Chapter 1 Section 2 - Studying Geography

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SECTION2What You Will Learn Main Ideas1. Geography is the study ofplaces and people.2. Studying location is importantto both physical and humangeography.3. Geography and history areclosely connected.The Big IdeaPhysical geography and humangeography contribute to thestudy of history.Key Termsgeography, p. 12landforms, p. 12climate, p. 12environment, p. 13region, p. 15resources, p. 16Use the graphic organizer online totake notes on physical geographyand human geography.StudyingGeographyC TBOB QEBOB Rhnk iZk gml Zk ablmhkbZgl k l Zk\abg Z \bmr maZm ]blZii Zk ] ehg Z h' Rhn h pbma ma f mh Z eb[kZkr mh a ei l Zk\a hk \en l mh ma \bmrÍl eh\Zmbhg Zg] Zm ' Pabe manf[bg makhn a Z ]nlmr he] [hhd% rhn Ö g] Zg Zg\b gm fZi lmn\d [ mp g mph iZ l' FZkd ] hg ma fZi Zk kbo kl% hk lml% fhngmZbgl% Zg] lmkZb am ebg l maZm ehhd ebd khZ]l' Bm bl Z fZi maZm lahpl ma pZr mh ma ehlm \bmr LT @ K QEFP J M EBIM VLR ]KA QEB @FQV ;NBE BG@ ;: D@KHNG You have read how historians andarchaeologists help us learn about the past. Another group ofscholars—geographers—also contribute to our study of history.HijYn c\ EaVXZh VcY EZdeaZWhen you hear about an event on the news, the first questionsyou ask may be, “Where did it happen?” and “Who was there?”Historians ask the same questions about events that happened inthe past. That is why they need to study geography. Zd\gVe]nis the study of the earth’s physical and cultural features. Thesefeatures include mountains, rivers, people, cities, and countries.SUMMARIZE:What aresomeE]nh XVa Zd\gVe]nexamples ofPhysical geography is the study of the earth’s land and features. physicalPeople who work in this field are called physical geographers. features?They study aVcY[dgbh , the natural features of the land’s surface.Mountains, valleys, plains, and other such places are landforms.Physical geographers also study Xa bViZ , the pattern ofweather conditions in a certain area over a long period of time.Climate is not the same as weather. Weather is the conditionsat a specific time and place. If you say that your city has coldwinters, you are talking about climate. If you say it is belowfreezing and snowing today, you are talking about the weather.CONTRAST:What is the difference between climate and weather?12DEFINE:What isgeography?

Physical GeographyHuman GeographyMa lmn]r h ma ZkmaÍl iarlb\Ze Zmnk l Zg] ikh\ ll l% ln\a Zl fhngmZbgl% kbo kl% h\ Zgl% kZbg Zee% Zg] \ebfZm % bg\en]bg mabl l \mbhg h Zeb hkgbZÍl \hZlmMa lmn]r h ma ZkmaÍl i hie % bg\en]bg ma bk pZr h eb % ahf l Zg] \bmb l% [ eb l% Zg] mkZo el% ln\a Zl ma l \abe]k g bg ma : kb\Zg \hngmkr h MZgsZgbZGeographyMa lmn]r h ma ZkmaÍl iarlb\Ze Zg] \nemnkZe Zmnk lClimate affects many features of aregion. For example, it affects plant life.Tropical rain forests require warm air andheavy rain, while a dry climate can createdeserts. Climate also affects landforms. Forexample, constant wind can wear downmountains into flat plains.Although climate affects landforms,landforms can also affect climate. Forexample, the Coast Ranges in northernCalifornia are mountains parallel to thePacific coast. As air presses up against thesemountains, it rises and cools. Any moisturethat the air was carrying falls as rain. Meanwhile, on the opposite side of the range, theCentral Valley stays dry. In this way, amountain range creates two very differentclimates.Landforms and climate are part of aplace’s environment. The Zck gdcbZciincludes all the living and nonliving thingsthat affect life in an area. This includes thearea’s climate, land, water, plants, soil,animals, and other features. jbVc Zd\gVe]nThe other branch of geography is humangeography—the study of people andthe places where they live. Specialists inhuman geography study many differentthings about people and their cultures.What kind of work do people do? How dothey get their food? What are their homeslike? What religions do they practice?Human geography also deals withhow the environment affects people. Forexample, how do people who live nearrivers protect themselves from floods?How do people who live in deserts survive?Do different environments affect the sizeof families? Do people in certain environments live longer? Why do some diseasesspread easily in some environments but notin others? As you can see, human geographers study many interesting questionsabout people and this planet. Å Summarizing What are thetwo main branches of geography?UNCOVERING THE PAST13

Å featurescharacteristicsDEFINE:What does locationmean?HijYn c\ AdXVi dcAZVgc c\ [gdb BVehBoth physical and human geographersstudy location. Location is the exactdescription of where something is. Everyplace on Earth has a specific location.No two places in the world are exactly alike. Even small differences betweenplaces can lead to major differences inhow people live. That is why geographerstry to understand the effects that differentlocations have on human populations, orgroups of people.By comparing locations, geographerslearn more about the factors that affectedeach of them. For example, they may studywhy a town grew in one location while atown nearby got smaller.To study various locations, geographers usemaps. A map is a drawing of an area. Somemaps show physical features. Others showcities and the boundaries of states or countries. Most maps have symbols to showdifferent things. For example, large dotsSUMMARIZE:often stand for cities. Blue lines show whereWhat arerivers flow. Most maps also include a guide someto show direction.activities thatPeople have been making maps for would usemaps?more than 4,000 years. Maps help withmany activities. Planning battles, looking for new lands, and designing new cityparks all require good maps. On the firstday of class, you may have used a map ofyour school to find your classrooms.Studying MapsBy studying and comparing maps, you can see how a place’sphysical and human features are related.California: PhysicalCalifornia: ClimatesORCSier0150 Miles07575SemiaridDesert007575150 Miles150 KilometersNVUTlevadayllesVaegnRaRiverSan JoaquinRiverSaltonSeaAZAZ& What are some of California’s main physical features?Where are the state’s highest mountains?CHAPTER 1MediterraneanUTNVMEXICO14Marine150 KilometersNtraraen4,0002,0005002000 (Sea level)Belowsea levelHighlandColoradoCSac ramentoerstRivoaLakeeTahoe13,1206,5601,640656(Sea level) 0Belowsea HRW World HistoryHRW World Historywh06as c01map006aawh06as c01map006aaCalifornia: PhysicalCalifornia: PhysicalAPPROVED11/19/04LegendAPPROVED 11/19/04PACIFICOCEANMEXICO' What climates are found in California? How are theclimate regions related to California’s physical features?HRW World HistoryHRW World Historywh06as c01map006cawh06as c01map006caCalifornia: ClimatesCalifornia: ClimatesAPPROVED10/19/04LegendAPPROVED 10/19/04

AZVgc c\ VWdji GZ\ dchPrimary SourceLearning about regions is another key partDEFINE:What is a of studying geography. A gZ\ dc is an arearegion?with one or more features that make itdifferent from surrounding areas. Thesefeatures may be physical, such as forests orgrasslands. There may also be differencesin climate. For example, a desert area is aDESCRIBE: type of region. Physical barriers such asWhat aremountains and rivers often form a region’ssomeboundaries.humanHuman features can also define regions.featuresthat canAn area with many cities is one type ofdefine aregion. An area with only farms is anotherregion?type. Some regions are identified by thelanguage that people there speak. Otherregions are identified by the religion theirpeople practice.BOOKWhat Geography MeansSome people think of geography as the ability to read mapsor name state capitals. But as geographer Kenneth C. Davisexplains, geography is much more. It is related to almost everybranch of human knowledge.Ê@ h kZiar ]h lgÍm lbfier [ bg Zg] g] pbma fZil lahpbg ma eh\Zmbhg h Zee ma \hngmkb l h ma phke]' Bg Z\m% ln\a fZil ]hgÍm g \ llZkber m ee nl fn\a' GhÉ h kZiar ihl l Zl\bgZmbg jn lmbhgl Z[hnm pah p Zk Zg] ahp p hm mh [ maZm pZr% Zg] ma g ikhob] l \en l mh ma Zglp kl' Bm bl bfihl&lb[e mh ng] klmZg] ablmhkr% bgm kgZmbhgZe ihebmb\l% ma phke] \hghfr% k eb bhgl% iabehlhiar% hk ÌiZmm kgl h \nemnk Í pbmahnm mZdbg h kZiar bgmh Z\\hngm'ËÈD gg ma ' Zobl% khf hgÍm Dghp Fn\a :[hnm @ h kZiar Å Categorizing What aresome types of features that can identify a region?Å Å Å Why does the writer think that geography is important?DRAW INFERENCES:What are some regions within the United States?California: PopulationCalifornia: RoadsOROROne dot represents25,000 peopleState capital007575150 MilesInterstate highways5Other highwaysState capitalEureka0150 Kilometers75057580SacramentoNVOaklandSan Francisco80150 Miles150 KilometersNVSacramentoSan FranciscoSan Jose5155PACIFICOCEANLos AngelesLong BeachLos AngelesAZPACIFICOCEANSan DiegoMEXICO( Where are California’s two main population centers?What kind of climate is found in these areas?EVALUATE:Would all people define a region the same way? Why or why not?40105AZ15San Diego8MEXICO) How are California’s roads related to its physical features?How are they related to its population centers?UNCOVERING THE PAST15

One way you can see how geographyhas shaped history is by studying thelocations of cities. Certain locationshave strategic advantages over others, and as a result, people choose tocreate cities there. For example, thecity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has easyaccess to the ocean and breathtaking scenery. Zd\gVe]n VcY hidgn Zd\gVe]n H]VeZh 8jaijgZhGeography gives us important clues aboutthe people and places that came beforeus. Like detectives, we can piece togethera great deal of information about ancientcultures by knowing where people livedand what the area was like. Zd\gVe]n 6[[ZXih GZhdjgXZhAn area’s geography was critical to earlysettlements. People could survive only inareas where they could get enough foodand water. Early people settled in placesthat were rich in gZhdjgXZh , materials foundin the earth that people need and value. Allthrough history, people have used a varietyof resources to meet their basic needs.In early times, essential resourcesincluded water, animals, fertile land, andstones for tools. Over time, people learnedto use other resources, including metalssuch as copper, gold, and iron.16CHAPTER 1RECALL:Geography also influenced the earlydevelopment of cultures. Early peoples,for example, developed vastly differentcultures because of their environments.People who lived along rivers learned tomake fishhooks and boats, while those farfrom rivers did not. People who lived nearforests built homes from wood. In otherareas, builders had to use mud or stone.Some people developed religious beliefsbased on the geography of their area. Forexample, ancient Egyptians believed thatthe god Hapi controlled the Nile River.Geography also played a role in thegrowth of civilizations. The world’s firstsocieties formed along rivers. Crops grownon the fertile land along these rivers fedlarge populations.Some geographic features could alsoprotect areas from invasion. A region surrounded by mountains or deserts, forexample, was hard for attackers to reach.

environments in positive and negativeways. People have planted millions oftrees. They have created new lakes in themiddle of deserts. But people have alsocreated wastelands where forests oncegrew and built dams that flooded ancientcities. This interaction between humansand their environment has been a majorfactor in history. It continues today.RECALL:What are threeaspects of humanlife that geographyaffects? Å DRAWCONCLUSIONS:Why can present-daypeople live in placesthat lack resourcesvalued by earlyhumans?Summarizing In what wayshas geography shaped human history? L NFF:KR :G IK OB P The field ofgeography includes physical geographyand human geography. Geography hashad a major influence on history. In thenext chapter you will learn how geography affected the first people.SUMMARIZE:How were Zd\gVe]n cÄ jZcXZh hidgnsomeGeography has helped shape history andsocietiesmade richer has affected the growth of societies. Peoplein areas with many natural resources couldby thegeographic use their resources to get rich. They couldmakeup of build glorious cities and powerful armies.their region?Features such as rivers also made tradeeasier. Many societies became rich bytrading goods with other peoples.On the other hand, geography has alsoRECALL: caused problems. Floods, for example, haveHow did a killed millions of people. Lack of rainfall hasweatherbrought deadly food shortages. Storms haveevent affectwrecked ships, and with them, the hopesJapan’sof conquerors. In the 1200s, for example,history inthe 1200s? a people known as the Mongols tried toinvade Japan. However, most of the Mongolships were destroyed by a powerful storm.Japanese history may have been very different if the storm had not occurred.The relationship between geographyand people has not been one-sided. Forcenturies, people have influenced theirSection 2 AssessmentONLINE QUIZReviewing Ideas, Terms, and People1. a. Define What is geography?b. Summarize What are some of the topics included inhuman geography?2. a. Describe Identify a region near where you live, andexplain what sets it apart as a region.b. Predict How might a map of a city’s landforms helpan official who is planning a new city park?3. a. Recall Where did early peoples tend to settle?b. Compare and Contrast How could a river be both avaluable resource and a problem for a region?Critical ThinkingSimilarities4. Comparing and ContrastingUsing your note-taking chart,compare and contrast physicaland human geography.PhysicalGeographyHumanGeographyFOCUS ON WRITING5. Understanding What Geographers Do In this sectionyou learned how geographers contribute to the studyof history. What is the difference between a physicalgeographer and a human geographer?EVALUATE:How do you think physical geography has affected your community? your state?UNCOVERING THE PAST17

2 1. Geography is the study of places and people. 2. Studying location is important to both physical and human geography. 3. Geography and history are closely connected. Physical geography and human geography contribute to the study of history. Main Ideas The Big Idea Key Terms geography, p.

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