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64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 27WINNINGSTRATEGIESTHAI SILK COMPANYt the end of World War II, U.S. intelligence agentJim Thompson moved to Thailand because hewas fascinated with the country and its beautifulhandwoven silk textiles. In 1946, hand-weaving silkwas a dying home-based industry. The demand forsilk fabric was very low throughout the world, havingbeen replaced by less expensive, machine-made fabrics. Thompson thought handwoven silk was so striking that he took samples to New York to find buyersfor this luxurious fabric and, as a result, founded theThai Silk Company Limited. He is credited with savingthe silk industry in Thailand, which now employs morethan 20,000 people.Known worldwide for woven silks, Thai Silk Company has fabric showrooms in New York, Atlanta, andLondon. There are also 35 Jim Thompson specialtystores that sell silk neckties and scarves. The company has expanded its brand to home furnishings andwomen’s sportswear in the Jim Thompson stores ofTokyo and Paris.The marketing of the expanded brand focused onthe mystique of Jim Thompson, emphasizing his secretive former job and mysterious disappearance.Thompson first went to Thailand during World War IIas an agent of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services,which is now the Central Intelligence Agency. In1967, Thompson went on vacation in Malaysia andmysteriously disappeared in the jungle. No clues related to his disappearance have ever been found.ATHINK CRITICALLY1. How would the popularity of Asian styles impact thetype of promotion used by the Jim Thompson stores?2. How could the Jim Thompson brand capitalize on itsfine reputation for silk fabric to help promote its newlines of women’s clothing and home furnishings?CHAPTER OVERVIEWChapter 2 introduces the basics offashion design and provides abrief overview of the history offashion.Lesson 2.1Fashion OriginsThis lesson explains the relationship of fashion history to today’sfashions and the impact of culturaldiversity.Lesson 2.2Fashion ComponentsThis lesson describes the majorenvironmental influences on fashion demand and three segmentsof softlines.Lesson 2.3Design and ColorThe principles and elements ofdesign and importance of colorare explained in this lesson.Lesson 2.4Textiles and ConstructionThis lesson differentiates amongdifferent types of natural and manmade fibers and describes the aspects of quality garmentconstruction.TEACHING RESOURCESVideo, Ch. 2Instructor’s Resource CD, Ch. 2ExamView Pro CD, Ch. 2WINNING STRATEGIESDescribes the impact of one company on the silk industry in a nation and the historical importanceof silk. Ask students what theythink about silk as a fabric towear.Think Critically1. Answers will vary. Possible answers include that the promotionwould emphasize the popularity byshowing garments in an Asianstyle.2. It could contact current customers and include informationabout the brand’s long-held goodreputation.27

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMCHAPTERPage 28THE BASICS OF FASHION2FASHION ORIGINSLesson 2.1The Latest Stylen 1868, French fashion designers formed a trade associationto organize the showing of each season’s new collections inParis and to promote the French fashion industry. The organization is called the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne. Additionally, the organization negotiates with labor,promotes education for future fashion careers, and enforcescopyright laws.To belong to the exclusive organization, all designs must becreated in the member firm. A design firm must have at leastone atelier (a workroom), at least 15 technical staff employees,and at least 60 garments showing in a collection twice a year.In 1973, two branches were added to the association. Onebranch is for fashion firms that design women’s prêt-à-porter(pret-a-por-tay), and the other is for fashion firms that designmen’s prêt-à-porter. Prêt-à-porter means ready-to-wear garmentsas opposed to original, made-to-measure garments. The twonewest branches are currently the most financially successfulof the organization.Work with a group. Discuss why it would be beneficial for afashion design firm to join with other firms in a trade organization. Make a list of possible benefits.IUnderstand the relationship of fashionhistory to today’sfashions.Identify the impactof cultural diversityon fashion.SCHEDULEBlock 45 minutesRegular 1 class periodFOCUSAsk students to discuss whatcities in Europe they associatewith fashion.THE LATEST STYLEThe Chambre had 98 couturierswho were members in 1917, 34couture houses by 1960, andfewer than 20 couture membersby 2000.Answers for The Latest StyleCooperative LearningAnswers will vary. Possible answers include to organize thefashion shows for the convenienceof the customers.28WHERE IT BEGANFrance was considered the center of fashion for almost 400 years,from the 1600s into the 1900s. Especially in Paris, a number of factors came together to focus the world on French fashions. Local and

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 292.1 FASHION ORIGINSinternational patrons, artists, skilled workers, a tremendous fabric andnotions industry, and the right economic conditions fused to make Paristhe preeminent fashion center.FRENCH FLAVORTEACHIn the nineteenth century, the Empress Eugénie hired designerCharles Frederick Worth, considered the father of present-dayfashion. He was the first designerto create garments that were hisown ideas and not for an individual customer and the first to showhis garments on live models.In the 1600s, French royalty and wealthy landowners employed theirown dressmakers and tailors. Wealth was concentrated within a smallgroup who had an endless desire for lavish fashions. The garmentswere shown off at balls, galas, receptions, and other social events, creating a climate where fashion was a major cultural element.At the time, there was no middle class. People were either among thewealthy, or they were poor peasants. The peasantswore homemade and cast-off garments. If a peasantfamily owned a good set of clothes, it was handed downfrom generation to generation and became the folkdress of the peasant culture.The excesses of the courts and the wealthy partiallyled to the French Revolution that began in 1789. Afterthe Revolution, the importance and influence of royaltydiminished, class distinctions blurred, and haute couture(hoat koo-tour) design firms grew. Haute couture meanshigh-fashion, individually designed, original, handmadegarments. A couturier (koo-tour-i-er) is the main creatorDuring the late 1700s, the first clothing deand designer for a haute couture firm. The individual designed specifically for boys was called thesigners began creating designs for sale to the generalskeleton suit. The outfit had long, highpublic, rather than working for only one family.waisted trousers, generally buttoned ontoCOUTURIERSa very short jacket. Charles Dickens saidthe suits “gave a boy’s legs the appearance of being hooked on just under hisarmpits.” The skeleton suit is significantbecause it was designed for a child andwas not a copy of an adult garment. It remained popular for half a century.During the growth of Paris as the fashion center, the designers benefited from close proximity to other artistsand their patrons. The couture houses soon gainedprominence and could demand new, exciting fabrics foreach season’s collection of fashions, thus keeping theTHINK CRITICALLYtextile industry healthy.What special characteristics would allow aThe idea of the couturier as the master of fashion firstgarment to remain in style for 50 years?led to the dominance and then to the decline of thehaute couture fashion firms. In 1868, when the couturiFashion Flashbackers joined together to form the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture ParisiIn the late eighteenth century,enne, recognition of Paris as the fashion center was increasing. Theboys wore long pants and menChambre Syndicale empowered the designer, rather than the customer,wore knee breeches. The pantsto decide what was fashion. This eventually worked against the hautemay have been called skeletonsuits because the boys who worecouture fashion firms since good business practice requires that thethem were so slender.customer be pleased.SUPPORTING ROLESFor a couture house to exist, a vast pool of skilled labor was required toback up the couturier. Assistant designers, production managers, pattern makers, tailors, and fitters were also needed to produce a collection. To provide the training needed for all of the positions, schools wereestablished to train young people and prepare them to step into thefashion business.Think CriticallyAnswers will vary. The functionaland comfortable styles that lookgood on a wide range of peopleare styles that become classicsand remain popular.29

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 302 THE BASICS OF FASHIONTEACHSchools to train potential employees in the fashion industry clusteraround the main industry centers.People change the styles theywear to reflect their social status,their gender, and new technology.Ask students what they think ismeant by “democratization offashion.”The growth of the middle classtook place mostly in the UnitedStates, with an economic systemand education that encouraged itsgrowth.Ongoing AssessmentUse the Try It On as an opportunity to conduct ongoing assessment of student comprehension ofthe lesson material.GLOBALIZATIONIndustrialization, technology, globalization, and the spreadof democracy broadened the demand for fashion. Consequently, the fashion industry grew to meet the demand.Many social, political, and industrial factors helped spreadPRODUCT/the fashion center from Paris to multiple centers throughSERVICEout the world. Democratization of fashion, making it availMANAGEMENTable to the masses, quickly spread as technologyimproved production processes, communication, and transportation.Well-made, fashionable garments quickly became available in manyparts of the world.The growth of a middleclass with income to purchase fashions, not justbasic clothing, fueled thegrowth of the fashion industry. As the customerbase broadened, the fashion center spread becausethe control shifted fromthe designer to the customer. Paris now sharesthe fashion spotlight withother cities, such as Milanand New York.MASS PRODUCTIONHaute couture designer gowns seen on celebrities at the AcademyAwards on Sunday evening are copied and advertised by Wednesday.The copies, called knockoffs, are available for purchase at reasonableprices within two weeks. Haute couture houses fight back by copying theirown garments in less expensive versions and selling them to retailers.The high cost of creating original garments limits the pool of customers. Expensive, custom, made-to-measure originals have given wayto mass-produced, reasonably priced, ready-to-wear garments that havebroadened fashion from an art to a major business industry. The hautecouture fashion design houses have turned to mass-produced, ready-towear garments in order to survive.Why was Paris the center of fashion?Paris was the center of fashion due to political and economic events as well as individuals with income and an interest in fashion.30

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 312.1 FASHION ORIGINSTHE ELEMENTS OF CULTUREThere is an evolution of fashion trends that flows among Europe, Asia,and the United States. The three cultures admire each other’s fashions and cyclically adopt them. The elements of a culture that influencefashions include the language, religion, art, customs, values, and symbols, as well as what other people in the culture are wearing. Americanization takes place when the characteristics of a cultural elementattributed to the United States are transferred to other countries. Theelements of other cultures are also very visible in the United States.TEACHIn the United States, women fromother cultures may find they havemany choices to make about howthey dress. When they are thesecond generation living in theUnited States, they have a uniquehybrid culture that may mix standard Western dress for some occasions with aspects of traditionaldress from their culture.RESTRICTING INFLUENCESEven today, many cultures have self-imposed rules that regulate howmen and women can dress. Modest dress is associated with many religions and certainly impacts fashions of cultures where the majority ofpeople are associated with a particular religion. While the fashion magazine Bibi shows South Asian women dressed with bare midriffs, someSouth Asian women cover themselves from head to toe, including theirfaces. Muslim women follow dress codes that can be very restrictiveand include complete coverage in public with a head-to-toe garmentcalled a burka. Social stigma keeps many Muslim women from wearingswimsuits in public, while others dress with few restrictions.THE MULTICULTURAL CONSUMERThe American population as a whole grew about 13 percent from 1990 to 2000, according to the U.S. Census, butthe minority population grew about 34 percent. Minorityshoppers are fashion buyers and are growing in imporSELLINGtance to retailers. Retail sales data shows that minorityshoppers pay full price for items 37 percent of the time, while Caucasian shoppers do so only 25 percent of the time.Smart fashion marketers will take the time needed to understand andserve all customers. Understanding diverse cultures can help the fashion marketer spot trends that will lead to sales.Experiencing the diversity of cultures is an exciting adventure. Gaining an understanding of cultures beyond your own can open doors infashion marketing, from providing insight to what may be the next trendto understanding diverse customers and providing for them.Why do historical customs of a culture influence today’sfashions?Because of the social pressure and the comfort level of people who have grown upBibi is a fashion magazine for South Asians.South Asia is made upof India, Bangladesh,Pakistan, Sri Lanka,Nepal, Maldives,Bhutan, and othernearby countries. Bibishows traditional SouthAsian clothing combined with Western apparel. Traditional SouthAsian shirts called cholis are snug and leavemidriffs bare. Cholislook great withWestern-style jeans.Time OutBibi has features on bridal wearfor women who want to have atraditional South Asian wedding inthe United States.Ongoing AssessmentUse the Try It On as an opportunity to conduct ongoing assessment of student comprehension ofthe lesson material.with the influence.31

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 322 THE BASICS OF FASHIONTEACHING STRATEGIESAuditory, Visual, KinestheticLearnersAsk students to take turns readingthe material aloud, followed byother students summarizing thecontent and different students writing the main points on the board.TEACHING STRATEGIESTactile LearnersAsk community members to bringor loan examples of garments associated with a culture.ASSESSReteachIn pairs, have students tell eachother briefly about the history offashion and how it impacts fashiontoday.EnrichAsk each student to conduct asurvey of ten students not in theclass. Have the students seenclothing that was representative ofanother culture? What did theylike or dislike about the clothing?Ask the students to draw a conclusion from the information theygather. How could the clothing beadapted to appeal to more people?CLOSEAsk a recent immigrant from another country to talk to the classabout fashions in his or her homecountry. What is different nowabout fashions from when he orshe was a child?UNDERSTAND MARKETING CONCEPTSCircle the best answer for each of the following questions.1. Paris was the center of fashion because da. French royalty was very interested in fashion.b. a wealthy class of people wanted fashions.c. fabric and talented people were available.d. of all of the above.2. Some of the elements of culture are ba. couture, burkas, and skeleton suits.b. fashion, religion, and language.c. peasants, royalty, and upper class.d. textiles, seamstresses, and tailors.THINK CRITICALLYAnswer the following questions as completely as possible. If necessary, use a separate sheet of paper.3. Research Look up the origin of pants. When did men startwearing pants? Why are they called pants? Write a paragraphabout the history and evolution of pants.Answers will vary. Suggest students do a search for trousers atwww.google.com or look at www.apparelsearch.com/glossary.htm. Both menand women throughout history have at times worn pants for warmth and comfort, but men began the current phase in the 1700s. Pants, a contraction ofthe word pantaloons, are named for an Italian comedy character Pantalonewho wore a combination of trousers and stockings.4. Economics Why do people in fashion marketing need to understand cultural diversity? What impact might the cultural diversityof customers have on a business?Fashion marketing targets people of widely varying cultures. Minorities are animportant customer base and need to be considered.32

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 33THE BASICS OF FASHIONFASHION COMPONENTSCHAPTER2Lesson 2.2The Latest Stylehen teens complained to department stores that promdresses were too provocative, the stores listened. Whenstores offered only plunging necklines, thigh-high-slitskirts, and bikini-style tops with low-riding skirts, the teensmade it clear they wanted more glamorous gowns with a classystyle. Wanting to look trendy but not revealing, the teens complained and found plenty of support from other teens. Designersand retailers reacted by providing a wider selection of young,chic dresses that covered the wearer.When fashion trends swing too far one way, this generally indicates it is time for the pendulum to swing back. Retailers anddesigners must stay in touch with their customers to anticipatefashion trends.Work with a group. Discuss how stores can stay ahead ofteen trends. Suggest ways that a store can obtain feedbackfrom teens.WIdentify the majorenvironmental influences on fashiondemand.Define softlines,and describe thethree segments.SCHEDULEBlock 45 minutesRegular 1 class periodTHE SUM OF THE PARTSFashion is at once a big business, anart form, and the prevailing style.Fashion combines all of the components—design, color, fabric, construction, function, and history—into a style.Style is a particular look in fashion thatsets it apart. Environmental factorsheavily influence the demand for whatis considered style at any given time.Social, technological, economic, regulatory, and competitive forces are external environmental factors that influencethe demand for a style. Demand refersto the quantity of a particular fashionitem that the public is willing and ableto buy.FOCUSAsk students if they think majorpolitical, economic, or socialevents impact fashion. Ask themto provide an example.THE LATEST STYLEWould students be surprised if adepartment store listened to teensabout what they wanted to seecarried in the store? Why or whynot?Answers for The Latest StyleCooperative LearningAnswers will vary, but should include “Ask them.”DEMAND FACTORSPeople will buy styles worn by thosethey admire, and fashion marketers are33

64023 FM Ch02.qxd9/27/021:11 PMPage 342 THE BASICS OF FASHIONOngoing AssessmentUse the Try It On as an opportunity to conduct ongoing assessment of student comprehension ofthe lesson material.in competition to dress celebrities. Celebrities, including athletes, actresses, and political figures, project an image that influences what thepublic wears.When First Lady Laura Bush selected clothing for the presidential inauguration, the fashion world gave little notice. Mrs. Bush’s style hasbeen described as rock-solid and middle of the road. She is consideredmodest and not a trend setter.Fashion Do’s and Don’tsContrast Mrs. Bush with former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. DurIs the dress code at your school aing the 1960s, she portrayed an image that is stil

fashion design and provides a brief overview of the history of fashion. Lesson 2.1 Fashion Origins This lesson explains the relation-ship of fashion history to today’s fashions and the impact of cultural diversity. Lesson 2.2 Fashion Components This lesson describes the major environmental influences on