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Human Trafficking: A Study Exploring its Causes,Current Efforts and ChallengesA Thesis Submitted for the Partial Fulfilment ofMaster’s Degree in Development StudiesByDisha RanjanaRoll No- 413HS1001Under the Guidance ofDr. Bhaswati PatnaikDepartment of Humanities and Social SciencesNational Institute of TechnologyRourkela – 769008, Odisha, IndiaMay 20151

DECLARATIONI hereby declare that I have completed my project on “ “Human Trafficking: A StudyExploring its Causes, Current Efforts and Challenges” ” at National Institute ofTechnology, Rourkela, Odisha in the academic year 2014 – 2015. The work submitted here byme is true and original to the best of my knowledge.Disha RanjanaM.A. in Development StudiesDept.: Humanities and Social SciencesNational Institute of Technology, Rourkelai

Dr. Bhas wati PatnaikDate: 11.05.2015Associate Professor (Psychology)RourkelaDepartment of Humanities and Social SciencesNational Institute of TechnologyRourkela – 769008Odisha, IndiaCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Ms. Disha Ranjana has carried out the research embodied in thepresent dissertation entitled “Human Trafficking: A Study Exploring its Causes, CurrentEfforts and Challenges” under my supervision for the award of Master’s degree inDevelopment Studies at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. This dissertation isan independent work and does not constitute part of any material submitted fo r any researchdegree or diploma here or elsewhere.(Dr. Bhaswati Patnaik)Research Supervisorii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTI would like to extend my deepest gratitude towards my supervisor Dr. Bhaswati Patnaik forhaving confidence in me and encouraging me; it truly has been a rewarding experience.This gratitude is also extended to all the faculty members of the Department of Humanitiesand Social Sciences without whose guidance this research would not have been possible.I would also like to thank my friends for believing in my work and abilities.My heartfelt appreciation goes to my interviewees who took time out of their busy schedulesfor participating in this research.A special thanks to my seniors and friends Aradhana Panigrahi, Nivedita Pathak, MedhaRath and Yashaswi Agarwal for motivating me to finish the project by helping me at everyhour with their presence. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, whose unconditional loveand support inspired me to use my gifts of compassion, mercy, and sensitivity to help othersin need.Disha Ranjanaiii

Declaration. ICertificate. iiAcknowledgement. iiiAbstract. viiiChapter 1- INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW1-241.1 Introduction.11.2 Background of The Study .41.3 Review of Literature.61.4 Research Gaps.191.5 Conceptual Framework.201.6 Rationale of the study.211.7 A brief profile of Sundargarh district.221.8 Objectives of the study.24Chapter 2- METHODOLOGY25-262.1 Sample.252.2 Tools.252.3 Procedure.25Chapter 3- RESULTS AND ANALYSIS27-362.4 Results.272.5 Analysis.27(A) Human Trafficking and its Prevalence in Sundargarh.27iv

(B) Causes for the prevalence.28(C) Current efforts to combat Human Trafficking.30(D) Challenges faced while combating Human Trafficking.30(E) Case Studies of the Trafficked victims.30(F) Role of NGOs in combating Human Trafficking.33Chapter 4- CASE STUDIES37-492.1 A case of domestic servitude (Female).372.2 A case of domestic servitude (Male).412.3 A case of sex trafficking.432.4 A case of group trafficking.462.5 A case of Transnational Trafficking 48Chapter 5- DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION50-552.6 Limitations of the Study.512.7 Implications of the Study.522.8 Direction for future research.532.9 Recommendations.54References56-59Appendix60-61v

ABSTRACTHuman trafficking is a multifaceted issue which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Thisstudy is aimed at exploring the causes, current efforts and challenges faced in this context.The objective of this study is to examine the incidence of human trafficking and itsunderlying factors in the Sundargarh district of Odisha. Sundargarh is an industriallyexpanding district which can open up employment opportunities for the tribals who areimmensely affected due to various reasons. To analyse the experiences of the victims ofhuman trafficking, indepth case study method has been adopted. Fina lly examining the roleof local NGOs in combating human trafficking is a major thrust in this study. The sample ofthe study includes five (5) case studies of the trafficked victims. The respondents alsoincluded the members and staff of the NGOs, different officials of the district administrationand family members of the victims. The results indicated that an inclusive approach is whatIndia needs in order to combat trafficking. These approaches should be right-based becauseHuman Trafficking violates human rights. So every endeavour should be directed towardsprotection of these rights. Protection measures should be directed to both men and women.The study reveals how the state rehabilitation programs do not function as they should be.Monitoring and evaluation of anti- trafficking programs should incorporate methods to getaccurate field based data. Above all, alternate livelihood options should be made open to thetribal population who are not skilled otherwise.Key words: Trafficking, human rights, rehabilitation, convergence, inclusivevi

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATUREThis chapter aims at introducing the topic “Human Trafficking: A study exploring itscauses, current efforts and challenges.” by emphasizing on its definition and the relevanceof the study in the Sundargarh district of Odisha. It gives a general idea about HumanTrafficking. This chapter deals with review of literature to throw light upon the issue inSundargarh district of Odisha. It also includes the research gaps, conceptual framework, anddefinition of the key terms, rationale of the study, and a brief profile of Sundargarh andfinally the objectives of the study.1.1 INTRODUCTIONAn intergovernmental impromptu body was established in December 1998 by theUnited Nations General Assembly and was bestowed with the responsibility of devising alegal system which would combat transnational organized crime. This ad- hoc body finallycompleted the work that was assigned to it in October 2000 after 120 states had assembled foreleven times. The main feature of this new legal framework was the ‘Convention AgainstTransnational Crime’. There were three pacts which were an adjunct to this Convention.These pacts dealt with Smuggling of Migrants, Trafficking in Persons -- Especially Womenand Children, and Trafficking in Firearms.A conference which was held at Palermo, Italy in December 2000 opened theConvention to be signed by member states. Because the General Assembly had alreadyespoused these three adjunct pacts in November 2000. In an international context it is seenthat, Vienna process can be accredited for initiating the fight against the evil of worldwideorganized crime (Gallagher, 2001).1

Henceforth, the definition of Human Trafficking was quoted. United Nations’Palermo Protocol defines Trafficking in person as, “the recruitment, transportation, transfer,harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms ofcoercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position ofvulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of aperson having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitationshould include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms ofsexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery,servitude or the removal of organ.” (United Nations, 2000).UNDOC’s first endeavour towards classifying human trafficking from among thepool of other forms of organized crime was done in April 2006 (Chawla et al., 2009).Prohibition of all forms of Trafficking is also stated under Article 23 of the IndianConstitution. Other acts which have been instrumental in combating human trafficking werepassed after the International Convention of the Suppression of Immoral Traffic andExploitation of Prostitution of Others in 1950 (India) were authorized. These acts were TheSuppression of the Immoral Traffic Act 1956 (SITA) which got amended to the ImmoralTraffic (Prevention) Act (ITPA) in 1986 (Nair & Sen, 2005). It has become a serious issue ofthe twenty first century because of rapid globalisation, industrialization, urbanization andrelated migration patterns which are forcing people to move from one place to another insearch of livelihood options and employment opportunities.The general idea that we carry about human trafficking is equivocal and vague.Human trafficking and people smuggling are not the same thing. There are markeddifferences between these two concepts. The central facet to these concepts is the motivebehind exploitation (Iselin & Adams, 2003).2

Trafficking must have some essentials elements to be fully defined as trafficking. An‘action’ is important which is to be done through some ‘means’ and must be directed towardssome ‘goal(s)’. The varieties and ways in these elements vary from situation to situation.Without these elements, human trafficking cannot be said to have taken place (Aronowitz,2009). The perils of both trafficking in person and human smuggling cannot be ignoredbecause each has different consequences. The source of both human trafficking and humansmuggling can be traced back to the varied forms of migration (Salt, 2000).It can be seen that migration, human trafficking and human smuggling have a nexusamongst themselves. They thrive on mutual elements which are functional in thesephenomena. The ‘consent’ element is taken into account in context of trafficking and humansmuggling (Kyle & Koslowski, 2011). Victims of both phenomena are exploited. In case ofmigration, people who avail the services of a smuggler outside their own consciousknowledge, often find themselves turn into victims of trafficking. Another prime differencebetween people smuggled and people trafficked is that the former have the freedom to leavetheir place of work or operation and the latter are not even re motely fortunate to do the same(Väyrynen, 2003). This is how one phenomena leads to another and thereby creating a nexus.Human trafficking is a profit making business worldwide.Traffickers make lump sum amount of money at the cost of the lives of innocent peoplewhich consists of babies, young girls, children, women, men (Orhant & Murphy, 2002). Theyare exploited and deprived of their freedom and human rights. People who get victimised areforced to work without pay (Kangaspunta, 2011). The incidences of human traffickinggenerally flourish due to the marginalised people who are frail, poverty stricken and helplessdue to the absence of livelihood options which makes them susceptible. Genderdiscrimination and related exploitation is another major reason for these marginalised peoplesuffering and bearing the cost of exploitation. Their lives can be transformed when better and3

sustainable livelihood opportunities would be created for them. In some countries where thereis a situation of war, military base camps serve as the demand driven group and are facilitatedby sex workers who have been trafficked from different regions (Getu, 2006).There is an urgent to need to study human trafficking, especially in the district ofSundargarh, Odisha because of the ambiguity in the number of reported and unreported cases.Trafficking in person is a multifarious issue which is in dire need of an approachwhich can address every aspect of it. Therefore while studying every aspect of humantrafficking in India, the socio economic conditions of the people must be taken into account.The colossal concern for trafficking in persons, human smuggling and transitingmigration patterns are quite ahead of what is normally perceived by the local news, media,governmental and non governmental bodies. Their opinion advances further than that ofacademic research and published statistics (Salt, 2000). It is extremely hard to gauge the sizeof trafficking because it is almost identified as any of the forms of forced labour (child),prostitution, abduction etc. It must be noted that these can have a separate identity to themand should not be merged with Trafficking, to avoid confusion. The human rights of womenand children are exceedingly misused and exploited when they fall victim to any kind oftrafficking.Therefore, it is very important to adopt an approach which would bemultidimensional. This would ensure that at least the major aspects are going to be addressedto and shall be death with (Ghosh, 2009).The consequence of such multifaceted studies would aid policy formulations andimplementations in order to combat human trafficking and human smuggling. The outcomesmay be fruitful or may create more scope for further research in this context.4

1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYGetting an idea of what exactly HUMAN TRAFICKING is demands a lot ofperspective. This is because every case and situation of human trafficking is unique in its owncourse. To substantiate this, in a general case of human trafficking it is seen that a person(who later on becomes the victim) is taken from their village or town or city to another place,based on false promises of employment in a promising sector (commonly domestic help orlabourer) with a handsome pay. Now this pay is made to look more than what this person getsin his/her own region. Such lucrative deals are the base or the main reasons for trafficking tostart off in a region in the first place. Nevertheless whe n they arrive at the destination, whatwelcomes them is a shock of reality. They either never get the job that they were promised inthe first place. The pay that they were promised is below their imagination. And fromthereon, the situation starts deteriorating. In many cases it is unacceptable. They are handedover to placement agencies where they are further sent to different houses as domestic helpand to different industries for different kind of small scale labour jobs. Initially if we see thissituation is that of human smuggling. But since the recruiter makes misleading promises, thiscase is moulded into the shape of human trafficking.In transnational trafficking, it is commonly seen that those people who are taken awayfrom their home country in the pretext of being given good jobs, their passports are takenaway from them. And other such related personal documents are confiscated (Shelley, 2007).There is no escape for these victims. They are held as hostages are drowned in huge debtswhich can cost them their lives, if they ever tried to escape.Therefore whilst giving a global perspective to Human Trafficking calls forunderstanding the concept of it as well as educating civilians as to how they must recognizeand respond and tackle the traffickers and trafficking happening in their communities and5

periphery. It is very important even for students of social sciences to open their eyes andbroaden their perspectives and vision about human trafficking in a global arena. Identifyingthese intricate details of the dynamics of human trafficking is much more important than justhaphazardly going forward with new laws and policies or whatsoever.1.3. REVIEW OF LITERATUREMost of the literature which is accessible to public was widely based on the outcomesof research studies conducted, newspaper articles, minutes of conferences and workshops thatare held pertaining to human trafficking. These conferences and workshops are generallyorganised by national and international NGOs and government bodies.The American Psychological Association (2011) established the Task Force onTrafficking of Women and Girls and reported that there are different aspects to humantrafficking apart from legal, social and human rights. Different recommendations regardingthe enhancement of training and research in this field of human trafficking and also forchanges in public policy, advocacy set up, capacity building and preventive measures to betaken for combating the same were suggested. Scientific approach has been used to have aninsight for the psychologists to deal with this social problem. Because if the dynamics oftrafficking are not well understood, the picture that we get is vague and lacks clarity about thereal issue. In the policy recommendations section, it has been suggested that behaviouralhealth services and counselling services should be given to those who have been the victimsand then came out as survivors and also to be able to generate enough funds to have furtherin-depth research in this field. It is important to promote and create awareness in the sectorslike education, health, legal (judiciary) and child welfare and train their professionals aboutthe various aspects, elements and consequences of human trafficking. The main inclusion wasabout the study of mental health as a part of human trafficking studies. So appropriation of6

resources and services is important. Policies should be based on evidence and shouldn’t lackcredibility. Incorporating appropriate programs for girl’s safety as victims and survivors inthe system of juvenile justice is also important. It is recommended that the schoolcurriculums should have enough information about how effectively they (both teachers andstudents) can identify those at risk for traf

Disha Ranjana Roll No- 413HS1001 Under the Guidance of . (Chawla et al., 2009). Prohibition of all forms of Trafficking is also stated under Article 23 of the Indian Constitution. Other acts which have been instrumental in combating human trafficking were passed after the International