Process Areas by Process Area CategoryService Establishment and DeliveryIncident Resolution and Prevention (IRP) (p. 315)Service Delivery (SD) (p. 539)Service System Development (SSD) (p. 561)Service System Transition (SST) (p. 595)Strategic Service Management (STSM) (p. 609)Project and Work ManagementCapacity and Availability Management (CAM) (p. 261)Integrated Work Management (IWM) (p. 335)Quantitative Work Management (QWM) (p. 461)Requirements Management (REQM) (p. 483)Risk Management (RSKM) (p. 493)Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) (p. 509)Service Continuity (SCON) (p. 523)Work Monitoring and Control (WMC) (p. 621)Work Planning (WP) (p. 633)Process ManagementOrganizational Process Deﬁnition (OPD) (p. 375)Organizational Process Focus (OPF) (p. 389)Organizational Performance Management (OPM) (p. 405)Organizational Process Performance (OPP) (p. 425)Organizational Training (OT) (p. 441)SupportCausal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) (p. 281)Conﬁguration Management (CM) (p. 291)Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) (p. 305)Measurement and Analysis (MA) (p. 357)Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) (p. 453)
Generic Goals and Generic PracticesGG 1: Achieve Speciﬁc Goals (p. 193)GP 1.1: Perform Speciﬁc PracticesGG 2: Institutionalize a Managed Process (p. 193)GP 2.1: Establish an Organizational PolicyGP 2.2: Plan the ProcessGP 2.3: Provide ResourcesGP 2.4: Assign ResponsibilityGP 2.5: Train PeopleGP 2.6: Control Work ProductsGP 2.7: Identify and Involve Relevant StakeholdersGP 2.8: Monitor and Control the ProcessGP 2.9: Objectively Evaluate AdherenceGP 2.10: Review Status with Higher Level ManagementGG 3: Institutionalize a Deﬁned Process (p. 248)GP 3.1: Establish a Deﬁned ProcessGP 3.2: Collect Process Related Experiences
CMMI for ServicesSecond Edition
The SEI Series inSoftware EngineeringVisit informit.com/sei for a complete list of available products.he SEI Series in Software Engineering represents is a collaborativeundertaking of the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute (SEI) andAddison-Wesley to develop and publish books on software engineering andrelated topics. The common goal of the SEI and Addison-Wesley is to providethe most current information on these topics in a form that is easily usable bypractitioners and students.TBooks in the series describe frameworks, tools, methods, and technologiesdesigned to help organizations, teams, and individuals improve their technicalor management capabilities. Some books describe processes and practices fordeveloping higher-quality software, acquiring programs for complex systems, ordelivering services more effectively. Other books focus on software and systemarchitecture and product-line development. Still others, from the SEI’s CERTProgram, describe technologies and practices needed to manage softwareand network security risk. These and all books in the series address criticalproblems in software engineering for which practical solutions are available.
CMMI for ServicesGuidelines for Superior ServiceSecond EditionEileen C. ForresterBrandon L. ButeauSandy ShrumUpper Saddle River, NJ Boston Indianapolis San FranciscoNew York Toronto Montreal London Munich Paris MadridCapetown Sydney Tokyo Singapore Mexico City
The SEI Series in Software EngineeringMany of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Wherethose designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printedwith initial capital letters or in all capitals.CMM, CMMI, Capability Maturity Model, Capability Maturity Modeling, Carnegie Mellon, CERT, and CERT CoordinationCenter are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Ofﬁce by Carnegie Mellon University.ATAM; Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method; CMM Integration; COTS Usage-Risk Evaluation; CURE; EPIC; EvolutionaryProcess for Integrating COTS Based Systems; Framework for Software Product Line Practice; IDEAL; Interim Proﬁle; OAR;OCTAVE; Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation; Options Analysis for Reengineering; Personal SoftwareProcess; PLTP; Product Line Technical Probe; PSP; SCAMPI; SCAMPI Lead Appraiser; SCAMPI Lead Assessor; SCE; SEI; SEPG;Team Software Process; and TSP are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University.Special permission to reproduce portions of CMMI for Services (CMU/SEI-2010-TR-036), 2010 by Carnegie Mellon University,and “Considering the Case for Security Content in CMMI for Services,” by Eileen Forrester, 2010 by Carnegie MellonUniversity, has been granted by the Software Engineering Institute.The authors and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of anykind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages inconnection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein.The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which mayinclude electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, andbranding interests. For more information, please contact:U.S. Corporate and Government Sales(800) email@example.comFor sales outside the United States, please contact:International Salesinternational@pearsoned.comVisit us on the Web: informit.com/awLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataForrester, Eileen C.CMMI for services : guidelines for superior service / Eileen C.Forrester, Brandon L. Buteau, Sandy Shrum.—2nd ed.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-321-71152-6 (hardcover : alk. paper)ISBN-10: 0-321-71152-1 (hardcover : alk. paper)1. Capability maturity model (Computer software) 2. Softwareengineering. 3. Application service providers—Quality control. I.Buteau, Brandon L. II. Shrum, Sandy. III. Title.QA76.758.F6725 2011005.1068'5—dc222010049519Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must beobtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to:Pearson Education, Inc.Rights and Contracts Department501 Boylston Street, Suite 900Boston, MA 02116Fax: (617) 671-3447ISBN-13: 978-0-321-71152-6ISBN-10:0-321-71152-1Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Courier in Westford, Massachusetts.First printing, March 2011
CONTENTSPREFACExiiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSxixPART ONE—ABOUT CMMI FOR SERVICES11INTRODUCTION3Do You Need CMMI?3Do You Have These Common Problems?How Does CMMI Help You to Solve These Problems?How Can CMMI Beneﬁt You?Evolution of CMMICMMI FrameworkCMMI for ServicesImportant CMMI-SVC ConceptsServiceService SystemService AgreementService RequestService IncidentProject, Work Group, and WorkStakeholder, Customer, and End User357810101112131516161719v
vi Contents2PROCESS AREA COMPONENTS21Core Process Areas and CMMI ModelsRequired, Expected, and Informative Components2121Required ComponentsExpected ComponentsInformative ComponentsComponents Associated with Part Two22Process AreasPurpose StatementsIntroductory NotesRelated Process AreasSpeciﬁc GoalsGeneric GoalsSpeciﬁc Goal and Practice SummariesSpeciﬁc PracticesExample Work ProductsSubpracticesGeneric PracticesGeneric Practice porting Informative mbering SchemeTypographical Conventions2929HOW TO START USING CMMI33Important Roles in Process Improvement33The Executive SponsorThe Management Steering GroupThe Process GroupThe Process Group LeaderThe Working GroupsThe SCAMPI Lead Appraiser or Team LeaderThe Appraisal Team33343435353536
ContentsSCAMPI AppraisalsThe Purpose and Function of AppraisalsAppraisal RatingsFinding the Right SCAMPI Lead Appraiser or Team LeaderAppraisal Quality AssuranceCMMI TrainingAn Approach to Getting StartedCollect InformationKnow Where You AreKnow Where You Are GoingCommit ResourcesGet the Right HelpHow to Get ThereScope of ImprovementReference Model SelectionAn Appraisal ApproachA Training ProgramA Strategy for IEVING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT THAT LASTS51OverviewLasting ImprovementUnderstanding Generic PracticesUnderstanding Capability LevelsUsing Capability LevelsUnderstanding Maturity LevelsUsing Maturity LevelsUsing Capability Levels and Maturity LevelsEquivalent StagingAchieving High Maturity51515152535557575963RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROCESS AREAS65Relationships that Drive Service Establishment and DeliveryRelationships that Drive Service Management6669
viii ContentsLifecycles671The Importance of LifecyclesLifecycles in CMMI for ServicesService LifecyclesProject LifecyclesService System LifecyclesService Request LifecyclesIncident LifecyclesPutting Lifecycles Together7273737475767777ESSAYS ABOUT CMMI FOR SERVICES79A Changing Landscape79Changing ParadigmsThe Principal Agents of ChangeManagement’s ChallengeBenchmarking: A Management Tool for ChangeSummaryExpanding Capabilities across the “Constellations”CMMI for Services, with a Dash of CMMI for DevelopmentThe Development EnvironmentThe Services EnvironmentImplementing CMMI for ServicesEnhancing Advanced Use of CMMI-DEV with CMMI-SVCProcess Areas for SoSMultiple Paths to Service MaturityCase 1: CMMI-DEV Maturity Level to CMMI-DEV MaturityLevel 3 Adapted for Services, 2004–2007Case 2: CMM-SW to CMMI-DEV and ISO 9001Case 3: CMM-SW to CMMI-DEV Maturity Level 3 andMaturity Level 5 to CMMI-SVC8081838486868990909194979899101Using CMMI-DEV and ISO 20000 Assets in Adopting CMMI-SVC102Understanding the Service SpectrumRethinking the Core Process AreasUnderstanding Customer RelationshipsUnderstanding the New TerminologyUnderstanding How to Reuse Existing CMMI Process AssetsUnderstanding How to Use and Reuse ISO 20000 AssetsConclusion103104105107107109110
ContentsExperience-Based Expectations for CMMI-SVCExpectations for CMMI-SVC to Be a Promising ModelA PreludeMy CMM ExperienceFrom Compliance-Driven Improvement toPerformance-Driven ImprovementAn IT Services Scenario Applying CMMI for Services: The Storyof How HeRus Improved Its IT ServicesObservationsWhat It Looks Like in PracticeIntroduction to the HeRus ScenarioService Delivery (SD)Capacity and Availability Management (CAM)Service Continuity (SCON)Incident Resolution and Prevention (IRP)ConclusionAre Services Agile?What We Can Learn from High-Performing IT Organizationsto Stop the Madness in IT OutsourcingIntroductionOur Ten-Year Study of High-Performing IT OrganizationsCommon Culture Among High PerformersThe Performance Differences between High and Low PerformersWhich Controls Really MatterWhat Goes Wrong in Too Many IT Outsourcing ProgramsA Hypothetical Case StudyAn Effective System of IT OperationsCall to ActionPublic Education in an Age of AccountabilityFederal Legislation Drives ChangeOrienting Education to Delivering ServicesA Service Agreement for EducationA Process for Producing Consistently High Levels ofStudent LearningA Process for Efﬁcient Decision MakingProviding for ContinuityOther Applications for the Model in EducationA Better Future for American 6147147147148
x ContentsApplying CMMI-SVC for Educational InstitutionsIntroductionMethodological ApproachThe Three-Step Methodological ApproachSample Interpretation of the SD Process Area for theEducational DomainLessons LearnedNext StepsPlans Are WorthlessThe Limits of the Maturity Level NumberConsiderations for the Responsible BuyerRemaining Engaged after BuyingSeeking Accomplishment as Well as CapabilitySummaryCMMI Ensures Vehicle Insurance ServicesAn Overview of the Vehicle Insurance IndustryWork PlanningService DeliveryDelivering ServicesAreas Where CMMI-SVC Can Help to Improve Service OperationsConclusionsReferencesSecurity and CMMI for ServicesHow to Appraise Security Using CMMI for ServicesConsidering Security Content for CMMI for ServicesExample Security Content for CommentPART TWO—GENERIC GOALS AND GENERIC PRACTICES,AND THE PROCESS AREASGENERIC GOALS AND GENERIC 4164166169170171173173173173179180187189CAPACITY AND AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT261CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION281CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT291DECISION ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION305INCIDENT RESOLUTION AND PREVENTION315
ContentsxiINTEGRATED WORK MANAGEMENT335MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS357ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS DEFINITION375ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS FOCUS389ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT405ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS PERFORMANCE425ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING441PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE453QUANTITATIVE WORK MANAGEMENT461REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT483RISK MANAGEMENT493SUPPLIER AGREEMENT MANAGEMENT509SERVICE CONTINUITY523SERVICE DELIVERY539SERVICE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT561SERVICE SYSTEM TRANSITION595STRATEGIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT609WORK MONITORING AND CONTROL621WORK PLANNING633PART THREE—THE APPENDICES661A REFERENCES663BACRONYMS669CCMMI VERSION 1.3 PROJECT PARTICIPANTS673D GLOSSARY681BOOK CONTRIBUTORS715INDEX729
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PREFACEServices make up 80 percent of the world economy and comprisemore than half of U.S. Department of Defense acquisitions. The primary purpose of the CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC) model, which isthe basis of this book, is to guide service providers as they improvethe way they do their work—their processes. Improved processesresult in improved service performance, customer satisfaction, andproﬁtability. When organizations using CMMI-SVC make improvements in their performance, they can ultimately contribute to thehealth of the world economy.CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) models are collections of effective practices that help organizations to improve theirprocesses. The CMMI-SVC model, like all of the CMMI ProductSuite,1 was developed by a team from industry, government, and theSoftware Engineering Institute (SEI). Hundreds of reviewers suggestnew content and changes for the model. Adopters pilot model contentand give further feedback. A network of hundreds of SEI Partners andthousands of users apply the model to their work and report theirexperience and results, further improving model content. In this way,the CMMI-SVC model represents the ongoing consensus of thousandsof practitioners about how to provide superior service.1. There are CMMI models that focus on the development of products and services (CMMIfor Development) and on the acquisition of products and services (CMMI for Acquisition).See the CMMI website for more information about these members of the CMMI Product Suite(www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/).xiii
xiv PrefacePurposeThis book provides guidance on how all types of service providerorganizations can establish, manage, and improve services that meetthe needs of their customers and end users.This guidance includes the following: Delivering services that meet the terms of service agreements Managing the organization’s capacity to provide services and ensurethe availability of services Addressing service incidents effectively Establishing standard services and service levels that meet thestrategic needs of the organization as well as the needs ofcustomers and end users Ensuring the continuity of services in the face of disasterBy integrating these and other practices, CMMI-SVC helps serviceproviders to establish, deliver, and manage services.Organization of This BookThis book is organized into three main parts: Part One: About CMMI for Services Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the Process Areas Part Three: The Appendices and GlossaryPart One: About CMMI for Services, consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, Introduction, offers a broad view of CMMI and the Servicesconstellation,2 concepts of process improvement, the history of modelsused for process improvement, and key concepts of CMMI for Services. Chapter 2, Process Area Components, describes the components ofthe CMMI-SVC process areas. Chapter 3, How to Start Using CMMI, describes the important rolesneeded for implementing a CMMI-based process improvement program,explains how appraisals can be used, identiﬁes training that can help,and provides tips for getting started using CMMI.2. A constellation is a collection of CMMI components that are used to construct models, trainingmaterials, and appraisal related documents for an area of interest (e.g., development, acquisition,services).
Prefacexv Chapter 4, Achieving Process Improvement that Lasts, explains howselected practices in all CMMI models enable the organization tomake improvement part of how it does business, including descriptionsof generic goals, generic practices, maturity levels, capability levels,and equivalent staging. Chapter 5, Relationships Among Process Areas, describes how processareas interrelate and provides insight into the interactions among theCMMI-SVC process areas. Chapter 6, Essays About CMMI for Services, consists of invited essaysfrom contributing authors. The essays cover the use of CMMI-SVC,unusual applications, and use of CMMI-SVC in new domains.Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the ProcessAreas, contains all of the CMMI-SVC required and expected components. It also contains related informative components, includingsubpractices, notes, examples, and example work products.Part Two contains 25 sections. The ﬁrst section contains thegeneric goals and practices. The remaining 24 sections each representone of the CMMI-SVC process areas.3 Process areas contain effectivepractices covering topics ranging from conﬁguration management toservice delivery.To make these process areas easy to ﬁnd, they are organized alphabetically by process area acronym. Most CMMI users quickly learnthe process area acronyms and abandon their longer names for theirshorter abbreviations. An example in which the order of the processareas by full process area title versus abbreviation is different is thatSupplier Agreement Management (SAM) appears before ServiceDelivery (SD). Each section contains goals, practices, and examplesin a format that enables you to locate information quickly.Part Three: The Appendices and Glossary, consists of four sections. Appendix A, References, contains references you can use to locatedocumented sources of information such as reports, process improvementmodels, industry standards, and books that are related to CMMI-SVC. Appendix B, Acronyms, deﬁnes the acronyms used in the model. Appendix C, CMMI for Service Project Participants, contains lists of teammembers who participated in the development of CMMI-SVC, V1.3. Appendix D, Glossary, deﬁnes many of the terms used in CMMI.3. A process area is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented collectively,satisﬁes a set of goals considered important for making improvement in that area. This conceptis covered in detail in Chapter 2.
xvi PrefaceFinally, the Book Contributors section provides information aboutthe book’s authors and those who contributed essays for Chapter 6.Extras in This BookReaders who are familiar with the model and with prior CMMI bookswill ﬁnd these changes and extras in this book on CMMI-SVC. We extensively revised Part One to add more material on serviceconcepts, including a discussion of lifecyles in service environments. We also clariﬁed and shortened the material on generic goals andpractices, and updated the material on getting started and sustainingimprovement. In Part Two, we added margin notes to all the process a
Enhancing Advanced Use of CMMI-DEV with CMMI-SVC Process Areas for SoS 94 Multiple Paths to Service Maturity 97 Case 1: CMMI-DEV Maturity Level to CMMI-DEV Maturity Level 3 Adapted for Services, 2004–2007 98 Case 2: CMM-SW to CMMI-DEV and ISO 9001 99 Case 3: CMM-SW to CMMI-DEV Maturity Level 3 and Maturity
Section 6.2 Surface Areas of Prisms 259 Surface Area of a Prism The surface area S of a prism is the sum of the areas of the bases and the lateral faces. S areas of bases areas of lateral faces EXAMPLE 2 Finding the Surface Area of a Triangular Prism Find the surface area of the prism. Draw a net. 4 m 3 m 5 m 4 m 6 m 3 m Add the areas of the bases and the lateral faces.
Printable Math Worksheets @ www.mathworksheets4kids.com 1) Area 2) Area 3) Area 7) Area 8) Area 9) Area 4) Area 5) Area 6) Area Find the area of each triangle. 6 cm 6 cm 6 ft t 10 cm m 3 in 6 in 7 m 10 m 5
6 April 2017 . LIST OF SPECIAL AREAS, EMISSION CONTROL AREAS . AND PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE SEA AREAS . Special Areas and Emission Control Areas (ECAs) under MARPOL. 1 . Special Area. s are def
www.ck12.org chapter 7 perimeter, area, surface area, and volume chapter outline 7.1 triangles and parallelograms 7.2 trapezoids, rhombi, and kites 7.3 areas of similar polygons 7.4 circumference and arc length 7.5 areas of circles and sectors 7.6 area and perimeter of regular polygons 7.7 perimeter and area review 7.8 exploring solids 7.9 surface area of pr
the area as the net area obtained by subtracting one or more areas from a larger area. Then, in Eqs. (C-4), the A i’s of the removed areas are simply taken as negative areas. This method will now be applied to the L-shaped area in Fig. 1 by treating it as a larger rectangle from which a smaller rectangle is
Problemas resueltos de integrales y cálculo de áreas - repaso Bachillerato página 3/79 Índice temático Boceto de funciones – Áreas del 1 al 21 Cálculo de áreas – Integrales por partes 7. Áreas del 1 al 21 Cálculo de áreas encerradas con el eje vertical – Áreas 12,19 Cambio de variable expon
research topics into broad topic areas. I will then suggest criteria for selecting key areas and propose a short list of key areas for research, including some key questions in each area. I will provide citations for examples of research studies in each of the key areas and will highlight areas in which there
11.2 Areas of Regular Polygons 673 PERIMETER AND AREA In Exercises 22–24, find the perimeter and area of the regular polygon. 22.23.24. 25. AREA Find the area of an equilateral triangle that has a height of 15inches. 26. AREA Find the area of a regular dodecagon (or 12-gon) that has 4inch sides. LOGICAL REA