COMPUTER SCIENCE S6 - Rwanda Education Board

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Kigali, August, 2018 2019 Rwanda Education BoardAll rights reserved.This document is the property of Rwanda Education Board,iiTeachers’ Guide

FOREWORDDear teacher,Rwanda Education Board is honoured to present Senior 6 Computer Science teacher sguide which serves as a guide to competence-based teaching and learning to ensureconsistency and coherence in the learning of the Computer Science subject. TheRwandan educational philosophy is to ensure that learners achieve full potential atevery level of education which will prepare them to be well integrated in society andexploit employment opportunities.In line with efforts to improve the quality of education, the government of Rwandaemphasizes the importance of aligning teaching and learning materials with the syllabusto facilitate their learning process. Many factors influence what they learn, how wellthey learn and the competences they acquire. Those factors include the relevance ofthe specific content, the quality of teachers’ pedagogical approaches, the assessmentstrategies and the instructional materials available. We paid special attention to theactivities that facilitate the learning process in which learners can develop ideas andmake new discoveries during concrete activities carried out individually or with peers.With the help of the teachers, learners will gain appropriate skills and be able to applywhat they have learnt in real life situations. Hence, they will be able to develop certainvalues and attitudes allowing them to make a difference not only to their own life butalso to the nation.This is in contrast to traditional learning theories which view learning mainly as a processof acquiring knowledge from the more knowledgeable who is mostly the teacher. Incompetence-based curriculum, learning is considered as a process of active buildingand developing of knowledge and understanding, skills and values and attitude by thelearner where concepts are mainly introduced by an activity, situation or scenario thathelps the learner to construct knowledge, develop skills and acquire positive attitudesand values.In addition, such active learning engages learners in doing things and thinking aboutthe things they are doing and they are encouraged to bring their own real experiencesand knowledge into the learning processes. In view of this, your role is to: Plan your lessons and prepare appropriate teaching materials. Organize group discussions for learners considering the importance ofsocial constructivism suggesting that learning occurs more effectivelywhen the learner works collaboratively with more knowledgeable andexperienced people. Engage learners through active learning methods such as inquiry methods,group discussions, research, investigative activities and group andindividual work activities.Teachers’ Guideiii

Provide supervised opportunities for learners to develop differentcompetences by giving tasks which enhance critical thinking, problemsolving, research, creativity and innovation, communication andcooperation. Support and facilitate the learning process by valuing learners’ contributionsin the class activities. Guide learners towards the harmonization of their findings. Encourage individual, peer and group evaluation of the work done in theclassroom and use appropriate competence-based assessment approachesand methods. To facilitate you in your teaching activities, the content of this teacher sguide is self-explanatory so that you can easily use it. It is divided in 3 parts:The part 1: Explains the structure of this book and gives you the methodologicalguidance;The part 2: Gives the sample lesson plans as reference for your lesson planning process;The part 3: Provides details the teaching guidance for each concept given in the studentbook.Even though this teacher s guide contains the answers for all activities given in thelearner’s book, you are requested to work through each question and activity beforejudging learner’s findings.I wish to sincerely appreciate all people who contributed towards the development ofthis teacher s guide, particularly REB staff who organized the whole process from itsinception. Special gratitude goes to the University of Rwanda which provided expertsin design and layout services, illustrations and image anti-plagiarism, lecturers andteachers who diligently worked to successful completion of this book. Any commentor contribution would be welcome for the improvement of this textbook for the nextedition.Dr. NDAYAMBAJE IrénéeDirector General of REBivTeachers’ Guide

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI wish to express my appreciation to all the people who played a major role indevelopment of this Computer Science Teacher s Guide for senior six. It would not havebeen successful without active participation of different education stakeholders.I owe gratitude to different Universities and schools in Rwanda that allowed their staffto work with REB in the in-house textbooks production project. I wish to extend mysincere gratitude to lecturers, teachers and all other individuals whose efforts in oneway or the other contributed to the success of writing of this textbook.Special acknowledgement goes to the University of Rwanda which provided experts indesign and layout services, illustrations and image anti-plagiarism.Finally, my word of gratitude goes to the Rwanda Education Board staff particularlythose from the department of curriculum who were involved in the whole process ofin-house textbook writing.Joan Murungi,Head of CTLRTeachers’ Guidev

ContentsFOREWORDiiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTvPART A: GENERAL INTRODUCTIONA.0. About the teacher’s guideA. 1. Methodological guidancexiixiixivPART B: SAMPLE LESSON PLANS1.1 Key unit competence:1.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills:1.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:1.4 Guidance on the introductory activity1.5. List of lessons (including assessment)xxivxxviixxviixxviixxvii1UNIT 1: COMPUTER SECURITY1.6 Summary of the unit:1.7 Answers of End unit assessment1.9 Structure of a lesson2.1 Key Unit Competency2.2 Prerequisite knowledge and skills2.3 Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:2.4 Guidance on the introductory activity110111419191919UNIT 2: LAN architecture, Network protocols and models2.5 List of lessons (including assessment)2.6 Summary of the unit2.7 End unit Assessment2.8 Additional activities3.1. Key unit competence:3.2 Prerequisite knowledge and skills:3.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:3.4 Guidance on the introductory activity192035363943434343UNIT 3: NETWORKING PROJECT3.5. List of lessons (including assessment)3.6 Summary of the unit.434454viTeachers’ Guide

3.7 End unit assessment3.8. Consolidation, Remedial and extended activities4.1. Key unit competence:4.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills:4.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:4.4 Guidance on the introductory activity555661616161UNIT 4: SQL AND DATABASE PROJECT4.5 List of lessons (including assessment)END UNIT ASSESSMENT5.1 Key Unit Competence5.2 Prerequisite knowledge and skills:5.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:616282959595UNIT 5: ARRAYS, FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURESIN VISUAL BASIC955.4. Guidance on the introductory activity965.5. LIST OF LESSONS975.6. SUMMARY OF THE UNIT1095.7. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS1095.8. END UNIT ASSESSMENT1095.9. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES1116.1. Key unit competence:1156.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills1156.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed1156.4. Guidance on the introductory activity115UNIT 6: VISUAL BASIC PROJECT6.5. LIST OF LESSONS6.6. UNIT SUMMARY6.7. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION6.8. END UNIT ASSESSMENT6.9. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES7.1. Key unit competence7.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills7.3. Cross cutting issues to be addressed7.4. Guidance on the introductory activityTeachers’ Guide115116122122123123127127127127vii

UNIT 7: PROCESS MANAGEMENT ANDSCHEDULING ALGORITHMS1277.5. LIST OF LESSONS1297.6 UNIT SUMMARY1357.7 END OF UNIT ASSESSMENT1368.1. Key Unit Competence:1458.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills:1458.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:1458.4. Guidance on the introductory activity145UNIT 8: FILE MANAGEMENT8.5. LIST OF LESSONS8.6. Summary of the unit8.7. Additional Information:8.7 END UNIT ASSESSMENT8.8. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES9.1. Key Unit Competency:9.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills:9.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:9.4. Guidance on the introductory activity145147154154155156159159159159UNIT 9: MEMORY MANAGEMENT9.5. LIST OF LESSONS9.6. UNIT SUMMARY9.7. Additional Information9.8. End unit assessment9.9. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES8.9.3. Extended activities10.1. Key Unit Competence10.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills10.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:10.4. Guidance on the introductory activity159160169169170173175177177177177UNIT 10: COLLECTIONS IN JAVA10.5. List of lessons10.6. Summary of the Unit10.7. Addition information177178189190viiiTeachers’ Guide

10.8. End Unit Assessment10.9. Additional activities10.9.3. Extended11.1. Key Unit Competency11.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills11.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed11.4. Guidance on the introductory activity190192194197197197197UNIT 11: JAVA ENTERPRISE WEB APPLICATIONS11.5. List of lessons11.6. Summary of the unit11.7. Additional information11.8. End unit Assessment11.9. Additional activities19719821021121121311.9.2.Consolidation activities12.1 Key unit competence:12.2 Prerequisite knowledge and skills:12.3 Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:12.4 Guidance on the introductory activity214219219219219UNIT 12: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERGRAPHICS21912.5. List of lessons22012.6 Summary of the unit22712.7 Additional information for teachers23012.8 END UNIT ASSESSMENT23012.9 Additional activities23113. 1.Key unit competence:23513.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills:23513.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:23513.4 Guidance on the introductory activity235UNIT 13: MULTIMEDIA13.5. List of lessons (including assessment)13.6. Summary of the unit:13.8. End unit assessment13.9 ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIESTeachers’ Guide235236246246248ix

14.1. Key unit competence:14.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills14.3. Cross-cutting issues to be addressed:14.4. Guidance on the introductory activity14.5. List of lessons251251251251251UNIT 14: FILE HANDLING IN C 14.6 END UNIT ASSESSMENT14.7. Additional activities14.7.2 Consolidation activities14.7.3 Extended ’ Guide

PART A: GENERAL INTRODUCTIONA.0. About the teacher’s guideThis book is a teacher’s guide for computer science Senior six in advanced level. Itis designed to accompany senior four student’s book and intends to help teachers inthe implementation of competence based curriculum specifically computer sciencesyllabus.As the name says, it is a guide that teachers can refer to when preparing their lessons.Teachers may prefer to adopt the guidance provided but they are also expected to bemore creative and consider their specific classes’ contexts and prepare accordingly.The structure of the guideThis section presents the overall structure, the unit and sub-heading structure to helpteachers to understand the different sections of this guide and what they will find ineach section.Overall structureThe whole guide has three main parts as follows: Part I: General Introduction.This part provides general guidance on how to develop the generic competences,how to integrate cross cutting issues, how to cater for learners with specialeducational needs, active methods and techniques of teaching computerscience and guidance on assessment. Part II:Sample lesson planThis part provides a sample lesson plan, developed and designed to help theteacher develop their own lesson plans. Part III:Unit developmentThis is the core part of the guide. Each unit is developed following the structurebelow. The guide ends with references.Each unit is made of the following sections:ȃȃ Unit title: from the syllabusȃȃ Key unit competence: from the syllabusȃȃ Prerequisites (knowledge, skills, attitudes and values)This section indicates knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the successof the unit. The competence-based approach calls for connections betweenTeachers’ Guidexi

units/topics within a subject and interconnections between different subjects.The teacher will find an indication of those prerequisites and guidance on howto establish connections.ȃȃ Cross-cutting issues to be addressedThis section suggests cross cutting issues that can be integrated depending onthe unit content. It provides guidance on how to come up with the integration ofthe issue. Note that the issue indicated is a suggestion; teachers are free to takeanother cross-cutting issue taking into consideration the learning environment.ȃȃ Guidance on the introductory activityEach unit starts with an introductory activity in the learner’s book. This sectionof the teacher’s guide provides guidance on how to conduct this activity andrelated answers. Note that learners may not be able to find the right solutionbut they are invited to predict possible solutions or answers. Solutions areprovided by learners gradually through discovery activities organized at thebeginning of lessons or during the lesson.ȃȃ List of lessons/sub-headingThis section presents in a table suggestion on the list of lessons, lessonobjectives copied or adapted from the syllabus and duration for each lesson.Each lesson /subheading is then developed.ȃȃ End of each unitAt the end of each unit the teacher’s guide provides the following sections: Summary of the unit which provides the key points of content developed in thestudent’s book. Additional information which provides additional content compared to thestudent’s book for the teacher to have a deeper understanding of the topic. End unit assessment which provides the answers to questions of end unitassessment in the textbook and suggests additional questions and relatedanswers to assess the key unit competence. Additional activities: remedial, consolidation and extended activities). Thepurpose of these activities is to accommodate each learner (slow, average andgifted) based onend unit assessment results.Structure of each sub headingEach lesson/sub-heading is made of the following sections:Lesson Sub heading title 1: .ȃȃ Prerequisites/Revision/Introduction:This section gives a clear instruction to teacher on how to start the lessonȃȃ Teaching resourcesxiiTeachers’ Guide

This section suggests the teaching aids or other resources needed in line withthe activities to achieve the learning objectives. Teachers are encouraged toreplace the suggested teaching aids by the available ones in their respectiveschools and based on learning environment.ȃȃ Learning activitiesThis section provides a short description of the methodology and any important aspectto consider. It provides also answers to learning activities with cross reference to textbook:ȃȃ Exercises/application activitiesThis provides questions and answers for exercises/ application activities/A. 1. Methodological guidanceA.1.1.Developing competencesSince 2015 Rwanda shifted from a knowledge based to a competency based curriculumfor pre-primary, primary and general secondary education. This called for changingthe way of learning by shifting from teacher centered to a learner centered approach.Teachers are not only responsible for knowledge transfer but also for fostering student’slearning achievement, and creating safe and supportive learning environment. It impliesalso that a learner has to demonstrate what he/she is able to do using the knowledge,skills, values and attitude acquired in a new or different or given situation.The competence-based curriculum employs an approach of teaching and learningbased on discrete skills rather than dwelling on only knowledge or the cognitivedomain of learning. It focuses on what learner can do rather than what learners know.Learners develop basic competences through specific subject unit competences withspecific learning objectives broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes. Thesecompetences are developed through learning activities disseminated in learnercentered rather than the traditional didactic approach. The student is evaluated againstset standards to achieve before moving on.In addition to specific subject competences, learners also develop generic competenceswhich are transferable throughout a range of learning areas and situations in life. Beloware examples of how generic competences can be developed in Computer Science:GenericcompetenceCritical thinkingExamples of activities that develop generic competencesCompare the protected computer to the computer exposed tovarious security threatsDemonstrate advantage of a computer network, having adatabase in a school or an institution.Teachers’ Guidexiii

Research andProblem solvingResearch using internet or books from the libraryBuild a computer network by responding the initial request.Design and develop a database for his/her school or institution.Innovation andcreativityCooperation,Personal andInterpersonalmanagement andlife skillsCommunicationDemonstrate strategies that can be used to disinfect thecomputer or network attacked by threats.Translate the algorithms in a computing programIdentify local computing problems and ways to resolve them.Sharing resources on the network, emailsProtecting his/her own data and school or institution data to.Work in PairsSmall group workLarge group workOrganise and present in writing and verbally a complete andclear report of their computing activitiesDevelop accurate diagrams for networks topology, modelDesign with talking diagram a database of the school.Lifelong learningSelect and use appropriate formats and presentations, such astables, graphs and diagrams.Exploit all opportunities available to improve on knowledgeand skills. Use open source technologies and other digitalmaterials to keep informed.Among the changes in the competence based curriculum is the integration of crosscutting issues as an integral part of the teaching learning process-as they relate to andmust be considered within all subjects to be appropriately addressed. The eight crosscutting issues identified in the national curriculum framework are: genocide studies,environment and sustainability, gender, Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE),Peace and Values Education, Financial Education, standardization Culture and InclusiveEducation.Some cross cutting issues may seem specific to particular learning areas or subjects butthe teacher need to address all of them whenever an opportunity arises. In addition,learners should always be given an opportunity during the learning process to addressthese cross cutting issues both within and out of the classroom so as to progressivelydevelop related attitudes and values.Below are examples on how crosscutting issues can be addressed in Computer Science:xivTeachers’ Guide

Cross-cuttingissueInclusiveeducationExamples on how to integrate the cross-cutting issueInvolve all learners in all activities without any bias.Eg:ȃȃ allow a learner with physical disability (using wheelchair) totake notes or lead the team during computer lab activities.ȃȃ Student without arms can learn computer science using theirtoes.Genderȃȃ Sign language can be used to address the need of studentswith hearing impairments.ȃȃ Involve both girls and boys in all activities: No activity is reservedonly to girls or boys.ȃȃ Teachers should ensure equal participation of both girls andboys during computing activities as well as during cleaning andtidying up related activities after computer lab activities.Peace andȃȃ During group activities, debates and presentations, the teacherwill encourage learners to help each other and to respectValues Educationopinions of colleagues.ȃȃ Students must be warned about cyber security crimes andenabled to prevent hacking and stealing one’s data or prevent

This book is a teacher’s guide for computer science Senior six in advanced level. It is designed to accompany senior four student’s book and intends to help teachers in the implementation of competence based curriculum specifically computer science syllabus. As the name says, it is a