Best Practices Manual For Small Drinking Water Systems

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Manitoba WaterStewardshipBest Practices Manual forSmall Drinking Water SystemsDate: June 2007Prepared forOffice of Drinking WaterPrepared by(Formerly Cochrane Engineering Ltd.)


TABLE OF CONTENTS1.0 Introduction .11.1 Small Drinking Water Systems Best Practices Summary .22.0 Small Drinking Water Systems Legislation .32.1 Office Of Drinking Water.33.0 Owner And Operator Responsibilities .43.1 Owner Responsibilities .43.2 Operator Responsibilities.44.0 Well Operation And Maintenance .54.1 Daily Duties.54.2 Weekly Duties.54.3 Monthly Duties .55.0 Well Abandonment.66.0 Wellhead Protection.96.1 Identify The Critical Area To Protect .96.2 Inventory The Potential Contaminants Within That Area .96.3 Develop A Management Strategy Designed To Minimise The Potential OfContamination .96.4 Regularly Inspect Wellheads .97.0 Surface Water Intake Structures.107.1 Intakes .107.2 Raw Water Pumping And Raw Water Storage .107.3 Source Water Protection.108.0 Basic Filter Operation And Maintenance .118.1 Daily Duties.118.2 Monthly Duties .118.3 Annual Duties .129.0 Chemical Feed Systems .139.1 Daily Duties.139.2 Quarterly Duties.139.3 Annual Duties .149.4 Jar Testing .1410.0 Ultraviolet Disinfection .1610.1 Weekly Duties.1610.2 Monthly Duties .1610.3 Quarterly Duties.1610.4 Monitoring .1611.0 General Plant Maintenance .1711.1 Daily Duties.1711.2 Weekly Duties.1711.3 Monthly Duties .1711.4 Annual Duties .1712.0 Asset Management .1813.0 Treated Storage Reservoirs .1913.1 Daily Duties.1913.2 Annual Duties .1914.0 Storage Reservoir Disinfection.2115.0 Watermain Repair And Disinfection .22

16.0 System Drawing And Sample Siting Plan .2316.1 System Drawing.2316.2 Sample Siting Plan .2317.0 Distribution System Flushing .2417.1 Prior To Flushing Checklist.2417.2 While Flushing Checklist.2418.0 Hydrant Maintenance .2718.1 General Inspection And Maintenance Procedures .2719.0 Valve Maintenance .2919.1 Components Of A Valve Maintenance Program.2919.2 Components Of A Routine Valve Inspection .2920.0 Cross Connections And Backflow Prevention .3121.0 Leak Detection Program .3222.0 Water Quality Monitoring Program.3322.1 Determine Monitoring Parameters.3322.2 Determine Monitoring Locations .3322.3 Determine Monitoring Frequency .3322.4 Determine Sampling Techniques.3422.5 Manage And Report Monitoring Data .3422.6 Include Event-Driven Monitoring In The Program.3422.7 Develop Response Procedures For Monitoring Results .3422.8 Establish Partnerships .3522.9 Maintain And Update The Monitoring Program .3523.0 Emergency Planning.3724.0 Additional Resources .3824.1 Standards .3824.2 Information.3824.3 Other Examples Of Manuals.38

IMPORTANT PHONE NUMBERSEmergency911Operator–In–ChargeBack-up OperatorOffice of Drinking Water – Main Branch1-204-945-5762Office of Drinking Water – Local Drinking Water Officer24-hr Provincial Emergency Response NumberPublic Health InspectorHazardous Spill ReportingWorkplace Safety & HealthFire DepartmentPolice DepartmentSecurityMayor / ReeveChief Administrative OfficerCommunity MemberEngineer / ConsultantWater Treatment Equipment SupplierWater Treatment Chemical Supplier1-204-944-4888

Office of Drinking WaterBest Practices ManualSmall Drinking Water Systems1.0 IntroductionNew regulations pursuant to The Drinking Water Safety Act, administered by the Office ofDrinking Water, resulted in changes to the approval, licensing, monitoring, record-keepingand reporting requirements for drinking water systems in Manitoba. It is recognized thatmany small drinking water systems may not have the same level of access to technicalservices and resources as larger public water systems. This manual of best practices (acomprehensive, integrated and co-operative approach to continuous improvement of allfacets of operations for delivering superior standards of performance) is to assist smalldrinking water systems with regulatory, management and operational challenges.This manual includes: a summary of legislation, regulations and guidelines applicable to small water systems. a description of general operating and maintenance requirements for source waterdevelopment, pumping, treatment and distribution facilities; sampling and testingschedules; safety, seasonal use and emergency planning. a description of best practices for various elements of a water system’s operation,including templates for record-keeping (metering data, water quality testing, routine O&M(Operations and Maintenance) tasks, repair notations, etc.). a list of additional resources that owners and operators should consult for more detailedguidance on topics that are most relevant to their water systems.For more detailed protocols for seasonal water systems, refer to the Manitoba WaterStewardship document “Seasonal Water System Start-up/Shut Down Protocol”.June 20071

Office of Drinking WaterBest Practices ManualSmall Drinking Water Systems1.1 Small Drinking Water Systems Best Practices SummarySmall drinking water systems should: produce high quality, stable water that is biologically and chemically safe andaesthetically acceptable to water users;comply with all provincial regulations applicable to the operation and maintenance of thewater system;be knowledgeable of the water system infrastructure (assets) and their location;be knowledgeable of the condition of the water system;maintain a plan to upgrade inadequate components and replace aging components;maintain an adequate disinfection residual in all parts of the system;maintain positive water pressures under foreseeable operating conditions;implement a backflow prevention and cross-connection control program;monitor the quality of the water including at the source, in the treatment plant, in thedistribution system and at the point of use (i.e., at the tap);maintain comprehensive records;ensure proper disinfection and flushing procedures are used for repairs and newconstruction;monitor for internal and external corrosion of piping and equipment and, if necessary,implement measures to reduce the rate of corrosion;meter water supply and consumption to estimate water usage and losses and, ifnecessary, implement a leak detection program;maintain the source water intake, dam, raw water reservoir or wellhead site;maintain the treatment plant, pumping stations, and reservoirs;maintain the distribution system valves and hydrants;flush and/or swab the watermains;use a maintenance management system to track and schedule activities;maintain a spare parts inventory;prepare contingency plans to address operation under emergency situations;prepare a financial plan to ensure the water system is sustainable;maintain public relations through public education and participation in public events;maintain adequate staffing and funding levels to undertake best practice activities andprovide training for staff; anddevelop a working relationship with Office of Drinking Water staff to help ensureprotection of public health.June 20072

Office of Drinking WaterBest Practices ManualSmall Drinking Water Systems2.0 Small Drinking Water Systems LegislationThe Drinking Water Safety Act received Royal Assent August 9, 2002 and was proclaimedJanuary 30, 2004. The supporting regulations, MR 40/2007 the Drinking Water SafetyRegulation and MR 41/2007 the Drinking Water Quality Standards Regulation Regulations,came-into-force on March 1, 2007.The Public Health Act also addresses issues related to public water systems (those with 15or more service connections) as follows: Protection of Water Sources Regulation (326/88R)Water Supplies Regulation (330/88R)A permit is required under The Drinking Water Safety Act to construct or alter (ex: upgradeor extend) a public water system. The new regulations also require that every public watersystem obtain an operating licence that sets out site-specific water treatment and waterquality standards, and monitoring, reporting and record-keeping requirements. Beginning inMarch of 2008, operating licences will be issued to semi-public water systems (14 or lessconnections but not a private (residential) water system). The primary objectives of watersystem operation are to protect the public health and ensure due diligence is exercised.Other pertinent legislation for Drinking Water Systems: The Water Rights ActManitoba Plumbing CodeThe Environment ActWater and Wastewater Facility Operators Regulation (77/2003)For more information: /acts-regs/index.html2.1 Office of Drinking WaterOffice of Drinking Water staff carry out periodic inspections of water systems to evaluatedesign, operational and monitoring, and provide advice on compliance issues. They arealso available to provide technical assistance to water system owners and operators duringemergency and non-emergency situations, making them an excellent resource.The Office of Drinking Water is to be contacted IMMEDIATELY in all emergencysituations.Resource Office of Drinking Water nking water/index.htmlJune 20073

Office of Drinking WaterBest Practices ManualSmall Drinking Water Systems3.0 Owner and Operator Responsibilities3.1 Owner ResponsibilitiesAlthough an owner may designate a manager or operator(s) to conduct the day-to-dayoperations of a water system, the owner (either a person, municipal council, cooperative, orboard of commissioners) is ultimately responsible for providing safe drinking water, andmeeting all public responsibilities and regulatory requirements that apply to the watersystem.Owners must: understand the terms and conditions of the Operating Licence or other approvalconditions for their drinking water system.understand their obligations under The Dinking Water Safety Act and associatedregulations.hire competent and certified operators.allocate sufficient financial resources for source water protection, proper systemoperation and maintenance, and operator training.ensure that system operating reports and records are maintained and provided toregulators upon request.3.2 Operator ResponsibilitiesThe operator is responsible for ensuring the system is operated in accordance with allconditions outlined in their Operating Licence and any other conditions set out by the Officeof Drinking Water.Operators must: deliver drinking water to water quality standards;operate all water system facilities in accordance with licence conditions;protect drinking water sources taking all reasonable steps;maintain and submit records to the regulatory agency as required and immediatelyreport to the Office of Drinking Water violations of the Operating Licence or otheroperational conditions noting corrective actions taken;immediately report to the owner and the Office of Drinking water any concerns withwater system operations that may compromise water quality or public health anddocument the steps taken, or to be taken, to address the issue; andmaintain their provincial operator certification requirements.Resource NSEL due diligence handbook: ence.aspJune 20074

Office of Drinking WaterBest Practices ManualSmall Drinking Water Systems4.0 Well Operation and MaintenanceWellhead piping should be configured in such a way as to minimize the potential forcontamination of the water source while also providing for proper testing and control of thewell. Systems should have a raw water sampling port upstream of any treatment. Thefollowing are some recommended operational duties to help develop a preventativemaintenance program for the water supply well.4.1 Daily DutiesRecord well pump run times, pump cycle starts and meter reading (if equipped). Takereadings at the same time every day. Comparing the daily numbers will help to identifypotential well pump problems. See sample Daily Well Pump Log sheet.Inspect well pumps, motors, and controls. Operators should always be on the lookout forany defects in the system. Look, listen, and feel for any unusual sights, sounds or vibrations.Make sure the seals are intact and the system is not “running hot.” Check all timers toensure that the pump operating times are equalized. Controls should be operated manuallyto verify that they are working. See sample Well Water Supply System Checklist.4.2 Weekly DutiesRecord the pumping rate for each well or source water pump. If the meter onlyregisters total volume (m3), not flow rates (L/sec), then dividing a measured volume (L) overa specific pump run time (sec) will give an approximate flow rate (L/sec). A noticeablechange in pumping rate can indicate that there is a pump or well casing problem. However,pumping rates will vary based on the head the pump is pumping against (i.e., the water levelin the well and/or pressure in the piping system).4.3 Monthly DutiesRead Hydro meter for well pumps (if available). If pumping accounts for a large part ofthe energy use, track water production with energy use; note any unexpected changes inenergy use over time. Abnormally high Hydro meter readings could indicate that the pumpsare working harder to perform their job, which could mean that maintenance or replacementwill be required.4.4 Long-Term DutiesHave a qualified driller undertake an inspection of the well including televising of thewell. Over time, issues can develop with well casing, screens and other well components.Periodically, every 5 or 10 years or based on identified ongoing capacity or operationalissues, a detailed well inspection should be undertaken. Plan for well maintenance andpump replacement, particularly submersible pumps which are more difficult to service, inadvance including possible temporary shutdown. Verify overall capability to supply peakwater demands (i.

Best Practices Manual Office of Drinking Water Small Drinking Water Systems 1.0 Introduction New regulations pursuant to The Drinking Water Safety Act, administered by the Office of Drinking Water, resulted in changes to the approval, licensing, monitoring, record-keeping

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