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HOME SCIENCE Government of TamilnaduFirst Edition - 2004Reprint - 2005CHAIRPERSONDr. JANAKI KAMESWARANDepartment of Home ScienceWomen’s Christian College,Chennai - 600 006.HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEARAUTHORS AND REVIEWERSMs. R. Nancy Angeline RaniWomen’s Christian College,Chennai - 600 006.AUTHORSUntouchability is a sinUntouchability is a crimeUntouchability is inhumanMs. V. SuganthiAnna Adarsh College for WomenChennai - 600 040.Ms. Stella SatheeshEthiraj College for WomenChennai - 600 008.Ms. Raziya KamilWomen’s Christian CollegeChennai - 600 006.Ms. M. M. RamalakshmiGovernment Model HigherSecondary SchoolChennai - 600 015.Ms. M. AmbikapathiGovernment Boys HigherSecondary SchoolChennai - 600 044.Price : Rs.This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Educationon behalf of the Government of TamilnaduTAMILNADUTEXTBOOK CORPORATIONCollege Road, Chennai - 600 006.This book has been printed on 60 GSM PaperPrinted by Offset at:

CONTENTSUnit - I : CONCEPT OF HOME SCIENCE1.1. Introduction to Home Science1.2. History of Home Science1.3. Interdisciplinary Approach1.4. Role of Home Science inNational Development and International Integration1.5. Extension Education1.6. Government and Non GovernmentOrganisations1.7. Adult Education and General InformationUnit - 2 : PHYSIOLOGY2.1. Introduction to Human Physiology2.2. Cell2.3. Skeletal System2.4. Muscle Physiology2.5. Nervous System2.6. Circulatory System2.7. Respiratory SystemUnit - 3 : FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH3.1. Classification of Foods3.2. Principles of Cooking and Methods of Cooking3.3. Basic Food Science and Cookery3.4. Basic Knowledge of Important Nutrients3.5. Basic Five Food Groups and Balanced DietUNIT - 4. LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT4.1. Meaning of Developmental ChangesiiiPage .2. Characteristics of the Prenatal Period4.3. Infancy4.4. Badyhood4.5. Early Childhood4.6. Late Childhood4.7. Childhood Diseases4.8. Day - Care Centers and Pre Schools for ChildrenUnit 5. HOME MANAGEMENT5.1. Housing5.2. Care of the House5.3. Interior DecorationUnit 6. FUNDAMENTALS OF TEXTILESAND CLOTHING6.1. Fibers6.2. Natural Fibers6.3. Man - Made Fibers6.4. Fabric Construction6.5. Finish and Colour ApplicationUnit 7. COMMUNICATION SKILLS7.1. Functions of Communication7.2. The Uniqueness of Human Communication7.3. Communication Models7.4. Barriers to Communication7.5. Meaning of Communication7.6. Teaching Methods.7.7. Communicating to the Rural 22229263263264272281293310310311311313314317319323

1. CONCEPT OF HOME SCIENCE1.1 INTRODUCTIONA plan of teaching Home Science must begin with an understandingof the discipline of home science. What is needed is a simple, directexplanation of the relevance and significance of home science in themodern context.People often ask how home science is associated with the home.This question brings out the basic premises upon which the discipline ofhome science is built. The science of the home is concerned with themaintenance and enrichment of human relationships through thedevelopment and judicious use of all available human and materialresources to achieve a maximal satisfying life for all members of thefamily.Home science education prepares youth for the greatest of allvocation - Home Making. It orients young girls and boys towardspreparation for several professions- teaching, nursing, dietetics, research,welfare, management, art application, extension work andcommunication.There are several ways of managing homes. Men as well as womenhave played the roles of breadwinners and homemakers. It has becomenecessary for men to share housework, to enable women as professionalpersons to contribute to the nation.It advocates that1.Home is a place for development of both sexes through equalopportunities.2.The personal and professional development of both sexes ispossible within the home.3.The roles and norms for both sexes pertain to their personal andprofessional lives. Therefore the imbalance between the roles ofman and woman must be avoided.1

4.The single dimensional role of woman as a home-maker producesconstraints for women’s development, society and individuals havechanged and therefore the women’s lopsided role of a home maker,needs to be fused with professional roles.this emotional security and develop commitment and loyalty to thefamily.b)This provides the opportunities to students to identify themselvesin their own family, community and nation through identifying theirresponsibilities, roles and resources.c)The formation of habits and practices regarding eating, health,cleanliness, home making, dressing, parts of the body and sex,different stages in life etc are imparted in the school through thiscourse.General education aims at the all-round development ofindividuals to enable them to take their places in society as effectivemembers. In the development of their abilities, emphasis is placed onpersonal development for living in a social group. The functionalphilosophy of education calls for “Preparation for living through living”.d)All skills required by individuals to communicate to others and bewell placed in the society is possible only through home sciencee)Many boys and girls take interest in interior designing, architecturalwork, stitching, cooking etc and home science will help thesestudents in fulfilling their desires.Home science helps to fulfill these purposes in a unique way. Ithelps pupils to develop a point of view that challenges them to explorehow to live together happily in their families, other social groups andcommunities.f)Many are compelled to terminate their formal education at thesecondary stage. A course in home science ensures that studentscan take up many careers even at this age, since they are wellequipped with information needed for this.Home science aims to achieve family happiness, raise its moralstandards and improves its economic conditions and these objectivesare to be achieved by fully allowing the man as well as the woman todevelop personally and professionally.g)Students with an inclination for service to the needy can docommunity work to the best of their abilities, since home sciencegives them the opportunity to use varied extension methods andaudio / visual aids.Home is a place where life begins and school is the place whereformal education begins. Hence what has been generated at home canbe further enriched at school.h)Home Science in a well-expanded discipline at college anduniversity levels, Students, passing out from Higher SecondaryLevels can opt for specialization offered.Following are the reasons for introducing Home Science atSecondary School Level.Having understood the concept of Home Science, let us look intothe origin of home science in India and the beginning of the Home ScienceAssociation of India.5.All knowledge applied are fundamental, which can be used toliberate women and men from undue pressure within and withoutthe home, is the content of Home Science.The goal of home science education is to help each individualto live more useful and satisfying personal, family and community life.a)Secondary stage of education is the stage where young learnersbecome of educable age and are sensitively aware of homes andfamilies and are in need of emotional security, acceptance andfeelings of belongingness. The study of home science can strengthen21.2 HISTORY OF HOME SCIENCE IN INDIAThe teaching of Home Science in India has a short history. Between1920 to 1940, under the British administration. Home Science referred3

to as domestic science, home craft or domestic economy was introducedin some schools & colleges. The Princely State of Baroda was one ofthe first to introduce home science in secondary school. The history ofhome science at College & University was made in 1932 at Delhi, inLady Irwin College. Then in 1938 Madras University accepted homescience at the degree level and the well known & pioneering homescience colleges in Chennai are the Queen Mary’s College and theWomen’s Christian College, which appeared in the Indian horizon in1942.science has also increased over the years because not only have theprofessional roles changed their nature but also few have becomepossible for professional home scientists. The philosophy of homescience has also changed to prepare individuals for professional rolesrather than to prepare them only for home making. Today home scienceis aimed at preparing professional workers like teachers, nurses,dietitians, researchers, social workers, designers, administrators. etc.Therefore the interdisciplinary approach of home science has taken anew dimension.The Avinashilingam Home Science College Coimbatoreheaded by Dr. Rajammal P. Devadas contributed greatly towards theexpansion of this interdisciplinary course at various levels, starting fromSchool to Ph.D.Life Span Development or child development hasinterdisciplinary connectors with child psychology, pediatrics, socialwork, extension, family welfare, adult education and nutrition.The Agricultural Institute of Allahabad had also started a HomeScience Diploma Course in 1935 and it became a University LevelDepartment in 1945. Other outstanding home science colleges, whichhave developed since 1950, are Universities at Coimbatore. Luthiana,Bombay, Udaipur & Tirupathi. Then in mid 1960’s to 1970’s AgriculturalUniversities recognized the need for teaching home science.Physiology collaborates with physicians and specialists fromdifferent specialties like neurology, nephrology, cardiology, skin,orthopedics etc.Food, Nutrition and Health has interdisciplinary collaborationwith biochemistry, microbiology, dietetics, physicians and specialists insocial medicine etc.The Home Science Association of India had taken its roots atBaroda under the guidance of Dr. Flemmie P. Kittrell, Dr. LeelaShah and Ms. Dorothy Pearson, in 1951. The first convention ofthe association met at Chennai in 1952 where the constitution ofthe Association prepared by Ms. Pearson of Women’s ChristianCollege, Chennai, was adopted. The broad objectives of theAssociation are to raise the standard of home science education in schoolsand colleges and to make homes and families healthier and happier.The publication of the Association is The Indian Journal Of HomeScience. The Indian Home Science Association has been representedat the International Federation of Home Economics.Home Management is concerned with housing, management,interior designing, soil, structural engineering, energy, carpentry, furnishingetc.1.3 INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHNational Integration is a mental attitude based on a feeling ofoneness, common ideals of life and a common code of behavior. InIndia, one finds marked differences in the living standards, dress,A professional home scientist requires a combination of knowledgefrom several specializations. This interdisciplinary approach of home4Fundamentals of Textiles and Clothing have interdisciplinaryapproaches to textiles chemistry, weaving, textile designing, fashiondesigning, garment production industries, and chemicals dyes etc.Communication Skills works in collaboration with media,advertising, extension and information dissemination.1.4. ROLE OF HOME SCIENCE IN NATIONALDEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION5

customs, religion, dietary habits, culture etc, of the various people livingin different parts.Regionalism, linguism, casteism, communalism etc. are thedisruptive influences, which have divided Indian society into variousgroups. In this context it is the duty of the parents and teachers toinform the child to appreciate in definite and positive terms the faith,customs, manners and practices of all persons belonging to religions,language, regions other than his own.children to participate in community extension activities and therebymake them realize their commitment to their society and less privilegedand school dropouts in rural and urban areas.One of the major roles played by Home Science in an individual’slife is to make her/him to realize the need for extending the knowledgegained through formal education to the less privileged who are deprivedof attending formal education. Hence we need to understand the meaningof extension education and the methods of non-formal teaching,The family is the primary socializing group in society.1.5 EXTENSION EDUCATIONIt exerts the most fundamental and profound influence on everyhuman being. Not only does it influence the child’s basic personality butit also introduces him to the mores and values of the larger culture. In itlie the tremendous socio-psychological forces, which determine thebehavior of the child for good or for evil. Similarly when the child entersschool, the teachers and peer groups have a great influence on thechild’s outlook. In this context home science plays an important role inmoulding the child’s character and widening his thoughts, ideas, feelingsetc, both at home and in school. Similarly a child gets to interact withpeople outside our country. This happens when she/he moves to foreigncountries for studies, work etc. or after marriage or on exchangeprograms. Due to advancement in technology and communication, thereis so much of influence and impact from other advanced countries. Mediaplays an important role in this. Mothers and teachers are responsible indirecting the child to the right path in guiding him/her to choose the bestof what is provided for him/her and ignore the rest.Education is the production of desirable changes in human behaviorchanges in the social and cultural aspects of human life. The term socialmeans anything related to human beings. Extension education triesto develop the social behavior of the people, their different socialgroups and the intra and inter relationship of these social groups.Life cannot be sustained without adequate nourishment, goodhealth, protective environment, good housing, managerial qualities/skills,empowerments, suitable resources, communication skills, high literacylevels and aspirations. All these are essential for national development.Home science is an integral course which builds an individual with allthese qualities and thereby aims at development of individuals, his family,the community and the nation in large. Home science also encouragesNon - formal education on the other hand is any organized,systematic, educational activity carried outside the framework of theformal system, to provide selected types of learning to particularsubgroups in the population who cannot avail the benefits of the formaleducation. This will include school dropouts; young and old. For thisinformal methods of teaching and informal environment is used.6The term culture means the socially standardized ways of feeling,thinking and acting which an individual acquires as a member of thesociety. The behavior of an individual is influenced, controlled anddirected by culture. Extension education helps in bringing aboutcultural development. The main function of extension educationis to disseminate information to people who need this.Formal education is highly institutionalized, chronologically gradedand hierarchically structured education system starting from primaryschool and reaching to university education. General or basic educationis imparted in formal education methods in a formal atmosphere.This non-formal system of education is referred to as adulteducation or extension education. It tries to bring out the following7

types of changes in human behavior.a)b)c)Changes in knowledge and skillsChanges in attitudeChanges in practicepractices and preconceived ideas so as to enable them to climb up theladder towards individual and community and national development.1.5.21.To promote all round development of all individuals in the home.The specific objectives of the out of school system of education2.To assist individuals in the effective use of the available resourcesin solving their day-to-day problem.The fundamental objective is the development of the people.To provide knowledge and help to enable the people work moreeffectively and efficiently.To help people know the world and provide better opportunitiesfor interaction.To open up new opportunities for people to develop skills andtalents and improve their standard of living.To make people self-reliant and productive citizens of the society.To promote better social, cultural, recreational, intellectual andspiritual aspects of the people.3.To strengthen the work of the government and non governmentalagencies in providing all round development of individuals throughare1.2.3.4.5.6.The broad objectives of Home Science Extension area) Imparting knowledge on health, nutrition, home management,child development, their rights and responsibilities, moderntechnologies and other relevant information, which will leadto nutrition and social standards.b) Developing functional and vocational skills like tailoring, foodpreservation, educational skills etc, which will help them inimproving their economic status and empowerment of womenespecially.c) Bringing about change in their attitude and practices aiming atincreasing the literary levels, standard of living and ultimatelycommunity and national development.1.5.1. Home Science ExtensionWhen the concept of extension is extended to home scienceit is called Home Science Extension Education. Home scienceextension is an applied science which aims at bringing about changes inthe behaviour of the less privileged through dissemination of scienceand technological information in the areas of home science.The philosophy of Home Science Extension - this is based onthe development of the individual, who is the most important componentof the community and nation development. Every individual has theability to solve his/her profile and in the process of solving these problemshe/she learns, improves and develops. Home science extension aims atdeveloping the human skills and abilities, disseminating suitable andimportant information or knowledge pertaining to the needs andproblems of people and help them to bring about a change in their81.5.3. Characteristics of Home Science Extension:1.It is a multidisciplinary approach - It derives its body ofknowledge from all sciences like physics, chemistry, physiology,nutrition and health, child development, textiles and clothing andalso includes management, sociology, psychology, communicationetc.,2.It is action oriented - Home science extension refers to a seriesof activities, which impart knowledge on selected topics and helpthe target group to develop necessary skills for its application.Home Science extension education aims at action and results.3.It empowers women and youth – In order to improve the9

4.5.6.7.8.economic status this is essential. This technical advances are sharedand they are made to work independently with better status in thecommunity.Its results are intangible – Change in attitude and knowledge isa slow process and results cannot be seen immediately. Sometimesit is difficult to perceive concrete results and should not be takenas a measurement for the effectiveness of a program.It is a two way process – Home Science extension establishes atwo-way communication channel by bridging the gap betweencenters of higher education and research and the beneficiaries.Now technology is transferred to the field through variouscommunication media or methods and target groups are helped torealize importance of using it for improving their standard of living.Similarly the needs and problem of the people are communicatedto specialists who in turn find solution to these and that is passedon through field workers.It is a need-based program – Any home science extensionprogram will exist or function only on needs of the people. It canbe long-term or a short term need but without this no program fordevelopment can be planned.It is family oriented – The very word home means the familyand so home science extension aims at the over

A plan of teaching Home Science must begin with an understanding of the discipline of home science. What is needed is a simple, direct explanation of the relevance and significance of home science in the modern context. People often ask how home science is associated with the home. This

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