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Drama objectives banki

Acknowledgements‘Grandpa's Shoes’ from Rich Lizard andOther Poems by Deborah Chandra.Text copyright 1993 Deborah Chandra.Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Strausand Giroux, LLCHoles by Louis Sachar.Reprinted by permission of BloomsburyPublishing Plcii

ContentsPageIntroduction1English and drama4Effective teaching6Year 7 Framework teaching objectives15Speaking and listening objective 15 Explore in role15Speaking and listening objective 16 Collaborate on scripts20Speaking and listening objective 17 Extend spoken repertoire 24Speaking and listening objective 18 Exploratory drama28Speaking and listening objective 19 Evaluate presentations32Year 8 Framework teaching objectives36Speaking and listening objective 13 Evaluate own drama skills 36Speaking and listening objective 14 Dramatic techniques40Speaking and listening objective 15 Work in role44Speaking and listening objective 16 Collaborative presentation 48Year 9 Framework teaching objectives51Speaking and listening objective 11 Evaluate own drama skills 51Speaking and listening objective 12 Drama techniques55Speaking and listening objective 13 Compare interpretations 59Speaking and listening objective 14 Convey character andatmosphere63Speaking and listening objective 15 Critical evaluation67Teaching objectives from across the English Framework 71Year 7 Reading objective 18 Response to a play71Year 8 Writing objective 8 Experiment with conventions74Year 9 Reading objective 16 Different cultural contexts77Year 8 exemplar unit of work: Holes by Louis Sachar80Glossary of subject-specific terms89References93iii

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KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKDrama objectives bankIntroductionDrama is part of young people’s core entitlement in the National Curriculum Ordersand in the Framework for teaching English: Years 7, 8 and 9. It exists as anacademic subject in its own right at GCSE and beyond. This document is intendedfor teachers of drama within English as well as teachers of drama as a separatesubject. It contains a bank of teaching ideas to help the teaching of dramaobjectives, and of other Framework objectives which can be addressed throughdrama at Key Stage 3.The four central concepts of the Key Stage 3 Strategy are: expectations engagement progression transformationThese concepts have a particular resonance within the context of drama, whereengagement is fundamental, where there is the expectation of a disciplinedimaginative exploration of personal and interpersonal situations, where progressionis both creative and analytical and where experiential learning can lead to thetransformation of understanding and attitudes.All Our Futures, the seminal report of the National Advisory Committee on Creativeand Cultural Education in 1999, identified four key characteristics of creativeprocesses. These characteristics are central to drama and to young people’screative education:Our starting point is to recognise four characteristics of creative processes. First,they always involve thinking or behaving imaginatively. Second, overall thisimaginative activity is purposeful: that is, it is directed to achieving an objective.Third, these processes must generate something original. Fourth,the outcome must be of value in relation to the objective.Ofsted’s 2001 report on inspecting post-16 drama studies identified clearexpectations for pupils’ experience of drama at Key Stages 3 and 4. They were: using dramatic techniques to explore ideas, issues and dramatic texts; conveying character and atmosphere in scripted plays or improvisations; appreciating the structure and organisation of plays; evaluating and analysing the structure, meaning and impact of plays they havestudied, read, watched or in which they have taken part.All of those aspects, and more, are featured within the English Framework.Progress in drama in Key Stage 3 supports, and is supported by, pupils’ progressin English. Drama develops thinking, speaking and listening, reading, writing andcritical analysis through emotional and imaginative engagement. Drama (as definedby NATE in Cracking Drama 2000) is ‘the collaborative exploration and analysis ofmeaning through the enactment of events’. Effective drama teaching promotesindividual self-confidence, encourages social cooperation and enhances creativity.Drama’s distinctiveness lies in the fact that work takes place in a fictionalenvironment with clearly defined boundaries: when acting in role as someone else,somewhere else, pupils look at their lives, identities, values and cultures in a placewhere their real status and identity are not at stake. Drama enables us to symbolisethe world in ways that engage the intellect and the emotions. Through drama pupils1

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKcan develop their ‘emotional literacy’ and analytical awareness by seeing the worldimaginatively from other perspectives. This imaginative engagement underpins thedevelopment of their critical thinking. As suggested in the forthcoming Arts CouncilEngland publication, Drama in Schools, drama can make a major contribution tothe development of pupils’ critical thinking:Effective drama teaching aids the development of pupils’ thinking skills.Drama thrives on cognitive challenge, when pupils are presented with newideas or unexpected pieces of information. In drama lessons, pupils areasked to use a range of thinking strategies, such as hypothesising, to solvea problem both within a narrative or the drama form itself. They areencouraged to rethink their strategies when surprising events occur and tobe flexible in their approaches. Pupils are frequently required to speculateabout the nature of a character, problem or mystery before them. They haveto use deductive reasoning to justify their opinions or choice of dramatictechnique both in and out of role. They deal with dramatic metaphors, thesymbolic and the abstract. The drama teacher uses reflection andquestioning, constantly seeking to challenge pupils to consider theirresponses in greater depth, thus promoting higher order thinking anddeepening the drama.In Year 7 pupils are expected to meet and explore a range of drama techniqueswhich are developed and extended in Year 8. By Year 9 the emphasis isincreasingly on the choices they make for themselves when deciding how tointerpret texts, develop ideas and explore situations through performance. Whenpupils are creating, performing and responding to drama, they are activelydeveloping the skills and understanding that are central to progress in English.Drama helps pupils to recognise the layers of meaning that exist in texts andcontexts, to develop their knowledge of dramatic conventions and their sense ofaudience. They do so as participants in making and presenting drama, and bystepping back to appreciate and appraise their own contributions and those ofothers.Effective planning and evaluation of drama needs to take account of the threemodes of activity – making (or creating), performing and responding – which aredescribed below.MakingMaking (or creating) in drama involves working alone or with others to shape ideasinto actions and exploring the conventions, resources and techniques of drama withincreasing confidence. Creating drama includes discussion, research, questioning,thinking, sharing ideas and experimenting with different techniques to deepen theunderstanding of texts and situations. Creativity in drama is imaginative, linguisticand physical. The realisation of ideas and the interpretation of texts involve theselective use of verbal and visual expression to create and convey meanings in anactive way.PerformingWithin the context of educational drama ‘performing’ does not necessarily meantaking part in a public performance. Performing refers to the work of a class, groupor individual exploring, preparing and sharing ideas through enactment. Pupils may2

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKbe seen as performing when occupying the dual roles of actor and spectator bycommenting on dramatic moments to which they are contributing. Key aspects ofperformance are: sustaining a role or roles using particular performance styles; giving a coherent interpretation of a role; communicating with an audience using voice, gesture, movement, timing andspace; creating a dramatic atmosphere using appropriate lighting, sound and design; working cooperatively with others.(Adapted from Learning to Teach Drama, 11–18 by Andy Kempe andHelen Nicholson)RespondingResponding to drama involves pupils in reflecting on their own experience ofdrama. They also need to express their understanding of what the drama is sayingand how it is saying it through dramatic conventions and techniques. Responsescan be emotional or intellectual, individual or shared, spoken or written. During aplanned sequence of lessons pupils should be deepening their critical thinking bothin and outside the drama. Whether relating to the experience of performing or ofseeing a performance, pupils can respond to content, form, character, language,symbolism or impact, and can do so with increasingly analytical insight, usingappropriate subject-specific terminology.3

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKEnglish and dramaDrama can make a distinct contribution to raising standards in English through: creating contexts for speaking and listening; providing purpose and focus for critical reading, interpretation and analysis; using writing to explore and evaluate dramatic activities.Central to this process are enactment and engagement through the establishmentof fictional environments with clear boundaries between the real and the imagined.Effective teacher intervention promotes progress: within the drama, in creating a framework of dramatic understanding; between the imaginary worlds of drama and the real world of the pupil; beyond the drama in other areas of the curriculum.Drama places distinctive demands upon the critical thinking and emotionalengagement of participants. Planned drama approaches can develop pupils’ criticalanalysis and creativity and move them from superficial responses to moresophisticated critical thinking.When pupils are emotionally engaged and are analysing both in and out of role,they are actively developing the skills and understanding which are central toprogress in English. They experience for themselves the construction andinterpretation of texts, characters, roles, tensions and dilemmas. They are also ableto step outside a text or situation to gain an additional analytical perspective.Through this process they explore the layers of meaning that exist in texts and themethods and purposes of writers. They also deepen their understanding ofaudience and of the different structures and conventions that relate to these areas.Developing the ability to participate and observe means pupils are increasinglycapable of transferring their analytical skills to a new situation, text or dilemma.Speaking and listeningDrama is a powerful means and an appropriate context for developing speakingand listening. By being put in formal and informal situations that are outside theireveryday experience, by taking a variety of roles and by asking and responding toquestions, pupils can employ and evaluate discourses and language registers theywould not normally use. Emotional and imaginative engagement underpins theways pupils seek and create meanings.ReadingDrama, like English, involves pupils in exploring texts and meanings. By readingand responding to texts in depth, through discussing, developing and analysingalternative interpretations, pupils consider how ideas, values and relationships areconveyed. Pupils are encouraged to read for deeper meaning and to developcritical understanding through creating, developing and sustaining roles, and thepractical exploration of how gesture, sound, language, direction and structure affectthe audience’s responses. Scripts become not books, but plans for performanceswhere the contribution of a director or actor can have a profound effect onmeaning. Drama teaching which includes as its subject matter not only scripts, butalso a variety of literary, non-literary and media texts, can help pupils to understandnarrative structures, styles and writers’ techniques as well as content, issues andideas.4

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKWritingWriting in drama includes, but is not confined to, writing playscripts. Becausedrama provides a wide range of imagined contexts and captures pupils’imaginations it provides an excellent stimulus for a range of writing. Drama’sunique capacity to provide contexts for writing means that notions of audience andpurpose are made explicit for pupils through activities such as placing the writer inthe text: pupils hold their positions in a drama and other pupils decide where theymight physically place the author. Reviews, letters, diaries, reports, scripts, notices,persuasive writing, journalism, poems and narratives can feature in or develop fromdrama. Increasingly drama also involves critical and analytical writing aboutprocess and performance.Planning with Framework objectivesThe teaching objectives for drama in the English Framework are designed toenable teachers to: plan coherent sequences of work, which build specific objectives into blocks ofwork, linked as appropriate with objectives from elsewhere in the EnglishFramework; or plan short units of work which are focused directly on the drama objectives.This objectives bank addresses each objective in the English Frameworkseparately, but this is not meant to imply that they should be taught separately:teachers would normally plan sequences of lessons which draw on the objectivesand conventions to explore particular texts or situations, as in the example of theunit of work on Holes by Louis Sachar (page 80) or in the QCA exemplarsequences of lessons: ‘Giving a voice: drama and speaking and listening resourcesfor Key Stage 3’ (www.qca.org.uk).5

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKEffective teachingSome of the features of effective drama teaching are outlined below. Teaching needs to be based around objectives and draw on a repertoire ofconventions and techniques in relation to a text or situation. It is not enough forteachers to arrange situations and trust that this will encourage pupils todevelop their skills in drama. Pupils need focused and effective teaching toenable them to develop through encountering, investigating, experimentingwith and reflecting on a wide range of drama experiences. The teacher has a key role with the whole class in drawing explicit attention tothe features and conventions of drama, and in modelling them (sometimes asteacher-in-role) in relation to an issue or text. Teachers also need to establishhigh expectations for behaviour and achievement. At times the teacher may need to do guided work with a selected group ofpupils while others work independently of the teacher. Pupils need to be engaged in discussions about purposes, outcomes andapproaches. This means identifying the ground rules that need to operate andthe criteria for success. Reflection during and after the event is important. Pupils need help to standback during their dramatic involvement to deepen their understanding of anauthor’s intentions and of the layers of meaning in a text. They also need toevaluate positive features, articulate their choice and use of conventions andconsider how to improve. It will sometimes be effective for the teacher to operate within the fictionalworld, and to work in role with the whole class. This enables the teacher tomodel appropriate language registers and press pupils to participate, creatingspace for individuals to respond reflectively during the process as well as atthe end.Structuring lessonsLesson structures in drama need to be focused but flexible. No one structure will fitevery lesson or every class: sequences of lessons should be planned in relation toobjectives, taking into account the needs of the pupils. Exemplar sequences oflessons are available via QCA’s website: ‘Giving a voice: drama and speaking andlistening resources for Key Stage 3’ (www.qca.org.uk).Lessons need to: have clear focus and structure so that pupils are clear about what is to belearned and how, and how it fits with what they know already; actively engage pupils in their learning so that they make their own meaningfrom it; develop pupils’ learning skills and promote independent learning; use assessment for learning which encourages reflection, ensuresreinforcement and leads to setting targets for future learning; incorporate high expectations of the effort that pupils can make and what theycan achieve.6

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKOne possible teaching sequence for working with groups or classes could look likethis:Locate the lesson or sequence of lessons in the context of: the scheme of work pupils’ prior knowledge pupils’ preferred learning stylesIdentify clearly the essential objective(s) for pupils in terms of: their knowledge, understanding, attitude and skills their attitudes and personal developmentStructure the lesson as a series of episodes by: separating the learning into distinct stages or stepsDecide how to teach each episode, then choose: the best pedagogic approach the most appropriate teaching and learning strategies the most effective organisation for each episodeEnsure coherence by providing: a stimulating start to the lesson transition between episodes which recapitulate and launch new episodes a final plenary that reviews learningThe model below is not a set lesson structure, but a map of the related elementsthat could feature within a sequence of lessons.Planning fordramaO bjectivesSettinga contextDevelopingrolesDevelopinga contextExploringtensionSpeakingDevelopinga narrativeReflecting,analysingandevaluatingand listeningDevelopingcriticalanalysisQuestioningout of thedramaQuestioningin thedramangW ritiingdaRe7

KEY STAGE 3 NATIONAL STRATEGY DRAMA OBJECTIVES BANKAssessmentAssessment should be a planned part of every lesson, and self-assessment shouldbe part of every pupil’s normal pattern of working in drama. For each objective inthis bank there are specific suggestions for assessment in relation to performancecriteria. When assessing performance, teachers could consider the followingfactors. How far pupils can: work effectively, responsibly and responsively as members of a group; develop their critical thinking about texts, issues and situations through work inrole; translate initial ideas and responses into drama, which might include a tableau,an improvisation or a script; use specialist vocabulary confidently and sustain discussion on a text; use drama techniques and conventions to interpret texts and make meanings; select and shape material into a coherent and effective piece which revealsdeepening understanding of a text or situation; use voice, gesture and movement to convey meaning to an audience, makingdisciplined use of the conventions of performance; analyse and account for their responses to texts; develop their reading skills through engaging critically with the techniques andintentions of writers and directors; develop their writing skills through exploring and scripting plays and a varietyof other texts; transfer and apply to other curriculum areas the skills and understandingdeveloped through drama; evaluate their own progress and set personal targets for development.The methods of assessment can include: observation of individuals in the early stages of group work and subsequentlyin rehearsals or presentation; the use of evidence from pupils’ working notebooks and other visual andwritten records made during the process of moving from ideas to presentation; an assessment of the dramatic effectiveness of a presentation which isperformed as an assessment opportun

for teachers of drama within English as well as teachers of drama as a separate subject. It contains a bank of teaching ideas to help the teaching of drama objectives, and of other Framework objectives which can be addressed through drama at Key Stage 3. The four centr

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