READING COMPREHENSION A2-B1 History Of Halloween

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READING COMPREHENSION A2-B1History of HalloweenHalloween falls on October 31st each year in North America and other parts of the world.What do you know about Halloween? Do you celebrate it in your country? Here is a littlehistory about it.Vocabularyto evolve (v)- to change little by littlespirit (n)- ghost, some people believe the spirit and body separate when a person diesholy (adj)- sacred, very good, related to religion. Hallow comes from the word holy.saint (n)- an honored, holy personevil (adj)- very, very badlantern (n)- lamp or enclosed light that can be carried aroundturnip (n)- a purple and white vegetable that grows in the groundLike many other holidays, Halloween has evolved and changed throughout history. Over2,000 years ago people called the Celts lived in what is now Ireland, the UK, and parts ofNorthern France. November 1 was their New Year's Day. They believed that the night beforethe New Year (October 31) was a time when the living and the dead came together.More than a thousand years ago the Christian church named November 1 All SaintsDay (also called All Hallows.) This was a special holy day to honor the saints and otherpeople who died for their religion. The night before All Hallows was called Hallows Eve. Laterthe name was changed to Halloween.Like the Celts, the Europeans of that time also believed that the spirits of the dead would visitthe earth on Halloween. They worried that evil spirits would cause problems or hurt them. Soon that night people wore costumes that looked like ghosts or other evil creatures. Theythought if they dressed like that, the spirits would think they were also dead and not harmthem.The tradition of Halloween was carried to America by the immigrating Europeans. Some ofthe traditions changed a little, though. For example, on Halloween in Europe some peoplewould carry lanterns made from turnips. In America, pumpkins were more common. Sopeople began putting candles inside them and using them as lanterns. That is why you seeJack 'o lanterns today.These days Halloween is not usually considered a religious holiday. It is primarily a fun dayfor children. Children dress up in costumes like people did a thousand years ago. But insteadof worrying about evil spirits, they go from house to house. They knock on doors and say"trick or treat." The owner of each house gives candy or something special to each trick ortreater.

Check Your UnderstandingTrue or False. Check your answers below.1. The Celts thought the spirits of dead people returned to the earth on October 31st.TrueFalse2. The Celts created All Hallows.TrueFalse3. All Hallows is on October 31st.TrueFalse4. The word Halloween comes from the word Hallows eve.TrueFalse5. A thousand years ago Europeans wore costumes to get candy.TrueFalse6. Americans still carve turnips to use as lanterns.TrueFalse7. Today Halloween is especially for children.TrueFalse8. Children get candy by saying "trick or treat."TrueFalseSt. Valentine's DayVocabulary

ancient- very oldbow and arrow- used for shooting (like the picture on the left)shoot- make something fly through the air (Shoot a gun. Shoot an arrow.)character- a person (but usually not real) like a person in a book or in a moviefall in love- begin to love another personcelebrate- do something fun (like a party or something special)romantic- something that shows the feeling of loveReadingValentine's Day is a very old holiday. It goes back to the times of Ancient Rome. One of thecharacters we often see on Valentine's Day is Cupid. He was the son of Venus, the goddessof love. He shoots people with arrows of love. When a man and a woman are hit by hisarrows, they will fall in love.Today people celebrate Valentine's Day on February 14. Men and women who are in lovegive each other gifts. The most popular gifts include flowers (especially roses) andchocolates. Couples may also go to a restaurant for a very nice dinner or plan something elseromantic.In the United States, Valentine's Day is not just for lovers. Children make special Valentine'scards for their classmates. Families and friends may give candy or other small gifts to eachother. It can be a fun day.Questions and Answers1. Who is Cupid's mother?a. Sarah, goddess of loveb. Venus, goddess of musicc. Venus, goddess of love2. What does Cupid use to shoot people?a. a gunb. a bow and arrowc. a baseball3. What day is Valentine's Day celebrated?a. February 13.b. December 25c. February 14

4. What are the most popular flowers for Valentine's Day?a. Rosesb. Tulipsc. Sunflowers5. What do school children in the United States do on Valentine's Day?a. Kiss their friendsb. Make cards for their friendsc. Have a romantic dinner with their friendsIMPROVING ENGLISH Read the text and choose the best answer for each question.Today, millions of people want to learn or improve their English but it is difficult to find thebest method. Is it better to study in Britain or America or to study in your own country?The advantages of going to Britain seem obvious. Firstly, you will be able to listen to thelanguage all the time you are in the country. You will be surrounded completely by thelanguage wherever you go. Another advantage is that you have to speak the language if youare with other people. In Italy, it is always possible, in the class, to speak Italian if you want toand the learning is slower.On the other hand, there are also advantages to staying at home to study. You don't have tomake big changes to your life. As well as this, it is also a lot cheaper than going to Britain butit is never possible to achieve the results of living in the UK. If you have a good teacher inItaly, I think you can learn in a more concentrated way than being in Britain without going to aschool.So, in conclusion, I think that if you have enough time and enough money, the best choice isto spend some time in the UK. This is simply not possible for most people, so being here inItaly is the only viable option. The most important thing to do in this situation is to maximiseyour opportunities: to speak only English in class and to try to use English whenever possibleoutside the class.1. What is the article about?How many people learn English.The best way to learn English.English schools in England and America.

2. What is one of the advantages of going to the UK to learn English?There are no Italians in Britain.You will have to speak English and not your language.The language schools are better.3. What is one of the advantages of staying in your country to learn English?The teachers aren't very good in Britain.You have to work too hard in Britain.Your life can continue more or less as it was before.4. People who don't have a lot of time and money should.Learn English in Britain.Try and speak English in class more often.Go to Italy to learn English.EUTHANASIAReadingComprehensionB1The word euthanasia comes from the Greek language, and it means “good death.” In Englishthe word refers purposely ending a person’s life in order to stop the unbearable pain causedby an illness. The patients who are euthanized are terminally ill, meaning that they have nochance of recovery. When a person is euthanized someone such as a doctor helps them die bymaking available to them some kind of lethal drug or deadly gas. It’s called “assisted suicide.”In those cases, the doctor doesn’t actually administer the drug or gas but only provides it forpatient’s use. When the patient is ready to die, he or she administers it and dies alone.One doctor in the USA, Dr. Jack Kavorkian, has become well-known for his assisted suicides.Since helping people die is against the law in his state, the doctor was arrested and tried incourt several times. But every time he was brought into court the jury acquitted him. The juryalways sided with him, seeing him as providing a service of kindness rather than as committinga crime. Most people sympathize with a person who wants to end the pain and suffering, butfor several reasons most government are reluctant to make euthanasia legal. As of 2002doctor-assisted suicide was legal only in the Netherlands, Switzerland, the US state of Oregon,and in Australia’s Northern Territory. If asked, most people will say that people who aresuffering from incurable diseases would be better off if they died. But if they are asked if theysupport doctor-assisted suicide, most of them will say no. The reasons they usually give are:Difficulty in determining who is terminally ill. Some people who are expected to die later getwell. It doesn’t happen often, but it does happen. Religious beliefs. “God gives life, so onlyGod should take it away.” Spiritual beliefs. We come to this earth to face certain challengesand the overcome them. Suicide is a form of giving up and defeats the whole purpose of ourlives. It could lead to “suicide on demand.” People who are unhappy with their lives might

someday be able to get help in dying whenever they want to. Considering all the depressedpeople there are in the world, it could turn into an epidemic of suicides. Temporary period ofdepression. The person who decides to die could just be going through temporary period ofdepression but change his or her mind later.Discussion questions1. What is your opinion on suicide in general? Tell why you think so,*People who commit suicide are very brave.* People who commit suicide are cowards.* People who commit suicide are mentally ill.2. What is your opinion on doctor-assisted suicide? Which of these statements do you agreewith and why?* People who are in pain should have the right to decide if they want to.* People should not have the right to end their lives whenever they want.* It is okay in some cases only.3. What do you think of doctors who help patients die?4. Is there any difference between suicide from depression and euthanasia? Is one moreacceptable than the other? Why or why not?5. Is euthanasia legal in your country? If not, do you think the doctor-assisted suicide is everperformed secretly?

PREPOSIZIONI DI TEMPOPreposizioneONQuando si usaSi usa la preposizione ondavanti a parole cheesprimono un singologiorno, in qualunque modovenga espresso:Giorno della settimana momento preciso dellagiornataParte di un giorno specificoEsempioOn Monday*LunedìOn Monday morningLunedì mattinaOn that particularafternoonQuel (particolare)pomeriggioDataOn 3rd AprilIl 3 aprileFestivitàOn Christmas DayIl giorno di NataleRicorrenza particolareOn my birthdayIl giorno del mio compleannoOn the day I met himIl giorno in cui l’hoconosciutoATDavanti a holidayOn holidayIn vacanzaOn time: in orario, puntualeThe train was on time.Il treno era in orario.Si usa la preposizione atdavanti a parole cheindicano un gruppo di pochigiorni.At the weekendNel fine settimanaAt ChristmasPer Natale (il periodo diNatale)Si usa at davanti alle ore, in At 5 o’clockqualunque modo sianoAlle 5At middayespresse.A mezzogiornoAt lunch timeAll’ora di pranzoAt dawnAll’albaSi usa at con la parola night. At nightDi notte(Tuttavia si usa on se ci si

riferisce ad una nottespecifica: on that night)INSi usa in per:MesiI was born in November.Sono nato in novembre.StagioniI always go to the seasidein the summer.Vado sempre al mared’estate.AnniI moved to France in 1993.Mi sono trasferito in Francianel 1993.SecoliMy great-grandfather wasborn in the 19th century.Il mio bisnonno è nato nelXIX secolo.In significa anche fra.The film will start in tenminutes.Il film comincerà fra dieciminuti.Si usa in con morning,afternoon, evening.I get up early in themorning.Mi alzo presto al mattino.In time: in orario per unevento specifico.I was just in time for the8.15 train.Ero appena in orario per iltreno delle 8.15.BYBy significa entro quandoviene specificato il termineentro il quale si fa qualchecosa.I must read this book bynext Saturday.Devo leggere questo libroentro sabato prossimo.WITHINWithin significa entroquando viene espressol’intervallo di tempo entro ilquale si fa qualche cosa.I must finish this bookwithin a week.Devo finire questo libro entrouna settimana.FROM TO Da a .I work from 8 o’clock inthe morning to 5 in theafternoon.Lavoro dalle 8 del mattinoalle 5 del pomeriggio.TILL / UNTIL FinchéI’ll be at home until 3o’clock.Sarò a casa fino alle 3.

AFTERDopoI’ll ring you up after lunch.Ti telefonerò dopo pranzo.BEFOREPrimaI’ll be back before lunchtime.Sarò di ritorno prima dell’oradi pranzo.SINCEDa, quando è espresso ilI have been living in Italysince 1998.momento di iniziodell’azione.Vivo in Italia dal 1998.(Vedi Present Perfect e PastPerfect)FORDa / per quando è espressa I have been living in Italyfor 10 years.la durata dell’azione.(Vedi Present Perfect e Past Vivo in Italia da 10 anni.Perfect)DURINGDuranteDuring the summerDurante l’estateDuring his childhoodDurante la sua infanzia*NotaOn Mondays / Every MondayTutti i lunedìOn Monday mornings / Every Monday morningTutti i lunedì mattina1. SULL'USO DI SINCE E FORComplete these sentences with SINCE or FORten years.1) Barbara and Joe have been married2) I’ve been studying FrenchI was a child.3) We have been living here1976.4) I’ve been waiting for Sally25 minutes.5) It has been raining6) I studied Englishan hour.five years at school.7) He has been reading your book8) She has been living in Rome9) Sue has been working in Parishalf past six.last year.10 years.

10) How long have you been playing the piano?ten years.2. ESERCIZIO SULLE PREPOSIZIONI DI TEMPOComplete the following sentences using IN - AT - ON - BY - AFTER - SINCE- FOR1) Bye Tom, I’ll phone you6 o’clock.2) I’ve been living in Paristwo years.3) We usually go out for a pizzaSaturdays.4) We are going to see Tom the daytomorrow.5) The train to London leaves6) I’ve worked here9.1998.7) The exhibition will openApril.8) They haven’t seen Michaelsix months.9) She’ll have finished her work10) Susan arrived10 o’clock.September.3. SULLE PREPOSIZIONI DI TEMPOChoose the correct expression in the following sentences1) I usually go to the cinema by Tuesday/on Tuesdays/within Tuesday.2) I’ll have finished the book before lunch/on lunch/since lunch.3) We have known Ron for 1989/on 1989/since 1989.4) Somebody burst in during the meeting/in the meeting/on the meeting5) I’ll have a party on my birthday/at my birthday/during my birthday.

6) The new shop will open on May/since May/in May.7) The film starts on 8 o’clock/at 8 o’clock/by 8 o’clock.8) They have worked here since eight months/at eight months/for eight months.9) She usually drinks coffee at the morning/in the morning/until the morning.10) Susan arrived at Christmas Day/by Christmas Day/on Christmas Day.4. SULLE PREPOSIZIONI DI TEMPOMatch the words in the first column to those in the second oneCOLUMN 1COLUMN 2INMIDDAYAT1992ATEASTERONNIGHTSINCEBEDTIMEIN8. 10ATSUNDAYMORNINGFROM. TO. THAT DAYONTHE MORNINGAT1992SCRIVI QUI

WH/H QUESTION QQuestion wordswhoMeaningExamplespersonWho's that? That's Nancy.whereplaceWhere do you live? In BostonwhyreasonWhy do you sleep early? Because I've got to get up earlywhentimeWhen do you go to work? At 7:00howmannerHow do you go? By carwhatobject, idea or actionWhat do you do? I am an engineerwhichchoiceWhich one do you prefer? The red one.whosepossessionWhose is this book? It's Alan's.whomobject of the verbWhom did you meet? I met the manager.what kinddescriptionWhat kind of music do you like? I like quiet songswhat timetimeWhat time did you come home?how manyquantity (countable)How many students are there? There are twenty.how muchamount, price (uncountable) How much time have we got? Ten minuteshow longduration, lengthHow long did you stay in that hotel? For two weeks.how oftenfrequencyHow often do you go to the gym? Twice a week.how fardistanceHow far is your school? It's one mile far.how oldageHow old are you? I'm 16.reasonHow come I didn't see at the party?how comeAsking questions1.If you ask about the subject of the sentence, simply add the question word at the beginning:Example:James writes good poems. — Who writes good pems?

2.If you ask about the predicate of the sentence (the part of a sentence which contains the verb and givesinformation about the subject), there are three options:Choose the correct question words1.do you live? - I live in London.2.'s that girl? - She's my sister.3.do you go to school? - By bus.4.do banks open? - At eight O'clock.5.are you wearing that coat? - Because it's hot!Write question about the words in bold.Example:He drank juice. - What did he drink?1. They went to Spain.2. He writes novels.3. Lacy likes soccer4. The girls watched a serial.5. He discovered the truth.Choose the correct question word1.are you going tomorrow?2.are you traveling?3.would you like to have for dessert?4.are you crying ?5.one do you like?6.do you feel today?7.time are leaving?8.book is this?9.has broken this vase?10.don't you see a doctor?

Vocabulary - Health and Health CareThis is a list of vocabulary items related to health and health careHow to say you are ill I'm ill.I feel really rough.I'm shattered (meaning tired out or exhausted)I'm on my last legs (to be very tired, especially after a lot of physical activity or work. It alsomeans to be going to die soon - 'the old man is on his last leg').I feel / look poorly / peaky / rough / bloody awful.I feel / look like death warmed up (very ill or appearing very sickly - Poor thing! She looks likedeath warmed up)How to say you are feeling OK I am alive and kicking (to continue to be well, healthy or successful - Don't worry about yourgrandfather; he is alive and kicking)I feel good (used to talk about emotional state)I feel great / wellHe is a picture of (good) health (to be in a very healthy condition - The doctor told him that he is apicture of good health)She is hale and hearty (to be in a good health - In spite of her old age, she looks hale and hearty)Health problems I have a headache / toothache / backache / stomachache / earache.I have a pain in my back / tooth / head.I have a broken / sprained / twist an ankle / wrist.I have a flu / cold / runny nose / fever / high temperature / sore throatI feel sick. I'm feeling nauseous.I have a bruise / cut / graze / wound.Health advice: Exercise regularly.Eat healthy food.Brush your teeth regularly.Sleep early ( don't stay up late!)Have regular medical check up.Relax.Go on a diet.Medicines eye dropscreamsyringe

syrupbandagedose (of medicine)drugsshot / injection (give some an injection)medicine (take reatment check-updiagnosisoperation / surgeryprescriptionPeople ophthalmologistdentistdoctor / physiciangeneral practitioner (GP)midwifenursepatientspecialistsurgeonPlaces doctor'spharmacy / drugstore /chemist'shospitaloperating theatersurgery (medical operation)waiting roomward (a geriatric/maternity/psychiatric ward)

GRAMMAR REVISION PRIMARY 5TH YEARTranslate in English:1)3)5)7)9)Il sole è caldo in estate.Tu non sei un mio amico.Mio padre ha i capelli grigi.L’estate è la mia stagione preferita.Io non ho amici inglesi.11) Hai una penna blu?13) Il quaderno di inglese è alto e duro.15) La sua gonna è rossa.17) Io non canto mai.19) Sono le 12,15.21) John ha gli occhi grandi e le orecchiepiccole.23) Il quadrato è una figura geometrica.25) Nella mia casa ci sono due bagni, trecamere, una cucina, un garage e ungiardino.27) In classe c’è una lavagna nera. Cisono ventitre banchi e trenta sedi. Suibanchi ci sono i quaderni, sotto ibanchi ci sono i liberi.29) Gira a destra, poi a sinistra, vai dritto:eccoti. Sei all’ufficio postale.31) Mi piace la cioccolata, la marmellata,ma odio il miele : è troppo dolce!33) Lei non sa guidare l’auto, ma guida ilmotorino.35) Io compro la frutta dal fruttivendolo,mentre (while) tu compri le fragole alsupermercato.37) Quei ragazzi non studiano inglese.39) Lei non fa colazione alle 10.41) Io sto partendo per Londra in treno.43) Stai dormendo? Sbrigati: sono le11,47.45) Elisabetta I era la figlia di Enrico VII.Le

ancient- very old bow and arrow- used for shooting (like the picture on the left) shoot- make something fly through the air (Shoot a gun.Shoot an arrow.) character- a person (but usually not real) like a person in a book or in a movie fall in love- begin to love another person celebrate- do something fun (like a party or something sp