What Is Personality? Personality Has Two Common .

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PersonalityWhat is Personality?Personality has two commonmeanings:The first meaning refers to the impression aperson makes on others. The second meaning refers to the unseenstructures and processes inside a person thatexplain why we behave the way we do. What is personality?A stable set of characteristics and tendenciesthat determine those commonalities anddifferences in the general psychologicalbehavior (thoughts, feelings, and actions) ofpeople over time.Is it relatively stable, hard to change or is itever changing?What determines personality?Heredity Research using twins Strong genetic componentEnvironment Family (parents, SES, # of siblings, race, religion) Life experiences (esp. during formative years) Group membership Culture (music, film, tv, education, politics)InteractionMeasuring PersonalityProjective TestsDifferent ApproachesProjective tentialBehavioral/CognitivePhysiologicalBased on the assumption that the test takerwill transfer (“project”)unconscious conflictsand motives onto an ambiguous stimulus. Examples include the Thematic ApperceptionTest and the Rorschach 1

Thematic Apperception TestThe Rorschach Inkblot TestPerson is asked to tell astory about the “hero” inthe picture Ambiguous stimuliPerson is asked toreport what they seeThis type of test iscalled projectiveAnother projective testBased on Murray’spersonality theory People are distinguishedby the needs thatmotivate their behaviorSample Rorschach CardObjective Personality ScalesAnswer a series of question about self‘I am easily embarrassed’ T or F ‘I like to go to parties’ T or F Assumes that you can accurately reportThere are no right or wrong answersFrom responses, develop a picture of youcalled a ‘personality profile’Characteristics of the MMPI 2No clear image, so thethings you see must be“projected” from insideyourselfMinnesota MultiphasicPersonality InventoryMost widely used personality instrument Now the MMPI - 2Clinical & Employment settingsMeasures aspects of personality that, ifextreme, suggest a problem e.g., extreme suspiciousnessLong test 567 questionsMMPI Score ProfileHas several different scales (multiphasic)Scales thought to measure different kinds ofpsychological disorders e.g., depressionScale scores indicate how you compare withothersOverall assessment is interpretive From inspecting profile of different scales2

MMPI Validity ScalesMMPI Sample ItemsFour scales designed to determine whetherrespondent is presenting self accurately.Example: L scale (‘Fake Good’) - Tryingtoo hard to present self in a positive light.I usually feel that life is worthwhile andinteresting “I smile at everyone I meet” (T) “I read every editorial every day” (T) Defining Personality and Traits. Distinctive and relatively stable pattern ofbehaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions thatcharacterizes an individual throughout life.Trait ParanoiaI seem to hear things that other peoplecan’t hear PersonalityDepressionEvil people are trying to influence my mindSchizophreniaTraitsTraits refer to regularities or trends in aperson’s behavior. The trait approach to personality maintainsthat people behave the way they do becauseof the strength of the traits they possess. A characteristic of an individual, describing ahabitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.Big Five ModelWhat are the components of personality?Traits- basic units or components of personalityBig 5 factors- general categories containing many relatedtraits Neuroticism or Adjustment Extroversion or Sociability Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to Experience or Intellectual Openness Advantages of the Big Five Model Provides explanation of stable patterns ofbehavior Personality traits tend to be constant overtime. Important for professional to know owntraits to assess likelihood of success invarious environments Successfully works in many environments.3

Big Five Model Advantages of the Big Five Model Useful categorization scheme fordiscussions Universally accepted across culturesBig Five Model Disadvantages of the Big Five Model Some argue that five factors are not enough toadequately encompass all the different personalitytraits. The Big Five personality dimensions tend to befairly heterogeneous internally, which makesthem poor predictors of specific behaviors ascompared to personality traits.Three major themes:Jung1. Person unconscious is supplemented by a"collective unconscious" consisting ofuniversal images.2. Spiritual needs are at least equally, if not moreimportant, than basic biological needs ("searchfor meaning")."Life, so-called, is a short episode between twogreat mysteries, which yet are one"Structure of the Personality3. Introverts try to harmonize inner conflicts intoa whole self. Extravert try to harmonize selfwith social realities.Persona: The persona is the public face (mask) one presents to theworld for everyone else to see. It is in opposition to the shadowand is mostly conscious as a part of personality. Sometimes thepersona is referred to as the "social archetype" since it involves allthe compromises appropriate to living in a community.4

Ego: The conscious, individualistic mind; the centerof consciousness. The ego is typically characterizedby one dominant attitude (introversion/extraversion)and by one or two dominant functions (think/feel;sense/intuit).Personal Unconscious: This is formed of sociallyunacceptable mental content that was onceconscious but has been forced out of mentalawareness by the defenses.1. Is in conflict with the ego.2. Contains the complexes, which areunconscious clusters of emotionally ladenthoughts that result in a disproportionateinfluence on behavior (ex: money complex,mother complex, Oedipus complex).Collective Unconscious: A communal,species memory representing theaccumulated experiences of mankind. Itis a storehouse of latent predispositions toapprehend the world in particular ways. Itis the deepest and most inaccessible layerof the psyche.They exist preconsciously, and presumably they form the structuraldominants of the psyche in general. They may be compared to theinvisible presence of the crystal lattice in a saturated solution. As apriori conditioning factors they represent a special, psychologicalinstance of the biological "pattern of behaviour," which gives allliving organisms their specific qualities. Just as the manifestationsof this biological ground plan may change in the course ofdevelopment, so also can those of the archetype. Empiricallyconsidered, however, the archetype did not ever come intoexistence as a phenomenon of organic life, but entered into thepicture with life itself."A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity" (1942).In CW 11: Psychology and Religion: West and East. P. 222Archetypes: An archetype is an inherited predispositionto respond to certain aspects of the world.“I have often been asked where thearchetype comes from and whether itis acquired or not. This questioncannot be answered directly.Archetypes are, by definition, factorsand motifs that arrange the psychicelements into certain images,characterized as archetypal, but insuch a way that they can berecognized only from the effects theyproduce.Shadow: The shadow is both a part of thepersonality and a archetype.Part of personality: The shadow is the dark side ofyour personality that contains the animal (andsexual) instincts. It is the opposite of the Persona(mask) and is the part of personality that isrepressed from the ego ideal.As archetype: The importance of the shadow isseen in its symbolic representation by devils,demons, and evil spirits.5

Animus: From the Greekword for "mind" (spirit).The male archetype inwomen. It predisposeswoman to understand thenature of man, serves asthe compensatory rationalinner face of thesentimental femalepersona, and isexperienced as amasculine voice withinthe psyche.The Shadow is the personification of that part of human,psychic possibility that we deny in ourselves and projectonto others. The goal of personality integration is tointegrate the rejected, inferior side of our life into our totalexperience and to take responsibility for it.Anima: From the Greek word for "soul". The female archetypein men. It predisposes man to understand the nature of woman,serves as the compensatory sentimental inner face of the rationalmale persona, and is experienced as a feminine voice within thepsyche.Functions of thought:How the person dealswith information fromthe world.IntuitionThinkingFeelingSensation1. Thinking: Tells what a thing is, gives names, categories tothings (true, false), defines alternatives, and reasons objectively.2. Feeling: Is basically evaluative; tells whether something isgood/bad; acceptable/unacceptable; like/dislike. Do not confusewith emotion. Essential notion: Is the object of value?3. Sensing: Tells you what exists; detects the presence of things.Does not evaluate. Is interested in facts and objects in theobjective world; focus is on the trees.4. Intuition: Uses hunches, sees possibilities, sees around cornersand goes beyond the facts; focus in on the forest.6

Introversion - ExtroversionThe SelfIndividuationI had to abandon the idea of the superordinateposition of the ego. . I saw that everything, all pathsI had been following, all steps I had taken, wereleading back to a single point -- namely, to the midpoint. It became increasingly plain to me that themandala is the centre. It is the exponent of all paths.It is the path to the centre, to individuation. . I knewthat in finding the mandala as an expression of theself I had attained what was for me the ultimate.- C. G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections.Middle Life (40 -- 60-65): Here theprocess of the integration of the shadowdominates. This is the Fall of life. Introvertshave a slight edge here because of theheavy introspection.1st Half:egoconscious personalityouter eventsachievementsdoing2nd Half:selfunconscious personalityinner eventsintegrationbeingMidlife Crisis: This comes when you are bored with material success andbegin the process of making sense of your life. There are at least threepossible solutions:1. Denial - don't face the crisis. You might die at 40 although you won't beburied until 90.2. Start all over - suddenly you discover the unconscious and proclaim that allyour life up to now has been a lie. You sell your business and become an artistor a missionary. Sometimes OK, sometimes not.3. Start the process of integrating the old life and the new life into an unifiedconcept of self. This is when men start of soften up (retire, become involvedwith family) and women start to toughen up (start a business, go into politics).7

“With increasing age, contemplation, andreflection, the inner images naturally playan ever greater part on man’s life . . . Inold age one begins to let memories unrollbefore the mind’s eye . . .”Old Age (60-65 -- Death). Herewisdom (self &spirituality)dominates. This isthe winter of lifewhen you prepare forthe next greatmystery.Erik Erikson(1902-1994)Freud vs. EriksonA. Erikson: direct extension of Freudian Theory.B. Erikson's Approach: Ego Psychology: Psychoanalytic ParadigmEgo Psychology 1. Ego as Unifying Force in Personality.2. Ego as active shaper of "self."3. Cultural / Environmental Factors Shape Ego: Erikson's Stage TheoryA. Subscribed to Freud's Model ofPsychosexual Development.B. Extended Freud's Model intoAdulthood and Old Age.a. Different Cultures Different Ego Development.b. Deviance is Culturally Bound.C. Epigenetic Process of Development:1. Step-by-Step Development.2. Later Steps Build on Earlier Steps.3. Earlier Stages/Steps not "Lost."4. Gradually Unfolding Psychologicalblueprint.5. Biology AND Culture/EnvironmentShape Development.8

The Life-Span Approach: EriksonBasic assumptions Neopsychoanalytic: previous life experienceextremely important in determining/shapingpersonality Epigenetic principle: genetically determinedunfolding of maturation; HOW we turn out is afunction of social/environmental forces andexperience in interaction with genotype.The Life-Span Approach: EriksonBasic assumptions (continued)Development is a lifelong processPersonality emerges through relative resolutionof developmental crises Ego psychology: Ego is neither dependent on orsubservient to the id, it is independent The Life-Span Approach: EriksonErikson’s Eight StagesPersonality developmentStage theory Basic crisis @ each stage Crisis challenge to the evolving ego contact with anew aspect of societyTrust vs.MistrustInfancyEach crisis is most salient during a particularstage but has it’s roots in previous stages andconsequences of previous stagesErikson’s Eight StagesErikson’s Eight StagesAutonomyvs. Shame& DoubtToddlerhoodChild learns whathe/she can controland develops asense of free willand correspondingsense of regret andsorrow forinappropriate useof self-control.Child develops abelief that theenvironment canbe counted on tomeet his or herbasic physiologicaland social needs.Initiativevs. GuiltEarlyChildhoodChild learns tobegin action, toexplore, toimagine as well asfeeling remorsefor actions.9

Erikson’s Eight StagesIndustryvs.InferiorityMiddleChildhoodChild learns to dothings well orcorrectly incomparison to astandard or toothersErikson’s Eight StagesIdentity vs.RoleConfusionErikson’s Eight StagesIntimacyvs.IsolationYoungAdulthoodDevelops ability togive and receivelove; begins to makelong-termcommitment torelationshipsAdolescenceDevelops a sense ofself in relationship toothers and to owninternal thoughts anddesires social identity personal identityErikson’s Eight lops interestin guiding thedevelopment ofthe nextgenerationErikson’s Eight StagesEgointegrityvs.DespairLaterAdulthoodDevelops a sense ofacceptance of life asit was lived and theimportance of thepeople andrelationships thatindividual developedover the lifespanMoral DevelopmentKohlbergExtension of PiagetMorality of Justice10

What was Kohlberg's evidence?20 year longitudinal study of 50 Chicago-areaboys, interviewed first between 10 and 16, andat 3 year intervals6 year longitudinal study of small village ofTurkish boysCross-sectional studies in Canada, UK, Israel,Taiwan and other countriesMoral DilemmasDilemma I: In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kindof cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might saveher. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town hadrecently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but thedruggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. Hepaid 400 for the radium and charged 4,000 for a small dose of thedrug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knewto borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could onlyget together about 2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told thedruggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper orlet him pay later, But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drugand I'm going to make money from it." So, having tried every legalmeans, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man'sstore to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have stolen thedrug? Why or why not?Dilemma Ic: Officer Brown did reportHeinz. Heinz was arrested and broughtto court. A jury was selected. Thejury's job is to find whether a person isinnocent or guilty of committing acrime. The jury finds Heinz guilty. Itis up to the judge to determine thesentence. Should he give Heinz aharsh sentence? Why or why not?Stage TheoryThree ix StagesDilemma Ib: Heinz did break into the store.He stole the drug and gave it to his wife. In thenewspapers the next day there was an accountof the robbery. Mr. Brown, a police officerwho knew Heinz, read the account. Heremembered seeing Heinz running away fromthe store and realized that it was Heinz whostole the drug. Mr. Brown wonders whether heshould report that it was Heinz who stole thedrug. Should he report the theft? Why or whynot?Dilemma II: There was a woman who had very badcancer, and there was no treatment known tomedicine that would save her. Her doctor, Dr.Jefferson, knew that she had only about six monthsto live. She was in terrible pain, but she was so weakthat a good dose of a painkiller like morphine wouldmake her die sooner. She was delirious and almostcrazy with pain, but in her calm periods she wouldask Dr. Jefferson to give her enough morphine to killher. She said she couldn't stand the pain and she wasgoing to die in a few months anyway. Although heknows that mercy-killing is against the law, thedoctor thinks about granting her request. Should hegrant her request? Why or why not?11

Dilemma III: In Korea, a company of Marines was wayoutnumbered and was retreating before the enemy. Thecompany had crossed a bridge over a river, but theenemy were mostly still on the other side. If someonewent back to the bridge and blew it up, with the headstart the rest of the men in the company would have,they could probably then escape. But the man whostayed back to blow up the bridge would not be able toescape alive. The captain himself is the man who knowsbest how to lead the retreat. He asks for volunteers, butno one will volunteer. If he goes himself, the men willprobably not get back safely and he is the only one whoknows how to lead the retreat. What should he do?Why?Stage 1:Punishment and Obedience Orientation"The physical consequence of actiondetermine its goodness or badness, regardlessof the human meaning or value of theseconsequences. Avoidance of punishment andunquestioning deference to power are valuedin own right, not in terms of respect for anunderlying moral order supported bypunishment or authority."Level 2: ConventionalStage 3:Good Boy-Nice Girl. OrientationStage 4:Society-maintaining OrientationLevel 1: Preconventional MoralReasoningStage 1:Punishment and Obedience OrientationStage 2:Instrumental RelativismOrientationStage 2:Instrumental RelativismOrientation"Right action consists of that which fundamentallysatisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needsof others. Human relations are viewed in terms likethose of the marketplace. Elements of fairness, ofreciprocity, and of sharing are present, but they arealways interpreted in a physical, pragmatic way.Reciprocity is a matter of 'you scratch my back andI'll scratch yours,' not of loyalty or justice."Stage 3:Good Boy-Nice Girl.Orientation"Good behavior is that which pleases or helpsothers and is approved by them. There is muchconformity to stereotypical images of what ismajority or 'natural' behavior. Behavior isexplicitly judged by intention--'he means well'becomes important for the first time. Onegains approval by being 'nice.'"12

Stage 4:Society-Maintaining Orientation"There is orientation toward authority,fixed rules, and maintenance of thesocial order. Right behavior consists ofdoing one's duty, showing respect forauthority, and maintaining the givensocial order for its own sake."Level 3: PostconventionalStage 5:Social Contract OrientationStage 6:Universal Ethical Principles OrientationStage 5:Social Contract OrientationStage 6:Universal Ethical Principle Orientation".generally with utilitarian overtones. Right tends to be defined interms of general individual rights and standards which have beenexamined and agreed upon by the whole society. There is a clearawareness of the role of personal values and opinions and acorresponding emphasis upon procedural rules establishingconsensus. Aside from what is constitutionally and democraticallyagreed upon, it is a matter of personal 'values' and 'opinions.' Theresult is an emphasis upon the considerations of social utility (ratherthan freezing it in terms of Stage 4 'law and order.') Outside thelegal realm, free agreement and contract is the binding element.This is the 'official' morality of the American government andconstitution.""Right is

personality and a archetype. Part of personality: The shadow is the dark side of your personality that contains the animal (and sexual) instincts. It is the opposite of the Persona (mask) and is the part of personality that is repressed from the ego ideal. As archetype: The importance of the

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