UW/CEI Energy And Environment Seminar

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IEEE P1547 UpdateWhat we can learn from Germany whenrevising interconnection standards forDistributed Energy ResourcesJens C. Boemer, Ph.D.EPRIUW/CEIEnergy and Environment SeminarOctober 20th, 2016 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

DisclaimerThis presentation and discussion here on IEEE P1547are individual’s views and are not the formal position,explanation or position of the IEEE.2 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

AbstractThis lecture will explore lessons learned from Germany about interconnection and integration ofmassive amounts of distributed energy resources (DERs) into the distribution grid and relatedimpacts on bulk system stability.Germany has experienced an unprecedented, and unexpected, deployment of small-scale, roof-topsolar systems in the past decade and is now serving about one third (!) of its annual electricityconsumption by renewable energy from wind, solar, biomass, hydro, etc. In the transitioning processof its power system, called “Energiwende”, Germany has made a number of unfortunate mistakesthat can be useful for the U.S. to learn from.The main interconnection standard for DERs in North America, IEEE Std 1547, is currently beingrevised and the lecturer who is with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is involved in aleadership position in that revision process. Revisions to the standard include reactive powercapability and voltage control requirements, voltage and frequency ride-through, interoperability andcommunication capability requirements as well as testing and verification requirements. This lecturewill provide an informal report on the status of the revision of IEEE Std 1547 and explain howinterested parties may get involved in the process and voting.3 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Agenda1.2.3.4.Background and ContextLessons learned from GermanyMajor Changes in IEEE P1547 in a NutshellDraft Interconnection and Interoperability Requirements (selected) VAR and VAR-control capabilityVoltage & Frequency Ride-ThroughInteroperability and Communication5. Test and Verification of Requirements6. How to Get Involved?4 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background and ContextThe Challenge: Development and forecast of Solar PV in the United States.80,000Cumulative Capacity in U.S.(MWdc)Data Source: GTM/SEIA's U.S. Solar Market Insight Report Q1 02011201220132014 2015E 2016E 2017EYear (2015-2020 are forecasts)Residential PVNon-Residential PV5 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.Utility PV2018E2019E2020E

Background and ContextThe Reality: Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Germany.Share of Renewablesin Gross Annual Electricity ConsumptionInstalled Nameplate Capacityof Renewables6 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background and ContextThe Grid Planning & Operation Challenge with Distributed Energy Resources Voltage/Reactive Power Power quality: voltage limits/powerfactor/harmonics Frequency/Active Power Stability Health & Safety: protectioncoordination/anti-islanding7 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background and ContextThe Grid Planning & Operation Challenge with Distributed Energy Resources Voltage/Reactive Power Power quality: voltage limits/powerfactor/harmonics Frequency/Active Power Stability Health & Safety: on requirements for DERs should adequately addresstransmission and distribution system needs.8 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background and ContextWhich standards apply after the transitioning period? (Example: California)StandardsIEEE Std1547.1-20xxTestsPeriod after IEEE Stds1547 and 1547.1 UpdateUL 1741-20xx (Listing/ Certification Test)State NationalState/PUC Utility Laws(CA Rule 21-20xx)LocalIEEE Std1547-20xxIndividual Utility GeneratorConnection AgreementsHarmonizing Requirements in IEEE Std. 1547 for the Future. DER interconnection and system integration focus. Technology-agnostic. Widely accepted. Performance-based requirements. Leading technological development and innovation of DERperformance.NERC / FERC9 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lessons learned from GermanyUnderstanding the transitioning process of the power system as a collaborative learning process.1.Things may go much faster than you'd expect. Good solutions from the past may not hold in the future.2.You cannot plan for everything. 2009: German incentive program for improved grid integration of wind power plants. 2012: German legislation to retrofit DERs with (basic) remote control capability. 2012: German legislation to retrofit PV systems with improved frequency settings(so-called “50.2 Hz problem”). 201x: German legislation to retrofit other DERs with improved frequency settings(so-called “49.5 Hz problem”). 2016: It is easy to miss the end point of 'market introduction' of (distributed) renewables (“duckcurve problem”).3.Expect mistakes and make the system flexible: Require communication capability.10 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Changes in IEEE P1547 in a NutshellCA Rule 21 and UL 1741(SA) are leading the way for IEEE Stds 1547 and 1547.1 California Rule 212000IEEE 1547-20032003FERC SGIP (Small GeneratorInterconnection Procedure)2005Updated California Rule 21(consistent with IEEE 1547-2003) 2011IEEE 1547a-201420142015Updated California Rule 21(more prescriptive than IEEE 1547a-2014)2016Amended UL 1741 (SA)(inverter certification driven by CA Rule 21)2017/18 ?IEEE 1547rev-201x2018/19 ?IEEE 1547.1rev-201xInterconnection Agreements / Markets / etc. Shall trip in response to abnormalvoltage/frequency conditionShall not actively regulate voltage orfrequencyMay ride through abnormal V/FMay actively regulate voltage bychanging real/reactive powerMay change real power in response tofrequency deviationsShall ride through abnormal V/FShall be capable of actively regulatingvoltage by changing real/reactive powerShall be capable of changing real power inresponse to frequency deviationsShall have communication interface? DER Unit Level: Type Test, Production TestDER Facility Level: Design Evaluation,Installation Evaluation, Commissioning Test,Periodic Tests DER to provide ancillary grid services– capability VS. provision11 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Changes in IEEE P1547 in a NutshellDraft Applicability of RequirementsNo:small-scale DERDER rating 500 kW ?Yes:medium or large-scale DER% of annualload demand 10 % ?No:“Non-IPP”Point of DERConnection, PoC(DER terminals)Point of DERConnection, PoC(DER terminals)Yes:“IPP”Point of CommonCoupling, PCCThe reference point has implications for testing & conformancerequirements in IEEE P1547 & P1547.1 !!!12 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Changes in IEEE P1547 in a NutshellIEEE P1547 Performance Category ApproachIEEE Std. 1547revRideThroughCategory s1CategoryIIIMarket AnalysisImpact Assessment Costs Market segment Etc.1 Technical conditions: type & capacity & futurepenetration of DER, type of grid configuration, etc.State Regulator, Area EPS or bulk system operator, etc. Non-technical issues: DER use case, impacts onenvironment, emissions, and sustainability, etc.13 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

VAR and VAR-control capabilityExample for a 100kW Cat B DERDraft Reactive Power Capability RequirementsQThe DER shall be capable of injectingreactive power (over-excited) andabsorbing reactive power (under-excited)equal to the minimum reactive power(kVar) corresponding to the value given inthe Table below at all active poweroutput equal to 20% to 100% ofnameplate active power rating (kW).48.43 kVarProposedAkV111.11S48.43 kVarPF 0.9-48.43 kVarAkV.11111SPF 0.9P100 kWManufacturers’PreferredQ100 kWP-48.43 kVarMinimum Reactive Power Injection and Absorption CapabilityCategoryInjection (Over-Excited) Capability as %of Nameplate Apparent Power (kVA )RatingAbsorption (Under-Excited) Capability as% of Nameplate Apparent Power (kVA )RatingA (at DER ratedvoltage)4425B (at ANSI range A)444414 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

VAR and VAR-control capabilityDraft Voltage Regulation Control ModesDER CategoryCat ACat B Voltage Regulation by Reactive Power ControlAdjustable Constant Power FactorMandatoryMandatoryVoltage – Reactive Power toryMandatoryOptionalMandatoryActive Power – Reactive (Watt-Var) ModeAdjustable Constant Reactive Power Voltage and Active Power ControlVoltage – Real Power (Volt-Watt) The DER shall be capable of activating any of these modes individually. Adjustable constant power factor mode with unity power factor setting shall be the default mode of the installed DERunless otherwise specified by the area EPS operator. The Area EPS operator shall specify the required voltage regulation control modes and the corresponding parametersettings. Modifications of the settings and mode selected by the EPS operator shall be implemented by the DERoperator.15 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Voltage & Frequency Ride-ThroughFoundations for Voltage & Frequency Ride-Through tionVoltage RideThroughCategory IGerman grid code for mediumvoltage-connected synchronousgenerator-based DER Essential bulk system needs.Attainable by all state-of-the-art DERtechnologies.Category IINERC PRC-024-2 but w/o stabilityexception, extended LVRT durationfor 65-88% Vnom based on EPRI White Paper(May 2015) All bulk system needs.Coordinated with existing reliabilitystandards.Considering fault-induced delayedvoltage recovery.CA Rule 21 and Hawaii, minormodifications Category IIIFrequency RideThroughAll Categories(harmonized)CA Rule 21 and Hawaii, exceedsPRC-024-2 based on EPRI White Paper(May 2015)16 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. All bulk system needs.Considering fault-induced delayedvoltage recovery.Distribution system operation. All bulk system needs.Low inertia grids.

Voltage & Frequency Ride-ThroughDraft Voltage Ride-Through Requirements for Category IICategory II(based on NERC PRC-024-2 and considering FIDVR issues to a certain extent)1.30may ride-through0.16 sor may trip1.2021sPermissive Operation1.10voluntaryride-throughshall trip1.20 p.u.13 s11.10 p.u.Continuous Operation1.00Voltage (p.u.)0.900.88 p.u.0.88 p.u.Mandatory Operation0.80may ride-through or may tripNERCPRC-024-20.700.65 p.u.0.32 s0.6012s21 sLegendrange of adustabilityPermissive Operationdefault value0.500.45 p.u.0.50 p.u.shall trip zones0.16 s0.400.16 s0.30may ride-through ormay trip zones2s2shall ride-through zonesand operating regionsdescribing performancemay ride-throughor may trip0.200.100.00 p.u.0.00 p.u.shall trip0.000.010.1110100Time (s)17 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.1000Source: Draft Standard for Interconnection andInteroperability of Distributed Energy Resources withAssociated Electric Power Systems, IEEE P1547/D5,August 2016.

Voltage & Frequency Ride-ThroughDraft Frequency Ride-Through Requirements for All CategoriesCategory I, II, and III(harmonized)66.0 Hz66.0 Hz63.0may ride-throughor may trip62.5shall trip62.0 Hz62.00.16 s1 000 s2299 s61.5Mandatory Operation180 s61.060.6 HzFrequency (Hz)60.561.0 Hz1 may ride-through1 000 sOverfrequencydroop1 000 sUnderfrequencydroopor may trip60.0Continuous Operation(V/f 1.1)59.559.059.0 HzLegend58.5range of adustabilityMandatory Operation58.0default value57.5may ride-through ormay trip zones180 s299 sshall ride-through zonesand operating regionsdescribing performanceshall trip zones157.0 Hz57.0may ride-throughor may trip56.5may ride-through or may trip0.16 s1 000 s2shall trip56.00.010.150.0 Hz11010050.0 HzTime (s)18 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.1000Source: Draft Standard for Interconnection andInteroperability of Distributed Energy Resources withAssociated Electric Power Systems, IEEE P1547/D5,August 2016.

Interoperability and CommunicationDraft Interoperability and Communication RequirementsDefinition and ApplicabilityLimited Scope of IEEE P1547Changes in the IEEE P1547 paradigm: The point of interconnection now includes power and communicationinterfaces.Definitions from IEEE Std 2030: Interoperability – the capability of two or more networks, systems,devices, applications, or components to externally exchange and readilyuse information securely and effectively Interface – a logical interconnection from one entity to another thatsupports one or more data flows implemented with one or more datalinks. Only the standards protocols and the hardware interfaceat the DER interconnection points is within the scope ofP1547. Internal network specifics such as the protocols utilized withincommunication networks are out of scope of P1547. Internal DER specifics such as plant-level communicationsand controls are out of scope of P1547.19 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Test and Verification of RequirementsKey characteristics of a proposal to be discussed at the P1547 Working Group meeting October 25-26, 2016Objectives Keep it simple. Maintain and create planning security. Streamline DER interconnection processes by providing Authorities Governing InterconnectionAgreements (AGIAs / AHJs) with a conformance framework.Approach Consider applicability of requirements, i.e., PoC vs. PCC. Give flexibility as to allow for meeting compliance by means of “Supplemental DER Devices” ifindividual DER units only partially meet the requirements. Use as much “plug-and-play” as possible, rely on type tests where possible, ensureinteroperability. Prefer cost-effective “DER evaluation” over expensive commissioning test.20 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Test and Verification of RequirementsThe test requirements should give guidance, yet be flexible enough to consider the large variety of actual DER setups inthe field:DER Capability &ConformanceIEEE Std 1547Requirement XYZApplicability of RequirementsPoint of DER Connection(PoC)Point of Common Coupling(PCC)Type TestType Test DER EvaluationType Test(s) DER EvaluationType Test(s) DER EvaluationFullno SupplementalDER SupportDevice neededPartialone or moreSupplemental DERSupport Device(s)needed21 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

How to Get Involved?What are the next steps, is the process to get involved, the rules for voting?Dates10/25/1610/26/16Event / ActionMore informationIEEE P1547 WG meetingCommonwealth Edison, 1919 Swift Drive OakBrook, IL, 60523(followed by P1547.1 WG meeting)Register at, http://www.cvent.com/d/pvqkcmShow redline changes from Draft 511/26/16Initial Pre-Ballot DraftWeek ofFeb 27, 2017IEEE P1547 WG meetingMarch 2017Complete Ballot Draft of 1547 RevisionBegin IEEE pre-ballot editorial review processMay 2017Balloting6 months estimated minimum durationSummer 2017Post to iMeetCentral. Review for WG approval atFeb WG meeting(followed by P1547.1 WG meeting)IEEE P1547 WG meeting(followed by P1547.1 WG meeting)NERC, Atlanta GANational Grid, Waltham MA22 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

How to Get Involved?IEEE 1547 is set up as an individual vote, not an entity vote!What are the next steps, is the process to get involved, the rules for voting?Activity LevelI. Participation inWorking Group andSubGroups meetingsand conference callsII. Access to WG DraftStandards in the WGrepository oniMeetCentralIII. Contributecomments on IEEEP1547 in ballot (vote)IV. Ballot (vote) onIEEE P1547A successful ballot requiresa 75% return and 75% embersHow to get involved?1. Sign up for P1547 ListServ: send an e-mail to listserv@listserv.ieee.org with the followingcommand in the body of the e-mail:Subscribe stds-p1547rev lastname, firstnameEnd2. Contact WG and/or SubGroup Leads & Facilitatorsrefer to the next slide for further information ( ) 1. Meet the requirements for P1547 WG membershipstatus, described at WG Membership (attend 2consecutive Mtgs.)OR1. Register for P1547 WG live meetings, where latest Draftsare provided as needed for meeting participation. 1. Join Open Ballot Invitation on myBallot by use of IEEEAccountOR1. Join Public Review Process by visiting the IEEE-SAPublic Review page. 1. Sign up for IEEE SA Individual Membership OR pay forsingle ballot2. Join Open Ballot Invitation on myBallot by use of IEEEAccountClick on the links to open these websites.23 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Together Shaping the Future of ElectricityJens C. Boemer – (206) 471-1180 – jboemer@epri.com24 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Backup(General)25 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

LocalState NationalTestsStandardsRole of IEEE Std 1547Product & InstallationRequirements(Standards haveno inherent authority)Grid Interconnection &Functional RequirementsIEEE Std1547.1IEEE Std1547Communication EEP1815UL 1741(Listing / Certification Test)National Electric Code(voluntary)NERC / FERCState Codes/Laws(selective adoption of NEC)State/PUC Utility Laws(e.g. CA Rule 21)Local Municipal CodesIndividual Utility Generator Connection Agreements26 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.SunSpec

Which standards apply during the transitioning period?(Example: California)StandardsIEEE Std1547.1-2005TestsPeriod after IEEE Stds1547 and 1547.1 UpdateUL 1741-2010 (Listing/ Certification Test)UL 1741-2016 (Listing/ Certification Test)UL 1741-20xx (Listing/ Certification Test)State NationalPeriod after CA Rule 21and UL 1741 UpdateNERC / FERCNERC / FERCNERC / FERCState/PUC Utility Laws(CA Rule 21-2000)State/PUC Utility Laws(CA Rule 21-2015)State/PUC Utility Laws(CA Rule 21-20xx)LocalPeriod prior to CA Rule 21and UL 1741 UpdateIndividual Utility GeneratorConnection AgreementsIndividual Utility GeneratorConnection AgreementsIndividual Utility GeneratorConnection AgreementsIEEE Std1547-2003IEEE Std1547.1-2005IEEE Std1547-200327 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.IEEE Std1547.1-20xxIEEE Std1547-20xx

UL1741 New Supplement for Grid Support Utility InteractiveInverters Anti-IslandingL/HVRTL/HFRTMust Trip TestNormal Ramp RateSoft-Start Ramp RateSpecified Power FactorVolt-Var ModeImportant Dates: Apr 11, 2016 – To UL1741 STP for ballot May 20, 2016 – Ballot ends(If obtain a consensus ballot on the first pass) Days/Weeks later – All comments resolved and SApublished Recirculation of revised document early August Effective September 2016 (in general), June/July 2017 –Likely CA Rule 21 effective date for UL1741 SA Other/ Optional– Frequency WattSource: Estimate based on informal conversation (notofficial UL schedule)– Volt Watt28 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background and ContextRole of IEEE Std 1547StandardsIEEE Std1547.1-2005TestsPeriod prior to CA Rule 21and UL 1741 UpdateUL 1741-2010 (Listing/ Certification Test)State NationalState/PUC Utility Laws(CA Rule 21-2000)LocalIEEE Std1547-2003Individual Utility GeneratorConnection AgreementsHarmony in the “Good Old Days” when DistributedEnergy Resources were insignificant: DER interconnection focus. Technology-agnost

IEEE P1547 Performance Category Approach IEEE Std. 1547rev Category A Category I Category II Category B Category III Ride-Through Voltage Regulation 1 State Regulator, Area EPS or bulk system operator, etc. Authorities Governing Interconnection Agreements1 Impact Assessment

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