enriching our lives,promoting innovation, fostering trust and understanding, and ensuring our national defense and security.Importance of partnerships to maintaining United States leadership in AIIn all areas of strategic emphasis, partnerships and collaboration with academia, industry, nonprofitorganizations, civil society, other non-Federal entities, and international partners and allies are ofgrowing importance. Concurrent advances across government, universities, and industry mutuallyreinforce an innovative, vibrant American AI sector. Public-private partnerships enable strategicleveraging of resources, including facilities, datasets, and expertise. These partnerships alsoaccelerate the transition of research innovations to practice, by leveraging industry expertise to turnopen and published research results into viable products and services in the marketplace foreconomic growth. In the education and workforce area, partnerships are enhancing education andtraining for next-generation researchers, technicians, and workers, so that all can contribute to the21st century economy. Partnerships with nonprofit organizations and civil society can help addressimportant societal challenges arising from technological developments. The Nation also benefitsfrom relationships between Federal agencies and international partners who work together toaddress key challenges. AI partnerships with allies and partners represent one of our sources ofstrategic competitive advantage.– iv –
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTIntroductionMaintaining American leadership in AI requires a concerted effort to promote advancements intechnology and innovation, while protecting American technology, economic and nationalsecurity, civil liberties, privacy, and American values, and enhancing international and industrycollaboration with foreign partners and allies. (Executive Order 13859, February 11, 2019)Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming every segment of American life, with applications ranging frommedical diagnostics and precision agriculture, to advanced manufacturing and autonomoustransportation, to national security and defense. The pace of AI development is rapid, and newtechnologies — like machine learning, autonomous systems, and natural language processing —continue to widen the scope of applications. AI is already having a substantial economic impact, notonly for companies whose core business is AI, but also for nearly all other companies as they discoverthe need to adopt AI technologies to stay globally competitive.The United States is the global leader in AI research, development, and adoption. Continued Americanleadership in AI will ensure that the United States reaps the benefits of these advancements in a mannerconsistent with our Nation’s values, policies, and priorities. Maintaining American leadership in AIrequires a multipronged strategy to drive advancement and adoption of AI while also upholding civilrights, civil liberties, privacy, and other American values, and protecting our technology advantage.In May 2018, The White House hosted its Artificial Intelligence for American Industry summit (see boxon the next page), which brought together senior experts from across the United States to discusspolicies needed to ensure American leadership in AI. The ideas shared at that meeting led to continueddiscussions that informed the development of a national strategy for promoting United Statesleadership in AI.To further this strategy, on February 11, 2019, President Trump signed the Executive Order “MaintainingAmerican Leadership in Artificial Intelligence.” The Executive Order launched the American AI Initiative,which is a concerted effort to promote national AI technology and innovation leadership. The Initiativeimplements a whole-of-government strategy in collaboration and engagement with the private sector,academia, civil society, state and local governments, nonprofit organizations, and like-mindedinternational partners. It directs the Federal Government to pursue a number of key areas of emphasis,including investing in AI R&D, unleashing AI resources, removing barriers to AI innovation, training anAI-ready workforce, promoting an international environment supportive of American AI innovation, andleveraging AI for government services and missions.–1–
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTThis document — American ArtificialIntelligence Initiative: Year One Annual Report— reviews the strategic objectives of theInitiative, as well as the United States’substantial progress on implementing thestrategy over the first year. The chapters thatfollow describe the six main elements of thestrategy, as well as Federal progress to datein these elements. Figure 1 summarizesseveral of the impactful outcomes from theInitiative thus far, including White Houseactions (left half of the figure) as well asactions by Federal agencies (right half of thefigure).2018 White House Summit on AI forAmerican IndustryIn May 10, 2018, The White House hosted theArtificial Intelligence for American Industrysummit, to discuss the promise of AI and thepolicies needed to realize that promise for theAmerican people and maintain United Statesleadership in the age of artificial intelligence.The summit brought together over 100 seniorgovernment officials, technical experts fromtop academic institutions, heads of industrialresearch labs, and American business leaderswho are adopting AI technologies to benefittheir customers, workers, and shareholders. Atthis summit, participants engaged in two setsof breakout sessions focused on cross-cuttingissues such as AI R&D, workforce development,regulatory barriers to AI innovation, andsector-specific applications of AI.These actions are promoting andaccelerating American leadership in AI aspart of an overall national AI strategy of theUnited States, shaping the trajectory of AIdevelopment for the American people,improving the quality of our lives, andensuring our economic and national security.–2–
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTTimeline of U.S. Government Actions to Advance the American AI InitiativeWhite House Summit onAI for IndustryHeld May 2018FY20 Administration R&DBudget Priorities MemoReleased July 2018DoD AI Strategy(Unclassified)Released Feb 2019FDA regulatoryframework for AImedical devicesProposed Apr 2019USPTO RFI onpatenting AIReleased Aug 2019White House Summit onAI in GovernmentHeld Sep 2019DOT AV 4.0 GuidanceReleased Jan 2020DoD AI EthicsPrinciplesReleased Feb 2020Figure 1. Timeline of United States Actions to Advance the American AI Initiative–3–
AMERICAN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INITIATIVE: YEAR ONE ANNUAL REPORTInvest in AI Research and DevelopmentThe United States must drive technological breakthroughs in AI across the Federal Government,industry, and academia in order to promote scientific discovery, economic competitiveness, andnational security. (Executive Order 13859, February 11, 2019)The unique science and technology enterpri
Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming every segment of American life, with applications ranging from medical diagnostics and precision agriculture, to advanced manufacturing and autonomous transportation, to national security anddefense. The pace of AI development is rapid, and new technologies — like machine learning, autonomous systems, and natural language processing — continue .
and artificial intelligence expert, joined Ernst & Young as the person in charge of its global innovative artificial intelligence team. In recent years, many countries have been competing to carry out research and application of artificial intelli-gence, and the call for he use of artificial
BCS Foundation Certificate in Artificial Intelligence V1.1 Oct 2020 Syllabus Learning Objectives 1. Ethical and Sustainable Human and Artificial Intelligence (20%) Candidates will be able to: 1.1. Recall the general definition of Human and Artificial Intelligence (AI). 1.1.1. Describe the concept of intelligent agents. 1.1.2. Describe a modern .
IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Editors FORSYTH & PONCE Computer Vision: A Modern Approach GRAHAM ANSI Common Lisp JURAFSKY & MARTIN Speech and Language Processing, 2nd ed. NEAPOLITAN Learning Bayesian Networks RUSSELL & NORVIG Artiﬁcial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd ed. Artiﬁcial Intelligence A Modern Approach Third Edition Stuart J. Russell and Peter .
Peter Norvig Prentice Hall, 2003 This is the book that ties in most closely with the module Artificial Intelligence (2nd ed.) Elaine Rich & Kevin Knight McGraw Hill, 1991 Quite old now, but still a good second book Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis Nils Nilsson Morgan Kaufmann, 1998 A good modern book Artificial Intelligence (3rd ed.) Patrick Winston Addison Wesley, 1992 A classic, but .
BCS Essentials Certificate in Artificial Intelligence Syllabus V1.0 BCS 2018 Page 10 of 16 Recommended Reading List Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness Title Artificial Intelligence, A Modern Approach, 3rd Edition Author Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Publication Date 2016, ISBN 10 1292153962
PA R T 1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 1 Chapter 1 A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 What Is Artificial Intelligence? 4 1.3 Strong Methods and Weak Methods 5 1.4 From Aristotle to Babbage 6 1.5 Alan Turing and the 1950s 7 1.6 The 1960s to the 1990s 9 1.7 Philosophy 10 1.8 Linguistics 11
Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning (AI/ML/DL) F(x) Deep Learning Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence Technique where computer can mimic human behavior Machine Learning Subset of AI techniques which use algorithms to enable machines to learn from data Deep Learning
Artificial Intelligence and Its Military Implications China Arms Control and Disarmament Association July 2019 What Is Artificial Intelligence? Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the research and development of the theories, methods, technologies, and application systems for