Building Climate-Smart VillagesFive approaches for helping farmers adapt to climate changeWatershedmanagementapproachClimate andcrop modellingapproachFuturisticmulti-modelapproachWe believe all people have a right to nutritious food and a better livelihood.ICRISAT works in agriculturalresearch for development acrossthe drylands of Africa and Asia,making farming profitablefor smallholder farmers whilereducing malnutrition andenvironmental degradation.ICRISAT-India(Headquarters)Patancheru, Telangana, Indiaicrisat@cgiar.orgICRISAT-India Liaison OfficeNew Delhi, IndiaICRISAT-NigeriaKano, Nigeriaicrisatfirstname.lastname@example.orgWe work across the entire valuechain from developing newvarieties to agri-business andlinking farmers to markets.ICRISAT-Mali(Regional hub WCA)Bamako, Maliicrisatemail@example.comICRISAT-Kenya(Regional hub ESA)Nairobi, Kenyaicrisatfirstname.lastname@example.orgICRISAT-NigerNiamey, Nigericrisatsc@cgiar.orgICRISAT-EthiopiaAddis Ababa, gwe, puto, ulawayo, Zimbabweicrisatzw@cgiar.orgICRISAT appreciates the support of CGIAR investors to help overcome poverty, malnutrition and environmental degradationin the harshest dryland regions of the world. See http://www.icrisat.org/icrisat-donors.htm for full list of donors.About ICRISAT: www.icrisat.org/ICRISAT/ICRISATICRISAT’s scientific information: OTOS/ICRISATIMAGES/ICRISATSMCO345 2016Meteorologicaladvisory and farmsystems approachAgricultural anddigital technologiesapproach
1. Watershed management approachRehabilitating ecosystems and building resilience of farming communitiesProject:Partners:Improving Rural Livelihoods throughIntegrated Watershed Management inBellary District in KarnatakaDoA, Government of Karnataka; WDD;UAS, Raichur; JSW Foundation; FarmersAssociation and ICRISATInvestor:Corporate SocialResponsibility activityJSW FoundationInvestor:This work is being undertaken as part of theAgMIP receives major supportfrom UK Aid, USDA, USAID,Bill & Melinda ny;ICRISAT3. Agricultural and digital technologies approachIntegrating climate information and eco-conservation technologiesProject:This work is being undertakenas part of theDeveloping Climate-Smartvillage models throughintegrated participatory actionresearch at site in West AfricaInvestor:CGIAR Research Program onClimate Change Agricultureand Food Security (CCAFS)Partners:INERA, INRAN, ISRA, IER, CSIR,AEDD, CONEDD, CNEDD, CIFOR,RPL West Africa, ICRISAT4. Met advisory and farm systems approachUsing climate information to build resilient agroecosystemsProject:Disseminating learning agendaon resilient-smart technologies toimprove the adaptive capacity ofsmallholder farmers in MoptiThis work is being undertakenas part of theInvestor:United States Agency for InternationalDevelopment (USAID), AcceleratedEconomic Growth Program (Add on),Global Climate Change (GCC)Partners:The World Agroforestry Centre(ICRAF), Aga Khan Foundation,World Vision Mali and ICRISAT5. Climate and crop modelling approachCropping advisories based on seasonal forecastsProject:Tailoring climateinformation for farmers’cropping decision-makingThis work is being undertakenas part of theInvestor:CGIAR Research Program onClimate Change Agricultureand Food Security (CCAFS)Editorial TeamM Jemima MargaretDistributionVinay Kumar RAnjana Anna JohnWeb EditionSmitha SitaramanM FareeduddinDesign TeamVengala Reddy ChMeeravali SKCustomizing adaptation packages to reduce vulnerability to climate changeRe-designing smallholder crop-livestock systems insemi-arid Southern Africa to address poverty andenhance resilience to climate change: stakeholderdriven integrated multi-modeling researchProductionVVS SatyanarayanaRamesh MNRWriter and visualizer of approaches2. Futuristic multi-model approachProject:CoordinationJoanna Kane-PotakaAmit ChakravartyPartners:Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Nandyalunder Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University,(ANGRAU) and ICRISAT.
Building Climate-Smart VillagesFive approaches for helping farmers adapt to climate change
Photo credits: ICRISATContents page: At the launch of the Joint Agro-Meteorological Services Incubator (JAMSI) in Mali participants areintroduced to an automatic weather station.Photo: Oumar Diop, AMAPAll dollars are in US .Citation: Building Climate-Smart Villages: Five approaches for helping farmers adapt to climate change. 2016.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru 502 324, Telangana, India: 28 pp. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 2016. All rights reserved. ICRISAT holds the copyrightto its publications. However, publications can be shared and duplicated for non-commercial purposes. Permission to make digital orhard copies of part(s) or all of any publication for non-commercial use is hereby granted as long as ICRISAT is properly cited. For anyclarification, please contact the Head, Publications at email@example.com. ICRISAT’s name and logo are registered trademarks and maynot be used without permission. No trademark, copyright or other notice may be altered or removed.
IntroductionTo assist farmers cope with climate change ICRISAT has been working on different approaches. The thrust,lessons learnt and the impact of five main models used for building climate-smart villages have beencompiled as part of a feature in the ICRISAT Annual Report.Working for over 40 years in the semi-arid tropics, with varied partners, ICRISAT has developed climateresilient dryland crops and a pool of climate-smart technologies that are used in all of its climate-smart projectinterventions.Put together, the approaches focused on equipping farmers to use climate-smart scientific interventionsand innovations, use climate information for cropping decisions, diversify livelihoods, link to markets, makeagriculture profitable, rehabilitate and restore their environment and influence policy makers.The five approaches highlighted for building climate smart villages include:The watershed management approach focuses on rehabilitating agroecosystems and deploys a pool ofclimate-smart agricultural practices developed by ICRISAT which have resulted in increasing crop yields andincomes of farmers. This approach which is gaining momentum in India is also favored by companies for theircorporate social responsibility activities. The success of this approach has led to efforts to replicate it in subSaharan Africa.Photo credits: ICRISATContents page: At the launch of the Joint Agro-Meteorological Services Incubator (JAMSI) in Mali participants areintroduced to an automatic weather station.Photo: Oumar Diop, AMAPThe futuristic multi-model approach uses computer simulated scenarios to give policy makers in Zimbabwethe climate scenario up to the year 2050. The result was renewed support for promoting dryland cereals –sorghum and millet and greater support for groundnut value chains. With the support of the Government ofZimbabwe, ICRISAT imported 20 tons of groundnut seed from Malawi which was distributed to farmers forseed multiplication and testing.The digital technologies approach has helped farmers from the Doggoh community in remote Ghana toadopt climate-smart agricultural practices and take up agroforestry in a big way. Farmers who had never useda phone are now using mobiles for climate information to make cropping decisions. About 90% of the farmersfind the weather alerts useful and 64% of them also make use of the helpline when needed.The metrological advisory and farm systems approach used in Mopti, Mali, demonstrated that climatechange adaptation is achievable by using eco-friendly methods and climate information. Close to 76,000women and 94,000 men representing all stakeholders in the value chain reported using climate information intheir decision making.All dollars are in US .Citation: Building Climate-Smart Villages: Five approaches for helping farmers adapt to climate change. 2016.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru 502 324, Telangana, India: 28 pp.The climate and crop modelling approach helped farmers who followed crop advisories in the droughtprone district of Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn 20% more than those who did not. The successof this pilot project has led to its expansion in other villages of Andhra Pradesh and the neighboring state ofKarnataka.To know more about our climate-smart village approaches read the ICRISAT Annual Report 2015.For the interactive version see http://annualreport2015.icrisat.org/Download PDF eport-2015.pdf International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 2016. All rights reserved. ICRISAT holds the copyrightto its publications. However, publications can be shared and duplicated for non-commercial purposes. Permission to make digital orhard copies of part(s) or all of any publication for non-commercial use is hereby granted as long as ICRISAT is properly cited. For anyclarification, please contact the Head, Publications at firstname.lastname@example.org. ICRISAT’s name and logo are registered trademarks and maynot be used without permission. No trademark, copyright or other notice may be altered or removed.
Building Climate-Smart VillagesICRISAT’s approachesDifferent approaches are beingundertaken to assist farmersadapt to Climate Change. Here aresome of the main models beingdeveloped by ICRISAT specificallyfor adaptation at village level.The detailed description of eachapproach is available at1A pool of climate-smart agriculturalpractices equips farmers in the miningbelt of Karnataka, India, to rehabilitatetheir ecosystem and earn up to12% - 27% better crop yields even inuncertain weather.Page 6http://annualreport2015.icrisat.org2Futuristic multi-modelapproach3Meteorological advisory andfarm systems approachIn 458 ha in Mopti, Mali, farmersdemonstrated that climate changeadaptation is achievable by usingeco-friendly methods and climateinformation for managing crops,livestock and forest cover. Page 204 Building Climate-Smart VillagesPhoto: ICRISATAgricultural and digitaltechnologies approach81% of farmers in a remote Ghanavillage rely on climate basedcropping advisories on mobiles foron-farm decisions. They also usenew agricultural technologies toincrease farm productivity. Page 1660% of farm households in Nkayi,Zimbabwe, will be exposed to greatervulnerability by 2050 due to climatechange. Computer simulated on-farmfuture scenarios and solutions servePage 10in guiding policy makers.4Watershed managementapproach5Climate and crop modellingapproachIn Kurnool, India, farmers heeding theseasonal cropping advisory derivedfrom climate and crop simulationmodeling earned 20% more thanothers who did not.Page 24Building Climate-Smart Villages 5
1Watershed management approachRehabilitating ecosystems and building resilienceof farming communitiesClimateEntry point activity:Watershed CommitteeformationCommunity meetingsto identify key interventionsand implement capacitybuilding Install weather stations,rain gauges and equipmentto collect data on rainfall,air and soil temperature,monitor runoff rate, soil lossin watershed, etc. Train farmers to monitorand use data and makecropping decisionsSoilEntry point activity:Soil Health Test Improve fertility:1. Reduce synthetic fertilizer Use prescribed dosage ofchemical fertilizers Green manure Vermicomposting Tank silt2. Moisture conservingtechniques Broad Bed Furrows Zero tillageCropsEntry point activity:Farmers interviewsIntroduce climate-smartcrops and varieties that aredrought and heat tolerant,disease resistant, earlymaturing, nutrient rich,improve soil health andaugment incomeWaterEntry point activity:Geospatial analysis Build structures to harvestrainwater and increasegroundwater levels Use techniques like dripirrigation for water useefficiencyNew livelihoods& Market linksEntry point activity:Self-Help Group formation Livelihoods diversificationthrough farm enterprises - sellingvegetables, fruits, vermicompost. Livestock/poultry/ fisheriesintegration AgroforestryMonitoring,Learning &EvaluationICRISAT records and analyzesclimate, crop data andincrease in farm incomesCROSSCUTTING ISSUES:6 Building Climate-Smart Villages Integrating gender Attracting youth Nutrition Communication PartnershipsBuilding Climate-Smart Villages 7
ICRISAT’s pool of climate-smart agricultural practices is equipping farming communities in themining belt of Karnataka, India, to restore their ecosystem and get better crop yields and incomeseven in uncertain weather.InterventionsClimateL to R: Farmers grow improved variety of groundnut; water conservation structure; automatic weather station;azolla as nutritional feed for cattle.Automatic weather stationBellaryKarnatakaRainfall measurement at watersheds quantifiesmoisture availability in different phenophases of cropgrowth. It helps farmers schedule irrigation. For thepurpose, data on rainfall, air and soil temperature,solar radiation and wind velocity and direction iscollected. Additional data is collected from raingauges.Hydrological gauging stationThe automatic runoff recorder and sediment samplermonitor the runoff rate and soil loss.Groundwater level monitoringThe challengeBellary district of Karnataka, India, is a hotspot ofwater scarcity, land degradation and poverty.Youngsters are employed in mining and relatedindustrial activities and agriculture is taken upby older men and women folk. Shortage of labor,falling returns due to low crop yields and priceconstraints have impacted agriculture negatively,resulting in food insecurity and poor nutritionof humans and cattle in the region.A temperature rise of 2 C or more,dry spells and unseasonal rains1 arepredicted for Bellary district for 20212050, escalating future farming risks.ICRISAT along with the Karnataka State Departmentof Agriculture, District Watershed DevelopmentDepartment, NGOs and the local community hasundertaken watershed interventions in four villagesnear JSW Steel plant covering 7,000 ha.1Structures for water management and harvestingsuch as check dams, field bunds, farm ponds,percolation tanks, bore-well recharge pits and wastewater treatment tanks were built. Desilting of tankswas also undertaken.2015 IMPACTTotal water impounded:Water harvesting structures constructed in thewatersheds resulted in:capacityProductivity enhancementAgroforestryReplacing missing micronutrients: Based on soilhealth tests, farmers applied the prescribed dosagesof fertilizers such as gypsum, zinc sulphate and boraxto their fields.To control dust from mining activities, avenueplantation was done and 18,100 horticulture plantswere planted.2015 IMPACT19%27%GroundnutMaizeSoil and Water3New livelihoods & Market linksRecommended fertilizer usage increases yieldsTrained farmers monitor groundwater levels atselected wells at fortnightly intervals.18,500mNet storageCrops45,000mGross water conserved3due to refilling in rainyseasonLivestock developmentAnimal health programs were taken up. Three farmersare growing azolla (aquatic fern) as nutritional feed. ABhoochetana experiment showed that feeding cowswith azolla increased milk yield and higher fat content.Income-generating activitiesActivities include vermicomposting, nurseryplantation and small enterprises that make use oflocally available produce.Improved cultivars: Participatory varietal trials wereconducted for the following Pearl millet (ICTP 8203) - 2 Pigeonpea (ICPL 87119) - 11 Groundnut (ICGV 91114) - 2 Foxtail millet (HMT100-1) - 2 Maize (Hytech Seed)Crosscutting IssuesIntegrating genderOn International Women’s Day, ICRISATDevelopment Center launched its Nutrikitchen Gardening program. About 115women received seed kits and learnt howto grow fruits and vegetables to meet nutrition needs.2015 IMPACTCommunicationIncremental yield due to improved cultivars asper participatory trialsIn partnership with Digital Green, an NGO,farmer-to-farmer videos were shown byFarmer Facilitators using battery-operated PicoProjectors.Watershed committee training programs, exposurevisits and field days were conducted for farmersand women Self-Help Groups and 3,500 farmersbenefitted.12%26%24%Pearl milletPigeonpeaGroundnut25%13%MaizeFoxtail milletBCCI‐K (2011). Karnataka Climate Change Action Plan; Final ReportProject:8 Building Climate-Smart VillagesImproving Rural Livelihoods throughIntegrated Watershed Management inBellary District in KarnatakaInvestor:JSW FoundationCorporate SocialResponsibility activityPartners:DoA, Government of Karnataka;WDD; UAS, Raichur; JSW Foundation;Farmers Association and ICRISAT
2Futuristic multi-model approach1Customizing adaptation packages to reduce vulnerability to climate changeLessonslearnedCustomize drastic adaptation packages tosuit farm types instead of blanket applicationof incremental technologiesfrom AgMIP Phase IAssess ClimateChange ti-modelframeworkMapnetworkof expertsDefinefuturescenariosRedesignfarm systemsDiscuss scenarioswith policy makersEvaluateimpactDesign drasticadaptationpackages2015 Climate data GCMs2CropsLivestockClimate Crop modelAPSIM3 & DSSAT4 Livestock modelLivSim Economic ntrast future biophysical and socioeconomic conditions based on optimisticand pessimistic assumptions.Follow up scenarios withExpert discussionExternal reviewStakeholder feedbackThis methodology was developed by AgMIP (Agricultural Model Intercomparison Project); 2Global Climate Models; 3Agricultural Production SystemssIMulator; 4Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer; 5Trade Off Analysis - Multi-Dimensional model110 Building Climate-Smart VillagesKey elements of packages for allfarm typesCrops havingmarket demandNew cropsDrought-tolerantcropsDual purposeforageFertilizermicrodosingLivestockAgMIP Impact Explorer Web-based tool for scenario and information visualization Supports information exchange among stakeholders andresearchers Guides decision making Documentation and feedback.Building Climate-Smart Villages 11
Using a multi-model framework for climate, crop, livestock and socio-economic simulation, customizedclimate change adaptation packages were developed for farmers in Nkayi, Zimbabwe. The computersimulated scenarios are helping policy makers to make crucial decisions to support farmers.InterventionsAssessing vulnerability to Climate ChangeZimbabweResearchers modeled scenarios for1. Incremental Change package2. Radical Change package for threefarm typesA multi-model framework with climate, crop,livestock and socio-economic components was usedto create scenarios and compare them.Climate data - GCMsHistorical (1980-2010) Mid century(2040-2070)NkayiThe challengeHit by two consecutive droughts, farmersin Zimbabwe are reeling under the impact ofunpredictable climate. The situation is muchworse in Nkayi district, one of the sites of thisproject. Statistics show that this district has thehighest poverty prevalence in Zimbabwe.Future scenarios predict that 60% offarming households will be exposed togreater vulnerability due to an estimated2 -3.5 C rise in temperature*.Researchers say that the time to begin equippingNkayi farmers to face a grim 2050 climate scenariois now.Building on the lessons learnt from Phase I of theproject, the Phase II interventions aimed at tailoringdrastic adaptation packages to suit farm types. Tosubstantiate the benefits of this package over theblanket technology packages in use, the followinginterventions were made.*Source: Alexander C. Ruane, NASA/AgMIP12 Building Climate-Smart VillagesProjected changes in temperature, precipitationCrop model - APSIM & DSSATCrop management: fertilizer, rota
Building Climate-Smart Villages5 Building Climate-Smart Villages ICRISAT’s approaches 1 3 5 2 4 Watershed management approach Agricultural and digital technologies approach Climate and crop modelling approach A pool of climate-smart agricultural practices equips farmer
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