Medieval Clothing And Textiles - Economics

2y ago
2.07 MB
56 Pages
Last View : 28d ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Grant Gall

MedievalClothing and TextilesVolume 300prelims.p6511/25/2007, 11:19 AM

MedievalClothing and TextilesISSN1744–5787General EditorsRobin NethertonGale R. Owen-CrockerSt. Louis, Missouri, USAUniversity of Manchester, EnglandEditorial BoardMiranda HowardJohn HinesKay LaceyJohn H. MunroM. A. Nordtorp-MadsonFrances PritchardMonica L. Wright00prelims.p652Western Michigan University, USACardiff University, WalesSwindon, EnglandUniversity of Toronto, Ontario, CanadaUniversity of St. Thomas, Minnesota, USAWhitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, EnglandMiddle Tennessee State University, USA1/25/2007, 11:19 AM

MedievalClothing and TextilesVolume 3edited byROBIN NETHERTONGALE R. OWEN-CROCKERTHE BOYDELL PRESS00prelims.p6531/25/2007, 11:19 AM

Contributors 2007All Rights Reserved. Except as permitted under current legislationno part of this work may be photocopied, stored in a retrieval system,published, performed in public, adapted, broadcast,transmitted, recorded or reproduced in any form or by any means,without the prior permission of the copyright ownerFirst published 2007The Boydell Press, WoodbridgeISBN 1 84383 291 7ISBN 978 1 84383 291 1The Boydell Press is an imprint of Boydell & Brewer LtdPO Box 9, Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 3DF, UKand of Boydell & Brewer Inc.668 Mt Hope Avenue, Rochester, NY 14620, USAwebsite: www.boydellandbrewer.comA CIP catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the British LibraryThis publication is printed on acid-free paperTypeset by Frances Hackeson Freelance Publishing Services, Brinscall, LancsPrinted in Great Britain byCromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire00prelims.p6541/25/2007, 11:19 AM

ContentsIllustrationspage viiTablesixContributorsxiPrefacexiii1 Cushioning Medieval Life: Domestic Textiles in Anglo-SaxonEnglandElizabeth Coatsworth12 A Matter of Style: Clerical Vestments in the Anglo-Saxon ChurchSarah Larratt Keefer133 Saints in Split Stitch: Representations of Saints in Opus AnglicanumVestmentsSusan Leibacher Ward414 The Anti-Red Shift—To the Dark Side: Colour Changes inFlemish Luxury Woollens, 1300–1550John H. Munro555 The Finishing of English Woollens, 1300–1550John Oldland976 Poverty and Richly Decorated Garments: A Re-Evaluation of TheirSignificance in the Vita Christi of Isabel de VillenaLesley K. Twomey1197 “Set on Yowre Hondys”: Fifteenth-Century Instructions forFingerloop BraidingElizabeth Benns1358 Tiny Textiles Hidden In Books: Toward a Categorization ofMultiple-Strand BookmarkersLois Swales and Heather Blatt14500prelims.p6551/25/2007, 11:19 AM

00prelims.p659 “She Hath Over Grown All that Ever She Hath”: Children’sClothing in the Lisle Letters, 1533–40Melanie Schuessler181Recent Books of Interest201Contents of Previous Volumes209Index21161/25/2007, 11:19 AM

IllustrationsAnglo-Saxon Church VestmentsFig. 2.1Fig. 2.2Fig. 2.3Fig. 2.4Fig. 2.5Basic clerical undergarmentspage 15The dalmatica for deacons or bishops15The planeta or casula for priests15Archiepiscopal regalia for celebrating Mass15The orarium or stola, as worn by deacons, priests, and18bishopsFig. 2.6 St. Cuthbert, from Cambridge, Corpus Christi College,32MS 183Fig. 2.7 Two bishops, from London, British Library, MS Cotton34Tiberius A iiiFig. 2.8 Episcopal party, from Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale,35MS 368Fig. 2.9 St. Swithun, from London, British Library, MS Additional3649598Fig. 2.10 Bishop, from London, British Library, MS Additional 4959836Fig. 2.11 Confessors, from London, British Library, MS Additional 4959837Saints in Opus AnglicanumFig. 3.1Fig. 3.2Fig. 3.3Fig. 3.4Fig. 3.5Fig. 3.6Fig. 3.7Split stitchCouchingUnderside couchingThe Chichester-Constable chasubleThe Clare chasubleThe Montiéramey copeThe Pienza cope43434345474950Colour Changes in Flemish WoollensFig. 4.100prelims.p65Colours of woollens purchased by Bruges officials, 1301–10to 1491–9671/25/2007, 11:19 AM75

Garments in Villena’s Vita ChristiFig. 6.1Fig. 6.2Virgin with Child Jesus at the Breast, by Bartolomé BermejoDormition of the Virgin, by Joan Reixach127129Fingerloop BraidingFig. 7.1Fig. 7.2Fig. 7.3Fig. 7.4Fig. 7.5“Grene dorge” lace, as made by one person“Grene dorge” lace, as made by two people“Lace dawns” pattern“Lace piol” pattern“Lace bend round” pattern139139140140144Multiple-Strand BookmarkersFig. 8.1Fig. 8.2Fig. 8.3Fig. 8.4Fig. 8.5Fig. 8.6Fig. 8.7Fig. 8.8Two types of multiple-strand bookmarkersParts of a multiple-strand bookmarkerKnob bookmarker found in a Gospel Book, c. 1480GermanyCloseup of knob anchorDiagrams of needlewrought thread coverings on knobanchorPillow-style bookmarker in a Parisian Book of Hours, c. 1410Bar bookmarkers found in two German antiphonals, dated1430Closeup of bar anchor146156166166166169177177Children’s Clothing in the Lisle LettersFig. 9.100prelims.p65A family scene of the 1520s, from a Flemish Book of Hours81/25/2007, 11:19 AM184

TablesAnglo-Saxon Domestic TextilesTable 1.1Terms for domestic textiles in six Anglo-Saxon willspage 9Anglo-Saxon Church VestmentsTable 2.1Table 2.2Table 2.3Table 2.4Table 2.5Vestments in the ordinations of the major orders inthe Ordines RomaniDiaconal and sacerdotal ordinations in pontificalsfrom Anglo-Saxon EnglandVestment references in diaconal ordination prayersand rubricsVestment references in sacerdotal ordination prayersand rubricsImages of vested clergy in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts2022242531Colour Changes in Flemish WoollensTable 4.1Table 4.2Table 4.3Table 4.4Table 4.5Luxury woollen broadcloths at Mechelen, by colourand value, 1471–1550Costs of dyeing scarlets at Mechelen, 1361–1415Luxury woollen broadcloths at Bruges, by colour andvalue, 1301–1496Luxury woollen broadcloths at Bruges, by colourcategory, 1301–1496Prices of woollens at Bruges in relation to otherproducts and wages, 1341–14965864687482Fingerloop BraidingTable 7.1An example of braiding instructions from Harley2320144Multiple-Strand BookmarkersTable 8.1Table 8.200prelims.p65Extant multiple-strand textile bookmarkersAnchor types91481581/25/2007, 11:19 AM

Table 8.3Table 8.4Table 8.5Strand types and attachment methodsExamples of artworks showing multiple-strand bookmarkers, by artistTechnical examination of four multiple-strand bookmarkers159171176Children’s Clothing in the Lisle LettersTable 9.1Table 9.2Table 9.300prelims.p65Clothing items for Mary Basset, bill of March 8,1536Clothing items for James Basset, bill of December 19,1536Clothing items for James Basset, bill of August/September1538101/25/2007, 11:19 AM192194196

ContributorsROBIN NETHERTON (Editor) is a costume historian specializing in WesternEuropean clothing of the twelfth through fifteenth centuries. Since 1982, she hasgiven lectures and workshops on practical aspects of medieval costume and oncostume as an approach to social history, art history, and literature. A journalist bytraining, she also works as a professional editor.GALE R. OWEN-CROCKER (Editor) is Professor of Anglo-Saxon Culture at theUniversity of Manchester and Deputy Director of the Manchester Centre for AngloSaxon Studies. Her most recent books are King Harold II and the Bayeux Tapestry(2005), Dress in Anglo-Saxon England: Revised and Enlarged Edition (2004), and The FourFunerals in Beowulf (2000).ELIZABETH BENNS is a London-based textile historian specialising in medievaland early modern narrow wares and the women who made them. She has presentedpapers and published work on various aspects of this research, as well as re-creatingitems for theatres and private individuals. Her current research focuses on narrowwares in the wardrobe accounts for late medieval coronations.HEATHER BLATT is a Ph.D. candidate in medieval English literature at FordhamUniversity, with a speciality in book history initially developed while completingher M.A. in English at the University of Virgina. In addition to continuing researchon bookmarks, she is also working on a project involving early modern cheesetrenchers.ELIZABETH COATSWORTH is Senior Lecturer at MIRIAD (Manchester Institutefor Research and Innovation in Art and Design) at the Manchester MetropolitanUniversity and co-author (with Michael Pinder) of The Art of the Anglo-Saxon Goldsmith(2002). She is now completing a catalogue of the pre-Conquest sculpture of the WestRiding of Yorkshire for the Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture.SARAH LARRATT KEEFER is Professor of English at Trent University in Ontario,specializing in the liturgy of the Anglo-Saxon Church. She is currently completing anedition of Old English liturgical poetry for Broadview Press and co-editing London,British Library Additional MS 57337 (the Anderson Pontifical) for the HenryBradshaw Society.00prelims.p65111/25/2007, 11:19 AM

JOHN H. MUNRO, Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Toronto,has devoted his academic career to research in and the teaching of European economichistory. His research has focused on the textile industries in the later medieval andearly modern Low Countries and England, as well as money, prices, and wages inlater medieval Europe. Among his many publications are two chapters on medievalwoollens in the Cambridge History of Western Textiles (2003).JOHN OLDLAND is Professor Emeritus at Bishop’s University, Lennoxville, Quebec.He is currently publishing and preparing articles on the merchant class of earlyTudor London, the London clothworkers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenthcenturies, and the decline of clothmaking in fifteenth-century English towns.MELANIE SCHUESSLER is Assistant Professor of Costume Design at EasternMichigan University, specializing in clothing of sixteenth-century England. She iscurrently working on compiling databases of clothing and textile elements insixteenth-century English manuscripts and Western European portraits.LOIS SWALES earned her bachelor’s degree in weaving at Empire State College. Forthe last ten years, her research has focused on creation and historical use of fingerloopbraids and other narrow wares. Her current projects include a monograph onneedlewrought thread coverings and a book on bookmarkers.LESLEY K. TWOMEY is Principal Lecturer in Hispanic Studies and Director ofInternational Marketing and Promotion at the University of Northumbria, Newcastle.Her specialty is Marian literature in fifteenth-century Spain. Her forthcoming book,The Serpent and the Rose, addresses Marian themes in fifteenth-century poetry.SUSAN LEIBACHER WARD is Professor of Art and Architectural History at RhodeIsland School of Design. A scholar of medieval sculpture, she is co-editor of GothicSculpture in America, vol. 3. Her interest in textiles dates from her work on opusanglicanum as a graduate student for the 1977 exhibit and publication Transformationsof the Court Style: Gothic Art in Europe 1270–1330.00prelims.p65121/25/2007, 11:19 AM

PrefaceVolume 3 of Medieval Clothing and Textiles retains the eclecticism established in previousvolumes. It covers the seventh to the sixteenth centuries and ranges through themanufacture, dyeing, and finishing of textiles to their practical, fashionable, andsymbolic uses. The articles in this volume variously discuss soft furnishings;ecclesiastical vestments; the economics of that major player on the stage of medievalnorthwest Europe, the wool trade; the making and practical use of narrow wares;symbolic reference to courtly secular costumes in a religious text; and the tribulationsof keeping aristocratic children appropriately dressed. The geographic coverageincludes England, Flanders, France, Germany, and for the first time in MC&T, Spain.The editors wish to express their thanks to the members of the editorial boardfor support and advice, and to the other anonymous referees—colleagues, friends,academic acquaintances, and, on occasion, total strangers whom we have approachedbecause of their specialist knowledge of an obscure topic—who have generouslyshared their expertise; also to those who were unable to help in person, but who tookthe time and trouble to pass on queries to someone who could. Our thanks also go toHana Videen and Pamela Walker for their assistance in preparing the index.We welcome submissions for future volumes from both experienced scholarsand new writers. Potential contributors should initially send a 300-word synopsis toGale Owen-Crocker at Submissions should be in Englishand must conform to MC&T’s guidelines for authors, available from Robin Nethertonat All papers will undergo peer review and be subject to editing.Papers read at sessions sponsored by DISTAFF (Discussion, Interpretation, andStudy of Textile Arts, Fabrics, and Fashion) at the annual medieval congresses held inMay at Kalamazoo, Michigan, and in July at Leeds, England, are automaticallyconsidered for publication. Scholars interested in reading a 20-minute paper at oneof these sessions should contact Robin Netherton (for the Kalamazoo congress) orGale Owen-Crocker (for the Leeds congress) at least a year in advance, or mayrespond to Calls for Papers which can be found on the DISTAFF Web site, Scholars presenting papers on medieval dress and textile topics inother sessions at these or other conferences are most welcome to contact the editorsto discuss publication possibilities.00prelims.p65131/25/2007, 11:19 AM

00prelims.p65141/25/2007, 11:19 AM

The Anti-Red Shift—To the Dark Side: ColourChanges in Flemish Luxury Woollens, 1300–1550John H. MunroAll those who are interested in the history of textiles—not just their production andtrade, but also their roles in providing such basic needs as warmth, protection, andmodesty, as well as serving as decoration and status symbols—cannot help but befascinated by the question of why colour preferences change. The message for economichistorians, too often unheeded, is that they must always take full account of fashiontrends, and thus of colours. Indeed: Can anyone possibly imagine the use of clothingin any society, past or present, while ignoring its colours?Thus, for example, those studying the economic history of the early modernLow Countries, the preeminent European region for textile manufacturing, and inparticular those who have observed data on textile purchases in sixteenth-centurytown accounts, will be struck by the very high proportion of luxury-quality woollenbroadcloths that were black, uniformly dark black, in colour. For example, as table4.1 demonstrates, black accounted for the colour of 75.04 percent of all such woollenspurchased for the burgermasters and aldermen of Mechelen’s town government(and 81.66 percent by value) in the eighty-year period from 1471 to 1550 (about 233out of 310 so purchased).1 Even more striking is the fact that for the more limitedperiod from 1501 to 1550, black colours accounted for virtually all of those textiles:an astonishing 97.6 percent (while browns accounted for the remaining 2.4 percent).That does not mean, however, that other colours were absent from the civic treasurer’sannual accounts. We do find many examples of red, green, blue, and other colours inThis article is the revised version of a paper presented in July 2005 at the International MedievalCongress at Leeds, England. The red shift is a displacement of the spectrum of a celestial bodytoward longer wavelengths that is the consequence of the Doppler effect, or the gravitational fieldof the source. Astronomers use it to measure the speed at which distant galaxies are moving awayfrom our own. The “dark side” of the Force will be familiar to anyone who has seen any of the sixStar Wars films.104chapfou.p65Mechelen (Malines) was both a town and a feudal seigneurie, owing allegiance to the count ofFlanders, though it was an enclave within the neighbouring duchy of Brabant; thus it was thentechnically Flemish.551/25/2007, 10:57 AM

John H. Munrothe much cheaper textiles purchased for the lesser, minor officials and civic employees.The crucial point, therefore, is that the civic leaders, who sought to emulate theupper mercantile bourgeoisie and nobility in dress, had come to esteem black as theprimary colour of sartorial elegance in this era. The term “urban patriciate” todescribe the political oligarchies that ruled or predominated in these towns ofmedieval Flanders and neighbouring Brabant has some real meaning.2THE PROBLEM OF MEDIEVAL SCARLETS AND MULTICOLOUREDCLOTHS DURING THE BLACK DEATHIf, however, we were to go back two centuries, to the era of the Black Death in the midfourteenth century, we would find—from the civic treasurers’ accounts of Mechelen,Bruges, and Ghent3 —that other colours were far more highly esteemed and, further,that there were virtually no black textiles at all listed in the accounts of this period. In theBruges civic accounts, the first purchases of black woollens (from the Douai drapery)do not appear until as late as 1389. Not until after the 1430s do black and other darkcoloured textiles—in dark blues, greens, purples, and greys—become decisivelyprominent. Instead, and especially in the post–Black Death era, by far the mostprominent colours are bright vivid ones: various reds, and particularly multicolouredtextiles, both those known as “medleys,” made from a mélange of wools in a widevariety of colours, and striped (rayed) textiles, whose weft yarns differed in colour(s)from the warps. In both medleys and striped cloths, red yarns were often predominant.By far the most highly esteemed, most regal colour in medieval Europe, especiallyduring the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, was that shade of brilliant orvivid red known as scarlet; and by far the most expensive woollen textiles (rivallingimported silks) of this era were the scarlets, everywhere—in the Low Countries,England, France, Spain, Italy.4 The scarlet was to medieval Europe what the imperial234See Jean Lestocquoy, Aux origines de la bourgeoisie: Les villes de Flandre et d’Italie sous le gouvernmentdes patriciens, XIe—XVe siècles (Paris: Presses universitaries de France, 1952), especially chap. 5:“Patriciens et culture intellectuelle,” 212–22.Unless otherwise noted, data in this article for Mechelen, Bruges, and Ghent come from thesearchival sources: Algemeen Rijksarchief België (Brussels), Rekenkamer: municipal treasurers’accounts for Bruges, Ghent, and Mechelen; Stadsarchief Brugge, Stadsrekeningen 1302–1500;Stadsarchief Mechelen, Stadsrekeningen, Series I; and Stadsarchief Gent, Stadsrekeningen,Series R.400:1–73. More detailed citations for specific sets of data appear on the correspondingtables.For a fuller explanation of the role of scarlets in medieval textile history, see John Munro,“The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour,” in Cloth and Clothing inMedieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, ed. Negley B. Harte andKenneth G. Ponting, Pasold Studies in Textile History 2 (London: Heinemann EducationalBooks, 1983), 13–17; this essay was reprinted in John Munro, Textiles, Towns and Trade: Essaysin the Economic History of Late-Medieval England and the Low Countries (Brookfield, VT: Variorum,1994). Also see John Munro, “Medieval Woollens: Textiles, Textile Technology and IndustrialOrganisation, c. 800–1500,” in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, ed. David Jenkins(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), vol. 1, chap. 4, 181–227.5604chapfou.p65561/25/2007, 10:57 AM

Colour Changes in Flemish Woollenspurple had been to the Roman Empire. The latter contained an exceptionally expensivedyestuff extracted at enormous cost from various Mediterranean molluscs (Murexbrandaris, Purpura haemastoma). Indeed, after the Roman Empire had imposed a strictmonopoly on imperial purple, from the reign of Alexander Severus (225–235 CE),one that was maintained by the succeeding Byzantine Empire (from the fifth century),the closest and really the only alternative dyestuff available in the medieval West forindicating such regal status was scarlet: a colour obtained from the desiccated eggs ofvarious pregnant shield

history. His research has focused on the textile industries in the later medieval and early modern Low Countries and England, as well as money, prices, and wages in later medieval Europe. Among his many publications are two chapters on medieval wool

Related Documents:

don ed hardy don ed hardy dunk high sb e f1q36 8mx ed hardy clothes ed hardy

The renewed Clothing, Textiles, and Fashion curriculum guide is designed to create awareness of the role of clothing, textiles, and fashion in our daily lives. Modules are developed for the student who has the desire to learn to sew and/

clothing and textiles is in China, which has a fast growing internal market and the largest share of world trade. Western countries are still important exporters of clothing and textiles, particularly Germany and Italy in clothing and the USA in textiles. Output from the sector is growing in

4 Key conclusions The study suggests a range of possible policy actions to address the identified challenges. The vision statement states that, by 2025 the textiles and clothing industry, including fibre-based materials, clothing, home and technical textiles, will be a strategic EU industry sector providing innovative and

recycled into textiles, so called fiber-to-fiber recycling, and this is considered in this thesis. 1.1 Recycling of textiles Fiber-to-fiber recycling of textiles has not been implemented on a large-scale. Since collection of second-hand textiles is well developed, one of the major barriers to

Ph.D. in Design, Retail Merchandising and Consumer Studies concentration University of Minnesota, Department of Design, Housing, and Apparel 2020 M.S. in Clothing & Textiles Seoul National University, Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design 2013 B.S. in Clothing & Textiles

Std. 12th Economics Smart Notes, Commerce and Arts (MH Board) Author: Target Publications Subject: Economics Keywords: economics notes class 12, 12th commerce, 12th economics book , 12th commerce books, class 12 economics book, maharashtra state board books for 12th, smart notes, 12th std economics book , 12th economics book maharashtra board, 12th economics guide , maharashtra hsc board .

API and DNV codes describe slightly different approaches to assess the axial bearing capacity of a pile. These codes provide guidline for the calculation of pile length in common soil conditions such as clay (cohesive) or sand (cohesionless). The assessment also depends on the type of soil information available i.e. laboratory test results showing soil properties such as undrained shear .