CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering:The Past, Present, and FutureWhat is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The PastFrom the pyramids of Egypt to the exploration of space, civilengineers have always faced the challenges of the future advancing civilization and building our quality of lifeWhat is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The Past Engineering has developed from observations of the waysnatural and constructed systems react and from thedevelopment of empirical equations that provide bases fordesign. Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. In fact, engineering was once divided into only two fields -military and civil. Civil engineering is still an umbrella field comprised ofmany related specialties.What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The Present In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field ofengineering that deals with the planning, construction, andmaintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as theyare related to earth, water, or civilization and theirprocesses. Most civil engineering today deals with infrastructure: suchas; power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures,water supply, irrigation, environment, sewer, flood controland traffic.What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The PresentThe first self-proclaimed civil engineerwas John Smeaton (1724 - 1792).1/17What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The Present In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers wasfounded in London and received a Royal Charter in1828, formally recognizing civil engineering as aprofession. The first degrees in Civil Engineering in the United States wasawarded to William Clement, Jacob Eddy, Edward Suffernand Amos Westcott by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835. The first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted byCornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?2/17What is Civil Engineering?MemFix 4 – Replacement of four bridges along I-240Civil Engineering: The Present In essence, civil engineering may be regarded as theprofession that makes the world a more agreeable placein which to live. Civil engineering is about community service,development, and .org/wiki/Civil engineeringhttps://youtu.be/k5wL11WLJ5YWhat is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Falkirk Wheel – in town of Falkirk in central ScotlandFalkirk Wheel – in town of Falkirk in central Scotlandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkirk Wheelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkirk WheelWhat is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Falkirk Wheel – in town of Falkirk in central ScotlandFalkirk Wheel – in town of Falkirk in central Scotlandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkirk Wheelhttps://youtu.be/ucg1O-5jsnM
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The Future Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space,energy, the environment, and our ability to interact withand compete in the global economy. As the technology revolution expands, as the world'spopulation increases, and as environmental concernsmount, your skills will be needed. Whatever area you choose, design, construction,research, teaching, or management, civil engineeringoffers you a wide range of career choices.What is Civil Engineering?3/17What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: The Future ASCE estimates that 1 trillion is needed in 2020 to bringthe nation's infrastructure to a good condition. Establishing a long-term development and maintenanceplan must become a national priority. But in the short term, small steps can be taken by theCongress, as well as state legislatures and localcommunities, to improve our nation's failing infrastructure. See ASCE website: http://www.infrastructurereportcard.orgWhat is Civil Engineering?The I-35W Mississippi River bridge was an eight-lane, 1,907 feet (581 m) steeltruss bridge that carried Interstate 35W across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis,Minnesota, United States.What is Civil Engineering?At 6:05 p.m. CDT on Wednesday, August 1, 2007, with rush hour bridge trafficmoving slowly through the limited number of lanes, the central span of the bridgesuddenly gave way, followed by the adjoining spans.What is Civil Engineering?The primary cause was the under-sized gusset plates, at 0.5 inches (13 mm) thick.Contributing to that design or construction error was the fact that 2 inches (51 mm) ofconcrete were added to the road surface over the years, increasing the dead load by20%.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?The primary cause was the under-sized gusset plates, at 0.5 inches (13 mm) thick.Contributing to that design or construction error was the fact that 2 inches (51 mm) ofconcrete were added to the road surface over the years, increasing the dead load by20%.What is Civil Engineering?Old photos of the Interstate 35W bridge show that two steel connecting plates wereslightly bent as early as 2003 - four years before the span collapsed into theMississippi River, killing 13 people.What is Civil Engineering?What about Tennessee’s infrastructure?4/17What is Civil Engineering?What about Tennessee’s infrastructure? 38% of Tennessee's major urban roads are congested. 17% of Tennessee's bridges are structurally deficient orfunctionally obsolete. From 1990 to 2013, annual vehicle miles of travel in Tennesseeincreased by 52%, from 46.7 billion miles to 71.1 billion miles.An increase of another 30% is expected by 2030. Drivers in the Memphis area lose 43 hours annually due tocongestion with an estimated cost to commuters of 1,821 perperson per year in excess fuel and lost time.Tennessee's drinking water infrastructure need is 2.7 billionover the next 20 years. Tennessee has 2.6 billion in wastewater infrastructure needs. Tennessee’s gas tax of 21.4 cents per gallon has not reallychanged since 1989. Tennessee generates around 900 pounds of solid waste perhousehold yearly. Tennessee recycles 26.4% of the state's solid waste.What is Civil Engineering?Civil Engineering: Technical Specialties Construction EngineeringEnvironmental EngineeringGeotechnical EngineeringStructural EngineeringTransportation EngineeringWater ResourcesUrban PlanningWhat is Civil Engineering?Construction Engineering The construction phase of a projectrepresents the first tangible resultof a design. Using your technical and management skills, you willhelp turn designs into reality -- on time and withinbudget. You will apply your knowledge of constructionmethods and equipment, along with principles offinancing, planning, and managing, to turn thedesigns of other engineers into successful facilities.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Environmental Engineering5/17What is Civil Engineering?Geotechnical Engineering Environmental engineers translate physical,chemical, and biological processes intosystems to remove pollutants from water,reduce non-hazardous solid waste volumes,eliminate contaminants from the air, anddevelop groundwater supplies. Almost all of the facilities that make up ourinfrastructure are in, on, or with earthmaterials, and geotechnical engineering isthe discipline that deals with applications oftechnology to solve these problems. In this field, you might be called upon to resolveproblems of providing safe drinking water, cleaning upsites contaminated with hazardous materials,cleaning up and preventing air pollution, treatingwastewater, and managing solid wastes. Examples of facilities in the earth are tunnels, deepfoundations, and pipelines. Highway pavements andmany buildings are supported on the earth.What is Civil Engineering?Structural Engineering As a structural engineer, you will facethe challenge of analyzing and designingstructures to ensure that they safelyperform their purpose. They must support their own weight and resistdynamic environmental loads such as hurricanes,earthquakes, blizzards, and floods. Stadiums, arenas, skyscrapers, offshore oilstructures, space platforms, amusement park rides,bridges, office buildings, and homes are a few of themany types of projects in which structural engineersare involved.What is Civil Engineering?Water Resources Water is essential to our lives, and asa water resources engineer, you willdeal with issues concerning thequality and quantity of water. You will work to prevent floods, to supply water forcities, industry and irrigation, to treat wastewater, toprotect beaches, or to manage and redirect rivers.What is Civil Engineering?Transportation Engineering Because the quality of a community is directlyrelated to the quality of its transportationsystem, your function as a transportationengineer will be to move people, goods, andmaterials safely and efficiently. You will design, construct, and maintain all types offacilities, including highways, railroads, airfields, andports.What is Civil Engineering?Urban Planning As a professional in this area, you will beconcerned with the full development of acommunity. Analyzing a variety of information will help youcoordinate projects, such as projecting streetpatterns, identifying park and recreation areas, anddetermining areas for industrial and residentialgrowth.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?What is Civil Engineering?Any Questions?What is Civil Engineering?ASCE's members ranked the 10 greatest civilengineering achievements as:188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.9.10.Airport Design Before 1945, any level field was looked upon as aviable landing strip for airplanes, and it was generallybelieved that the presence of a gas pump made anairport ready for commercial traffic.6/17Airport design and developmentDamsInterstate highwayLong-span bridgesRail transportationSanitary landfills/solid waste disposalSkyscrapersWastewater treatmentWater supply and distributionWater transportationAirport DesignKansai International AirportLocated in Osaka Bay, approximately three miles off shore,Kansai International Airport features an extensive variety ofmodern amenities. After World War II, the advent of integrated,engineered systems of paved landing surfaces, floodlit runways, and terminal complexes made passengerconvenience, airline efficiency, economy inconstruction and operational safety the cornerstonesfor the rehabilitation and development of airportsworldwide.Airport DesignKansai International AirportBecause of its location off shore, it is the only airport in theworld that is able to function on a 24-hour basis withoutviolating any noise regulations.Airport DesignKansai International AirportThe airport serves 24 cities in Japan with 69 departures dailyand 71 cities in 30 other countries with 660 departures.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?Airport DesignKansai International AirportStart of the airport island seawallconstruction (January 1987)7/17Airport DesignKansai International AirportCompletion of the airport island seawall(June 1989)Closeup of the artificial islandSatellite photo of KansaiAirport in Osaka BayCompletion of the Passenger TerminalBuilding (June 1994)Completion of reclamation work on theairport island (December 1991)Airport DesignKansai International AirportDams During the 20th century, harnessing water by building dams wasrecognized as a way to meet an unprecedented demand for low-cost,widely available energy sources to aid in the production of goods andservices for the consuming public. Dams continue to play an integral role in our daily lives, providing arange of benefits including flood control, hydroelectric power, andwater for irrigation, recreation, and fish and wildlife enhancements. Dams spur industrial growth and provide navigation routes indeveloping nations. As the world's population increases and the needfor food multiplies, it is likely, even in the face of increasedenvironmental sensitivity, which dams will continue to be built duringthe 21st century.DamsHoover Dam The building of the Hoover Dam provided something positive for the UnitedStates to focus on during the years of the Great Depression.DamsHoover Dam Completed in 1935, the 726-foot-high structure was the highest dam inthe world, by 300 feet, at the time of construction. It is still the highestconcrete dam in the Western Hemisphere.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?DamsHoover Dam8/17DamsHoover Dam Today, it continues to regulate theflow of the Colorado River andprovides a range of benefits,including electricity for more than1.3 million people and irrigation for1.5 million acres of land in theUnited States and Mexico.DamsThree Gorges Dam The building of the Three Gorges Dam is modern China's mostambitious construction project, and one of the most controversialin the world. It is also China's largest construction project sincethe building of the Grand Canal in the 10th century. From start to finish, the project will cost up to 29 billion.DamsThree Gorges DamThe project used 27,200,000 m3 (35,600,000 yd3) of concrete,463,000 tons of steel, enough to build 63 Eiffel Towers, and movedabout 102,600,000 m3(1.342x108 yd3) of earth.DamsThree Gorges Dam The dam wall is made of concrete and is about 2,309 meters(7,575 ft) long, and 101 meters (331 ft) high. The wall is 115 meters (377.3 ft) thick on the bottom and40 meters (131.2 ft) thick on top.DamsThree Gorges Dam
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?Interstate Highway System The Interstate Highway System, first established asa national priority by President Dwight D.Eisenhower in the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The highway system revolutionized travel,economies and the daily standard of living in NorthAmerica by providing an efficient means of direct,high-speed transportation for individuals andbusinesses in the United States, Canada andMexico.9/17Interstate Highway System The system carries nearly 25% of all vehicle miles in the U.S.and is credited with saving more than 187,000 lives andpreventing 12 million injuries. It is estimated that the InterstateHighway System saved 6 for every 1 spent on itsconstruction. The 48,181-mile system (as of 2016), built on a North-South/EastWest grid, has hundreds of bridges, overpasses, interchanges andthousands of miles of pavement. The Interstate Highway System is both the largest highway systemin the world and the largest public works project in history.Interstate Highway SystemInterstate Highway SystemMemphisLong-Span Bridges Bridges of increasing size and span have created phenomenalchanges in the social patterns and economic conditions of areas byeffectively eliminating water barriers between communities. They open new routes of communication between disintegrated andisolated communities, provide safe and efficient access to work,schools and recreation for people, and spur economic growth byfacilitating trade within and between regions. From the late 19th century through the early 20th century the use ofsteel enabled the production of increasingly longer, continuous mainspan traversing large, deep bodies of water.Long-Span BridgesGolden Gate BridgeOne of the most recognized landmarks in the world, the Golden GateBridge, connects geographically isolated areas of California to the north, inMarin and Sonoma counties, with San Francisco.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?Long-Span BridgesGolden Gate Bridge10/17Long-Span BridgesGolden Gate BridgeWhen the bridge opened in 1937, with a main suspension span lengthof 4,200 feet, it was the longest in the world.Long-Span BridgesAkashi Kaikyo BridgeThe engineering obstacles poised by the mile-wide, turbulent GoldenGate Strait led engineers to devise a bridge that required four years tobuild, 83,000 tons of steel, 389,000 cubic yards of concrete, andenough cable to encircle the earth three times.Long-Span BridgesAkashi Kaikyo BridgeThe Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, linking the islands of Honshu and Shikoku.The bridge's center section stretches a staggering 6,529 feet. To keepthe structure stable, engineers have added pendulum-like devices onthe towers to keep them from swaying and a stabilizing fin beneath thecenter deck to resist typhoon-strength winds.The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, linking the islands of Honshu and Shikoku.The bridge's center section stretches a staggering 6,529 feet. To keepthe structure stable, engineers have added pendulum-like devices onthe towers to keep them from swaying and a stabilizing fin beneath thecenter deck to resist typhoon-strength winds.Rail TransportationRail Transportation Rail transportation was the first efficient cross-countrymode of transportation for both passengers and cargo. Rail remains a major method of transporting goodsthroughout the nation, and in many developed nations isthe primary mode of passenger travel. Rail transportation generated hundreds of spin-offindustries, ranging from rail cars and signal equipment; totoy trains, and contributed to the growth and dominanceof the U.S. iron and steel industries in the early part of thecentury.Eurotunnel Rail SystemThe Eurotunnel Rail System fulfilled a centuries-old dream to linkBritain and the rest of Europe. More than a tunnel, it rollsinfrastructure and immense machinery into an underwater tunnelsystem of unprecedented ambition.
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?Rail TransportationEurotunnel Rail SystemThe Eurotunnel Rail System fulfilled a centuries-old dream to linkBritain and the rest of Europe. More than a tunnel, it rollsinfrastructure and immense machinery into an underwater tunnelsystem of unprecedented ambition.11/17Rail TransportationEurotunnel Rail System Three five-feet-thick concretetubes plunge into the earth atCoquelles, France, and burrowthrough the chalky basementof the English Channel, reemerging at Folkstone, behindthe white cliffs of Dover. The broadest trains ever built (14 feet wide double deckers) travelthrough the tunnels at 100 mph. Passengers board in automobilesand buses, not on foot.Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposal As American society changed from an agrarian culture to anindustrialized nation, people moved to cities for work, in hopes ofimproving their quality of life.Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalAmericans generate trash at an astonishing rate of about 4.5 pounds perday per person, which translates to over 260 million tons per year! The subsequent increase in urban population density had a greatimpact on garbage disposal practices. By 1946, the responsibility for garbage disposal shifted fromscavengers to scientifically minded civil engineers whoseexperimentation with various ways to properly dispose of waste whichled to the widespread use of sanitary landfills.Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalSanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalAmericans generate trash at an astonishing rate of about 4.5 pounds perday per person, which translates to over 260 million tons per year!Americans generate trash at an astonishing rate of about 4.5 pounds perday per person, which translates to over 260 million tons per year!
CIVL 1101What is Civil Engineering?Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalAmericans generate trash at an astonishing rate of about 4.5 pounds perday per person, which translates to over 260 million tons per year!Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalA landfill's major purpose and one of its biggest challenges is to containthe trash so that the trash doesn't cause problems in the environment.The bottom liner prevents the trash from coming in contact with theoutside soil, particularly the groundwaterSanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalIt consists of four mounds which range in height from 90 toapproximately 225 feet and hold about 150 million tons of solid waste.The archaeologist Martin Jones characterizes it as "among the largestman-made structures in the history of the world."12/17Sanitary Landfills/Solid WasteDisposalSome trash gets recycled or recovered and some is burned,but the majority is buried in landfills.Sanitary Landfills/
What is Civil Engineering? Civil Engineering: The Present The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton (1724 -1792). What is Civil Engineering? Civil Engineering: The Present In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London and received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognizing civil engineering as a profession.File Size: 2MBPage Count: 17Explore furtherIntroduction to Civil Engineeringwebpages.uncc.edu[PDF] Civil Engineering Books Huge Collection (Subject .learnengineering.inEngineering Books Pdfwww.engineeringbookspdf.comRecommended to you b
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The City of Memphis poverty rate for non-Hispanic Blacks is 33.8% returning to the same high level seen in 2016. At the same time, the poverty rate for non-Hispanic Whites in the city of Memphis has continued to decreased to 11.8%. In the Memphis Statistical Metropolitan Area (MSA), which includes parts of
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Investigating Chemistry through Inquiry 11 - 1 S PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY FOR . Beer’s Law Investigations . Guided Inquiry Version . The primary objective of this Preliminary Activity is to determine the concentration of an unknown copper (II) sulfate solution. You will use a Colorimeter (a side view is shown in Figure 1). In this device, red light from the LED light source will pass through the .