Integrated Insulation System For Automotive Cryogenic .

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Integrated Insulation System forAutomotive Cryogenic Storage TanksTeam: Aspen Aerogels (Shannon White)Energy Florida (Mike Aller, Tim Franta)Hexagon Lincoln (Norm Newhouse, John Eihusen, Duane Byerly)IBT (Al Sorkin)NASA/KSC (James Fesmire, Adam Swanger)SRNL (Don Anton, David Tamburello)VENCORE Services and Solutions (Barry Meneghelli)DOE Annual Merit Review, June 9, 2017Project ID:ST141This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information

RelevanceOverviewTimelineBarriersBudget Project Start Date: 10/01/16A.System Weight and Volume Total Project Budget: 1.1m Project End Date: 09/30/19 *D.Durability/Operability % Spent: 15 (as of 3/31/17)* Project continuation and directiondetermined by DOEE.Materials of Construction DOE Share: 909,814F.Balance of Plant components Cost Share: 235,878J.Thermal ManagementN.Hydrogen VentingO.Hydrogen Boil-offPartners2

RelevanceProject Objectives OVERALL:Development of an integrated subscale insulation systemprototype demonstrating the DOE heat leak targets for a cryogenic hydrogenstorage tank for commercially produced fuel cell powered automobiles. CURRENT PROJECT YEAR:oDevelop concepts for an integrated insulation systemoDown-select system concepts based on overall system requirementsoValidate system concepts through component testingoModel complete system to determine if insulation system approach isfeasible to meeting the DOE targets3

CollaborationsProject PartnersProject Lead izationand MarketingTanksThermal Modeling4

ApproachFY17-FY18 Milestones FY17ooooComplete preliminary design for full-scale storage system In-ProgressDown-select potential concept technologies In-ProgressComplete initial component testingUpdate system concept based on costs FY18oooComplete sub-scale concept modeling and testingDown-select sub-scale concept technologyComplete sub-scale prototype design GO/NO-GO (FY17)oEvaluate the existing thermal model under the following constraints: Full-scale (100 L; utilizing both 3:1 and 6:1 l/d tank geometries) hydrogen storage system Insulation system capable of achieving a heat leak 7W under a reduced vacuum of 0.1 torr Insulation thickness of 2.5 cm is crucial. ( 2.5 CM would eliminate benefits of increasedhydrogen density from going to cold/cryo from a system volumetric perspective) Measured cold boundary temperature of 80K (modeled at 40K); ambient temperature of 300K;300 bar internal tank pressure that vents at 350 bar.oEnsure that the system can achieve the 2020 DOE Dormancy Targets 7 days: Dormancy target time (minimum time until first release of hydrogen from initial 95%usable capacity) 10%: Boil-off loss target (max reduction in stored hydrogen from initial 95% usable capacityafter 30 days)5

ApproachIntegrated Tank: Elements of Heat TransmissionPenetrationsFFill Line [End-A] VEvacuation/Service [End-B]AAuxiliary / Instrumentation Structural SupportsSupport, End-A SASupport, End-B SBSupport, Side (Cylinder) SCFacing SurfacesReflective surface one, Outer of Inner Vessel (zero for e 0) R1Reflective surface two, Inner of Outer Jacket (zero for e 0) R2Thermal InsulationIntegrated insulation systemInsulation Zone 1A, End-A support area Z1Amaterials are chosen to minimizeInsulation Zone 1B, End-B support area Z1Bheat loss through each element and,Insulation Zone 2A, End-A support area Z2Athus, minimize the full heat load.Insulation Zone 2A, End-B support area Z2BInsulation Zone 3, Side (Cylinder) Z3Insulation Quality Factor (IQF) [degradation; one for each zone]: Q1A, Q1B, Q2A, Q2B, Q36

ApproachInsulation Standards Development Cryogenic insulation standards for materials practices and test methods have beendeveloped that promote global energy efficiency Under ASTM International’s Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation, two new standardsare based on CryoTestLab technology and data:oASTM C1774 - Standard Guide for Thermal Performance Testing of CryogenicInsulation SystemsoASTM C740 – Standard Guide for Evacuated Reflective Insulation in CryogenicService Cryostat Test Instruments selected for iCAT development:oCryostat-100, Cylindrical – Absolute, Primary Thermal Data for InsulationMaterials/Systems, 1-m tall by 0.2-m diameter test specimensoCryostat-200, Cylindrical – Comparative, Prototype Tank Test, 0.5-m tall by0.2-m diameteroCryostat-500, Flat Plate – Absolute, Thermal Data for Insulation Materials, up to25-mm thickness by 200-mm diameter disk specimensoMacroflash (Cup Cryostat), Flat Plate – Comparative, Quick Thermal Data forStructural or Insulation Materials, up to 10-mm thickness by 76-mm diameter diskspecimensStandards are needed to achieve the goals of the project7

ApproachCryostat Testing of Thermal Insulation SystemsCryostat-500 (two units) and newVacuum Stability test apparatus (center)Cryostat-100 and Cryostat-500 provide: Full range vacuum (Cold Vacuum Pressure) Repeatable testing under representative-use conditions Direct energy rate measurement by boiloff calorimetry Testing of non-homogenous, non-isotropic materials Reference ASTM C1774, Annex A1 and Annex A3Cryostat-100 Cylindrical InsulationTest Apparatus (Absolute)8

ApproachH2 System Model DiagramFull-scale cryo-compressed H2 storage system: 77 K, 300 bar (vent at 350 bar) Type 3 Aluminum-Carbon Fiber Tank 23-mm thick insulation with supports 2-mm outer aluminum shell Full Balance of Plant9

ApproachH2 System Model Analysis Analysis ResultsoooHydrogen Storage System Design Pressure vessel, insulation system, and balance of plantHeat load (Q) for both the total hydrogen storage system and forindividual components/sections of the storage systemHeat flux (q) through both the total hydrogen storage system and theindividual components/section of the storage system Inputs and OptionsoooPressure vessel design, including all materials and dimensionsHydrogen storage method Capability to design and test Cold / Cryo-compressed Cryo AdsorbentsInsulation system Location and types of support material Insulation materials, thickness, and location Number and type of penetrations combinations of hydrogenstorage methods andinsulation systems.Models can calculate itemssuch as volumetric/gravimetriccapacity for comparisonagainst DOE targets10

Accomplishments and ProgressCryostat Thermal Insulation Test Data Mining Preliminary Screening Criteria of the Cryogenics Test Laboratory datalibraries containing test results:oke 2 mW/m-K at 100 millitorr Cold Vapor Pressure (CVP); any thicknessup to 23-mmoq 20 W/m2 at 100 millitorr CVP; based on approx. 23-mm thicknessoNote: Integrated Insulation System for Cryogenic Automotive Tanks (iCAT)target thickness is 23-mm (max. annular space thickness) To date, 20% of over 700 materials/systems have been analyzed (fromover 19 years of data acquisition) iCAT target:oQ 7 W for 100-liter tank (for 300 K / 78 K boundary temperatures)oks 0.5 mW/m-K (approx. for total system including all elements)oq 5 W/m2 (approx. for 3:1 tank with 23-mm annular space thickness)KSC’s Cryogenics Test Laboratory has 19 years of insulation testdata available to screen possible insulation and support materials.11

Accomplishments and ProgressSelected Cryostat Data: Effective Thermal Conductivity (ke)Project Goal:Create a moderatevacuum insulationsystem with loweffective thermalconductivity(shaded region).12

Accomplishments and ProgressSelected Cryostat Data: Insulation System Heat Flux (q)Project Goal:Create a moderatevacuum insulationsystem with a lowsystem-level heatflux (shaded region).13

Accomplishments and ProgressVacuum Stability Testing Proposed standardized methodology for vacuum stabilitytesting as part of iCAT system developmentooooooMulti-purpose, thermal-vacuum apparatus for testing disk typetest specimens or small tanks suspended within vacuum canEvacuate to baseline vacuum 10-6 torr level with bakeoutVacuum decay over 72 hours at stable 303 K environmentDetermine pressure rate of rise; analyze for vacuum stabilityCan also run ASTM E595 outgassing data at 373 KSide view schematic of Vacuum Stability apparatus at right Aspen Aerogel’s five blankets test screening for down-select(Spaceloft-gray shown at right) Polyimide aerogel (X-aerogel) structural materials receivedfrom Flexcon/ Blueshift for preliminary thermal-structural andvacuum evaluationCapability to test the vacuum stability ofmaterial samples as well as small vesselsor prototype insulation systems.14

Accomplishments and ProgressInsulation Materials Aspen Aerogels is the world’s largest manufacturer of high performance aerogelinsulation with a worldwide installed base of more than 200MM ft2 (18MM m2). Aspen has delivered different types of commercially available ( 2.30/ft2 – 2.75/ft2) aerogel insulation blankets for preliminary thermal performance tests,as shown in the table below:TypeThickness(mm)Spaceloft SubseaSpaceloft GreyCryogel x201Pyrogel XTE5 or 105 or 105 or 105 or 10*ThermalConductivityASTM C177(mW/m-K)14.516.517.021NominalDensityASTM C167(g/cc)0.160.160.160.20MaximumUseTemperature( C)200200200650*Thermal conductivity at 37.5 C (100 F), 13.8 kPa (2 psi) compressive load, & atmospheric pressure.Examining several of Aspen Aerogels’ commercially availableaerogel insulation blankets, ensuring that the insulation systemsolution is realistic and commercially viable. 4 inch diameter15

Accomplishments and ProgressComposite Tanks Identified potential tanks for evaluation of vacuum retention/stability,permeation, outgassing, and structural-mechanical propertiesHexagon Lincoln is supplying several Type 3and Type 4 pressure vessel options.16

Accomplishments and ProgressComparison of Tank GeometryConstant 100-liter Volume Tank — Minimum Surface Area,3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1 (from left to right)Minimum surface areadoes not guaranteeApprox. Surface Areaminimum heat load.2TankABCDE(m )*L/DL (in)D 8*Surface area assumes wall thickness of 0.2-inchTotal1.0651.3151.4271.5131.599Elliptical / hemisphericalendcaps create far moredefects than cylindricalsections.17

Accomplishments and ProgressCryo-compressed hydrogen storage system design3:1 L-to-D, 100 L(77 K, 300 bar)Hydrogen storage system designs will be used to evaluate integrated insulationsystem designs within the heat load / heat flux calculation models.18

Remaining Challenges and Barriers Thermal vs structural demandso Composite pressure vessel outgassingo What is the best balance?Manufacturabilityo What minimum value(s) is/are acceptable and meet DOE targets?Real-World vs Lab environmento How do we minimize the outgassing?Vacuum level/qualityo How do we balance both of these mutually exclusive parameters?How to we ensure realistic manufacturing costs?Fill-tube heat leakoHow can we minimize the fill-tube heat leak while maintaining the working pressureneeded in Cryo-Compressed vessels?19

Future Work* Milestones (End of FY17 – FY18)oooooooComplete preliminary design for full-scale storage system In-ProgressDown-select potential concept technologies In-ProgressComplete initial component testingUpdate system concept based on costsComplete sub-scale concept modeling and testingDown-select sub-scale concept technologyComplete sub-scale prototype design Prototypeo Sub-scale componentso Modelo Insulation testing* Any proposed future work is subjectto change based on funding levels20

Technology Transfer Activities Aspen Aerogels – Future funding opportunities for scale-up of the thinaerogel insulation if a market need is identified that is large enough to justifyscale-up efforts.NASA.o LCI (Webb/Herman)*o X-aerogel (Flexcon/Blueshift)*21

Accomplishments and Progress:Responses to Previous Year Reviewers’ Comments This project was not reviewed last year.22

Summary The project objective to develop an Integrated Insulation System forCryogenic Automotive Tanks demonstrating the DOE 5-7 W heat leaktargets for a 100 L cryogenic hydrogen storage tank using a subscaleprototype insulation system. FY17 accomplishments to date:ooooCompleted preliminary design for a full-scale cryo-compressed hydrogenstorage system – Integrated insulation system preliminary design still inprogressInitiated data mining of 19 years of insulation test data for screeningpossible insulation and support materials.Received commercially available aerogel insulation blankets from AspenAerogel. Initiated evaluation for thermal performance.Received commercially available Type 3 and Type 4 pressure vessels fromHexagon Lincoln. Initiated evaluation for vacuum retention/stability,permeation, outgassing, and structural-mechanical properties.23

Special ThanksDepartment of Energy:Project Team: Jesse Adams, DOE Donald Anton, SRNL John Gangloff, DOE David Tamburello, SRNL Ned Stetson, DOE James Fesmire, NASA/KSC Chris Werth, DOE Adam Swanger, NASA/KSC Shannon White, Aspen Aerogels Duane Byerly, Hexagon Lincoln John Eihusen, Hexagon Lincoln Norm Newhouse, Hexagon Lincoln Mike Aller, Energy Florida Tim Franta, Energy Florida Al Sorkin, ITB, Inc24

Back-Up Slides25

Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage system design4:1 L-to-D, 100 L(77 K, 300 bar)26

Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage system design6:1 L-to-D, 100 L(77 K, 300 bar)27

Accomplishments and ProgressSelected Cryostat DataAnalyzing full vacuum range cryogenic thermal performance data in two ways: Heat Flux (q) [example shown, right] Effective thermal conductivity (ke) Moderate vacuum is between high vacuum and soft vacuum as shown (roughly between 3 and 300 millitorr) Fourteen thermal insulation systems/ materials selected for detailed analysis: Two baseline Six reference Six candidateCryostat-100 Data Series for K1 Glass Bubbles (right): One of 130 thermal insulation systems analyzed to date Baseline reference for tank heat leak analysis Insulation Test Instrument Cryostat-100 Data SummaryNASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, Florida USASee ASTM C740 and C1774 for detailed explanation of nomenclature and symbols.Revision Date: 4/4/17Effective length (Le) 0.5796 m; Cryostat-100 testing is performed per ASTM C1774, Annex A1.A102 Glass Bubbles K1 Baseline (25, 1, .532.166.01171691942132181" thick3M Type K1 hollow microspheresBlack 87.8013.819.922.925.125.7xdodiLmmmmmmmm25.40 217.90 167.10 1000ΔTP&HKhours21524Aenm20.348mg9981ρ bulkg/cc0.065zlayers/mm0.0428ρ bulklbm/ft34.06zlayers/in1

Accomplishments and ProgressSelected Cryostat DataInsulation Test Instrument Cryostat-100 Data SummaryNASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, Florida USASee ASTM C740 and C1774 for detailed explanation of nomenclature and symbols.Revision Date: 4/4/17Effective length (Le) 0.5796 m; Cryostat-100 testing is performed per ASTM C1774, Annex A1.A102 Glass Bubbles K1 Baseline (25, 1, 532.166.01171691942132181" thick3M Type K1 hollow microspheresBlack 787.8013.819.922.925.125.7xdodiLmmmmmmmm25.40 217.90 167.10 1000ΔTP&HKhours21524Aen2m0.348mg9981ρ bulkρ 3

Thin, Flexible Aerogel Physical Properties Thin, flexible aerogel composites underdevelopment at Aspen Aerogels. Designed to maintain low thermalconductivities at temperatures rangingfrom -150 to 200 C. MTM-01 was optimized for rmalConductivityASTM C177(mW/m-K)NominalDensityASTM C167(g/cc)Max. UseTemperature( C)OutgassingASTM E595TML 1%, VCM 0.1%MTC400.6 or 1.816.9*0.10 – 0.15 125MTM-01CGM-01CGP-022.5 - 122.5 - 122.5 -123.7**13.1*14.2*0.04 – 0.070.12 – 0.140.14 – 0.16200200125*Thermal conductivity at 0 C (32 F), 13.8 kPa (2 psi) compressive load, & atmospheric pressure.**Thermal conductivity at a mean temperature of 0 C (32 F) & vacuum 10-4 torr.30

ASTM C167 (g/cc) Maximum Use Temperature ( C) Spaceloft Subsea : 5 or 10 ; 14.5 : 0.16 : 200 : Spaceloft Grey ; 5 or 10 : 16.5 : 0.16 : 200 : Cryogel x201 : 5 or 10 ; 17.0 : 0.16 : 200 : Pyrogel XTE ; 5 or 10 : 21 : 0.20 : 650 *Thermal conductivity at 37.5 C (100 F), 13.8 kPa (2 psi) compressive load, & atmospheric pressure. Examining several of Aspen Aerogels’ commercially .

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