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P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0THEINTERNETENCYCLOPEDIAVolume 1A–FHossein BidgoliEditor-in-ChiefCalifornia State UniversityBakersfield, Californiai

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0THEINTERNETENCYCLOPEDIAVolume 1A–FHossein BidgoliEditor-in-ChiefCalifornia State UniversityBakersfield, Californiai

P1: GDZ/SPHP2: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0 This book is printed on acid-free paper. C 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Copyright Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.Published simultaneously in Canada.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 ofthe 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission ofthe Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee tothe Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978)750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at Requests to thePublisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, JohnWiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201)748-6008, e-mail: of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author haveused their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this bookand specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for aparticular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives orwritten sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitablefor your situation. The publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services, andyou should consult a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor authorshall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including butnot limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.For general information on our other products and services please contact ourCustomer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the United Statesat (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some contentthat appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more informationabout Wiley products, visit our web site at of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:The Internet encyclopedia / edited by Hossein Bidgoli.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-471-22202-X (CLOTH VOL 1 : alk. paper) – ISBN 0-471-22204-6(CLOTH VOL 2 : alk. paper) – ISBN 0-471-22203-8 (CLOTH VOL 3 : alk.paper) – ISBN 0-471-22201-1 (CLOTH SET : alk. paper)1. Internet–Encyclopedias. I. Bidgoli, Hossein.TK5105.875.I57I5466 2003004.67 8 03–dc212002155552Printed in the United States of America10987654321ii

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0To so many fine memories of my brother, Mohsen, for hisuncompromising belief in the power of education.iii

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37ivChar Count 0

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0About the Editor-in-Chiefinformation systems, which have been published andpresented throughout the world. Dr. Bidgoli also servesas the editor-in-chief of Encyclopedia of InformationSystems.Dr. Bidgoli was selected as the California State University, Bakersfield’s 2001–2002 Professor of the Year.Hossein Bidgoli, Ph.D., is Professor of ManagementInformation Systems at California State University. Dr.Bidgoli helped set up the first PC lab in the UnitedStates. He is the author of 43 textbooks, 27 manuals, andover four dozen technical articles and papers on variousaspects of computer applications, e-commerce, andv

P1: GDZ/SPHP2: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0Editorial BoardEphraim R. McLeanGeorgia State University, AtlantaEric T. BradlowThe Wharton School of the University ofPennsylvaniaDavid E. MonarchiUniversity of Colorado, BoulderKai ChengLeeds Metropolitan University,United KingdomRaymond R. PankoUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaMary J. CroninBoston CollegeNorman M. SadehCarnegie Mellon UniversityJames E. GoldmanPurdue UniversityJudith C. SimonThe University of MemphisMarilyn GreensteinArizona State University WestVasja VehovarUniversity of Ljubljana, SloveniaVarun GroverUniversity of South CarolinaRussell S. WinerNew York Universityvi

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0ContentsChapter List by Subject AreaContributorsPrefaceGuide to the Internet EncyclopediaxiixvxxiiixxviVolume 1Active Server PagesJ. Christopher Sandvig1Click-and-Brick Electronic CommerceCharles Steinfield185Client/Server ComputingDaniel J. McFarland194Collaborative Commerce (C-commerce)Rodney J. Heisterberg204Common Gateway Interface (CGI) ScriptsStan Kurkovsky218Computer LiteracyHossein Bidgoli229ActiveXRoman Erenshteyn11ActiveX Data Objects (ADO)Bhushan Kapoor25Application Service Providers (ASPs)H.-Arno Jacobsen36Computer Security Incident ResponseTeams (CSIRTs)Raymond R. Panko48Computer Viruses and WormsRobert Slade248AuthenticationPatrick McDaniel57Conducted Communications MediaThomas L. Pigg261Benchmarking InternetVasja Vehovar and Vesna Dolnicar72Consumer BehaviorMary Finley Wolfinbarger and Mary C. Gilly272Biometric AuthenticationJames. L. WaymanConsumer-Oriented Electronic CommerceHenry Chan284Convergence of Data, Sound, and VideoGary J. Krug294Copyright LawGerald R. Ferrera303BluetoothTM —A Wireless PersonalArea NetworkBrent A. MillerBusiness Plans for E-commerce ProjectsAmy W. RayBusiness-to-Business (B2B) ElectronicCommerceJulian J. Ray8496106Business-to-Business (B2B) InternetBusiness ModelsDat-Dao NguyenBusiness-to-Consumer (B2C) InternetBusiness ModelsDiane M. Hamilton242120129Customer Relationship Managementon the WebRussell S. WinerCybercrime and CyberfraudCamille ChinCyberlaw: The Major Areas, Development,and ProvisionsDennis M. Powers315326337Capacity Planning for Web ServicesRobert Oshana139CyberterrorismCharles W. Jaeger353Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)Fred Condo152Databases on the WebA. Neil Yerkey373C/C Mario Giannini164Data CompressionChang-Su Kim and C.-C. Jay Kuo384Circuit, Message, and Packet SwitchingRobert H. Greenfield176Data Mining in E-commerceSviatoslav Braynov400vii

P1: GDZ/SPHP2: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsviiiSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0CONTENTSData Warehousing and Data MartsChuck Kelley412EncryptionAri Juels686Denial of Service AttacksE. Eugene Schultz424Enhanced TVJim Krause695Developing NationsNanette S. Levinson434Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)Zinovy Radovilsky707444E-systems for the Support ofManufacturing OperationsRobert H. LowsonDigital CommunicationRobert W. Heath Jr., and Atul A. Salvekar457Extensible Markup Language (XML)Rich Dorfman732Digital DivideJaime J. Dávila468Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)Jesse M. Heines755Digital EconomyNirvikar Singh477ExtranetsStephen W. Thorpe793Digital IdentityDrummond Reed and Jerry Kindall493Feasibility of Global E-business ProjectsPeter Raven and C. Patrick Fleenor803Digital LibrariesCavan McCarthy505File TypesJennifer Lagier819Digital Signatures and Electronic SignaturesRaymond R. Panko526FirewallsJames E. Goldman831Disaster Recovery PlanningMarco Cremonini and Pierangela Samarati535Fuzzy LogicYan-Qing Zhang841Distance Learning (Virtual Learning)Chris Dede, Tara Brown-L’Bahy, Diane Ketelhut,and Pamela Whitehouse549Volume 2Downloading from the InternetKuber Maharjan561E-business ROI SimulationsEdwin E. Lewis577E-governmentShannon Schelin and G. David Garson590DHTML (Dynamic HyperText MarkupLanguage)Craig D. KnucklesElectronic Commerce and ElectronicBusinessCharles SteinfieldGame Design: Games for the World Wide WebBruce R. Maxim601Gender and Internet UsageRuby Roy Dholakia, Nikhilesh Dholakia,and Nir KshetriGeographic Information Systems (GIS)and the InternetHaluk Cetin71811223Global Diffusion of the InternetNikhilesh Dholakia, Ruby Roy Dholakia,and Nir Kshetri38Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)Matthew K. McGowan613Global IssuesBabita Gupta52624GroupwarePierre A. Balthazard and Richard E. Potter65Electronic Funds TransferRoger Gate and Alec NacamuliElectronic PaymentDonal O’Mahony635Security SystemMargarita Maria Lenk76Electronic ProcurementRobert H. Goffman645Health Insurance and Managed CareEtienne E. Pracht89E-mail and Instant MessagingJim Grubbs660Health IssuesDavid Lukoff and Jayne Gackenbach104E-marketplacesPaul R. Prabhaker671History of the InternetJohn Sherry and Colleen Brown114Guidelines for a Comprehensive

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0CONTENTSixJavaJudith C. Simon and Charles J. Campbell379JavaBeans and Software ArchitectureNenad Medvidovic and Nikunj R. Mehta388JavaScriptConstantine Roussos401JavaServer Pages (JSP)Frederick Pratter415Knowledge ManagementRonald R. Tidd431Law EnforcementRobert Vaughn and Judith C. Simon443180Law FirmsVictoria S. Dennis and Judith C. Simon457Intelligent AgentsDaniel Dajun Zeng and Mark E. Nissen192Legal, Social, and Ethical IssuesKenneth Einar Himma464Interactive Multimedia on the WebBorko Furht and Oge Marques204Library ManagementClara L. Sitter477International CyberlawJulia Alpert Gladstone216Linux Operating SystemCharles Abzug486233Load Balancing on the InternetJianbin Wei, Cheng-Zhong Xu,and Xiaobo Zhou499ManagementGary LaPoint and Scott WebsterInternet ArchitectureGraham Knight244Local Area NetworksWayne C. Summers515Internet CensorshipJulie Hersberger264Machine Learning and Data Mining on the WebQiang Yang527Internet Etiquette (Netiquette)Joseph M. Kayany274Managing a Network EnvironmentHaniph A. Latchman and Jordan Walters537Internet LiteracyHossein Bidgoli286Managing the Flow of Materials AcrossInternet Navigation (Basics, Services, and Portals)Pratap Reddy298Internet Relay Chat (IRC)Paul L. WittHTML/XHTML (HyperText MarkupLanguage/Extensible HyperTextMarkup Language)Mark Michael124Human Factors and ErgonomicsRobert W. Proctor and Kim-Phuong L. Vu141Human Resources ManagementDianna L. Stone, Eduardo Salas,and Linda C. Isenhour150Information Quality in Internet andE-business EnvironmentsLarry P. EnglishIntegrated Services Digital Network (ISDN):Narrowband and Broadband Services andApplicationsJohn S. Thompson163International Supply Chainthe Supply ChainMatthias Holweg and Nick Rich551Marketing Communication StrategiesJudy Strauss562311320Marketing Plans for E-commerce ProjectsMalu Roldan574Internet Security StandardsRaymond R. Panko334Medical Care DeliverySteven D. Schwaitzberg586Internet2Linda S. Bruenjes, Carolyn J. Siccama,and John LeBaronMiddlewareRobert Simon603IntranetsWilliam T. Schiano346Mobile CommerceMary J. Cronin614Intrusion Detection TechniquesPeng Ning and Sushil Jajodia355Mobile Devices and ProtocolsJulie R. Mariga and Benjamin R. Pobanz627Inventory ManagementJanice E. Carrillo, Michael A. Carrillo,and Anand Paul368Mobile Operating Systems and ApplicationsJulie R. Mariga635

P1: GDZ/SPHP2: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 2003x18:37Char Count 0CONTENTSMultimediaJoey Bargsten642PoliticsPaul Gronke84MultiplexingDave Whitmore664Privacy LawRay Everett-Church96Nonprofit OrganizationsDale Nesbary675Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)Joseph Morabito and Edward A. Stohr685Propagation Characteristics of WirelessChannelsP. M. ShankarOnline AuctionsGary C. Anders699Online Auction Site ManagementPeter R. Wurman709124PrototypingEric H. Nyberg135Public Accounting FirmsC. Janie Chang and Annette Nellen145Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)Russ Housley156720Public NetworksDale R. Thompson and Amy W. Apon166Online CommunitiesLee Sproull733Radio Frequency and WirelessOnline Dispute ResolutionAlan Gaitenby745Online News Services (Online Journalism)Bruce Garrison755Online Public RelationsKirk Hallahan769Online PublishingRandy M. Brooks784Online ReligionT. Matthew Ciolek798Online StalkingDavid J. Loundy812Open Source Development and LicensingSteven J. Henry819Organizational ImpactJohn A. Mendonca832Online Banking and Beyond: Internet-RelatedOfferings from U.S. BanksSiaw-Peng WanVolume 3PasswordsJeremy Rasmussen1CommunicationsOkechukwu C. Ugweje177Real EstateAshok Deo Bardhan and Dwight Jaffee192Research on the InternetPaul S. Piper201Return on Investment Analysisfor E-business ProjectsMark Jeffery211Risk Management in Internet-BasedSoftware ProjectsRoy C. Schmidt229Rule-Based and Expert SystemsRobert J. Schalkoff237Secure Electronic Transactions (SET)Mark S. Merkow247Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)Robert J. Boncella261Securities Trading on the InternetMarcia H. Flicker274Software Design and Implementation in thePatent LawGerald Bluhm14Web EnvironmentJeff Offutt286Peer-to-Peer SystemsL. Jean Camp25Software PiracyRobert K. Moniot297PerlDavid Stotts34Speech and Audio CompressionPeter Kroon307Personalization and Customization TechnologiesSviatoslav Braynov51Standards and Protocols in Data CommunicationsDavid E. Cook320Physical SecurityMark Michael64Storage Area Networks (SANs)Vladimir V. Riabov329

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0CONTENTSxiStrategic AlliancesPatricia Adams340Virtual TeamsJamie S. Switzer600Structured Query Language (SQL)Erick D. Slazinski353Visual BasicDennis O. Owen608Supply Chain ManagementGerard J. Burke and Asoo J. Vakharia365Supply Chain Management and the InternetThomas D. Lairson374Visual Basic Scripting Edition(VBScript)Timothy W. ColeSupply Chain Management TechnologiesMark Smith387620Visual C (Microsoft)Blayne E. Mayfield635Voice over Internet Protocol (IP)Roy Morris647398Web-Based TrainingPatrick J. Fahy661Taxation IssuesAnnette Nellen413WebcastingLouisa Ha674TCP/IP SuitePrabhaker Mateti424Web Content ManagementJian Qin687Telecommuting and TeleworkRalph D. Westfall436Web HostingDoug Kaye699Trademark LawRay Everett-Church448Web Quality of ServiceTarek Abdelzaher711Travel and TourismDaniel R. Fesenmaier, Ulrike Gretzel,Yeong-Hyeon Hwang, and Youcheng Wang459Web Search FundamentalsRaymond Wisman724Web Search TechnologyClement Yu and Weiyi Meng738Web ServicesAkhil Sahai, Sven Graupner, and Wooyoung Kim754Web Site DesignRobert E. Irie768Supply Networks: Developing and MaintainingRelationships and StrategiesRobert H. LowsonUniversally Accessible Web Resources:Designing for People with DisabilitiesJon GundersonUnix Operating SystemMark Shacklette477494Usability Testing: An Evaluation Processfor Internet CommunicationsDonald E. Zimmerman and Carol A. Akerelrea512Value Chain AnalysisBrad Kleindl525Video CompressionImmanuel Freedman537Video StreamingHerbert Tuttle554Virtual EnterprisesJ. Cecil567Wide Area and Metropolitan AreaNetworksLynn A. DeNoia776Windows 2000 SecurityE. Eugene Schultz792Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)Lillian N. Cassel805Wireless Communications ApplicationsMohsen Guizani817Wireless InternetMagda El Zarki, Geert Heijenk and Kenneth S. Lee831850Virtual Private Networks: Internet Protocol (IP)BasedDavid E. McDysan579Wireless MarketingPamela M. H. KwokVirtual Reality on the Internet: CollaborativeVirtual RealityAndrew Johnson and Jason Leigh591XBRL (Extensible Business ReportingLanguage): Business Reporting with XMLJ. Efrim Boritz and Won Gyun No863

P1: GDZ/SPHP2: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0Chapter List by Subject AreaApplicationsDelivery of Medical CareDeveloping NationsDigital LibrariesDistance Learning (Virtual Learning)Downloading from the InternetElectronic Funds TransferE-mail and Instant MessagingEnhanced TVGame Design: Games for the World Wide WebGroupWareHealth Insurance and Managed CareHuman Resources ManagementInteractive Multimedia on the WebInternet Relay Chat (IRC)Law EnforcementLaw FirmsLibrary ManagementNonprofit OrganizationsOnline Banking and Beyond: Internet-Related Offeringsfrom U.S. BanksOnline CommunitiesOnline Dispute ResolutionOnline News Services (Online Journalism)Online Public RelationsOnline PublishingOnline ReligionPoliticsPublic Accounting FirmsReal EstateResearch on the InternetSecurities Trading on the InternetTelecommuting and TeleworkTravel and TourismVideo StreamingVirtual EnterprisesVirtual TeamsWeb-Based TrainingWebcastingDesign, Implementation, and ManagementApplication Service Providers (ASPs)Benchmarking InternetCapacity Planning for Web ServicesClient/Server ComputingE-business ROI SimulationsEnterprise Resource Planning (ERP)Human Factors and ErgonomicsInformation Quality in Internet and E-businessEnvironmentsxiiLoad Balancing on the InternetManaging a Network EnvironmentManaging Risk in Internet-Based Software ProjectsPeer-to-Peer SystemsProject Management TechniquesPrototypingReturn on Investment Analysis for E-business ProjectsSoftware Design and Implementation in the WebEnvironmentStructured Query Language (SQL)Universally Accessible Web Resources: Designing forPeople with DisabilitiesUsability Testing: An Evaluation Process for InternetCommunicationsVirtual Reality on the Internet: Collaborative VirtualRealityWeb HostingWeb Quality of ServiceElectronic CommerceBusiness Plans for E-commerce ProjectsBusiness-to-Business (B2B) Electronic CommerceBusiness-to-Business (B2B) Internet Business ModelsBusiness-to-Consumer (B2C) Internet Business ModelsClick-and-Brick Electronic CommerceCollaborative CommerceConsumer-Oriented Electronic CommerceE-governmentElectronic Commerce and Electronic BusinessElectronic Data Interchange (EDI)Electronic PaymentE-marketplacesExtranetsIntranetsOnline Auction Site ManagementOnline AuctionsWeb ServicesFoundationComputer LiteracyDigital EconomyDownloading from the InternetElectronic Commerce and Electronic BusinessFile TypesGeographic Information Systems (GIS) and the InternetHistory of the InternetInternet Etiquette (Netiquette)Internet LiteracyInternet Navigation (Basics, Services, and Portals)Multimedia

P1: GDZ/SPHWL040-FM-Vol.IP2: GDZ/SPHQC: GDZ/SPHWL040/Bidgolio-Vol IT1: GDZWL040-Sample-v1.clsSeptember 24, 200318:37Char Count 0CHAPTER LIST BY SUBJECT AREAValue Chain AnalysisWeb Search FundamentalsWeb Search TechnologyInfrastructureCircuit, Message, and Packet SwitchingConducted Communications MediaConvergence of Data, Sound, and VideoData CompressionDigital CommunicationIntegrated Services Digital Network (ISDN):Narrowband and Broadband Services andApplicationsInternet ArchitectureInternet2Linux Operating SystemLocal Area NetworksMiddlewareMultiplexingPublic NetworksSpeech and Audio CompressionStandards and Protocols in Data CommunicationsStorage Area Networks (SANs)TCP/IP SuiteUnix Operating SystemVideo CompressionVoice over Internet Protocol (IP)Virtual Private Networks: Internet-Protocol (IP)BasedWide Area and Metropolitan Area NetworksLegal, Social, Organizational, International,and Taxation IssuesCopyright LawCybercrime and CyberfraudCyberlaw: The Major Areas, Development,and ProvisionsCyberterrorismDigital DivideDigital IdentityFeasi

Hossein Bidgoli, Ph.D., is Professor of Management Information Systems at California State University. Dr. Bidgoli helped set up the first PC lab in the United States. He is the author of 43 textbooks, 27 manuals, and over four dozen technical articles and papers on various aspects of computer applications,

Related Documents: Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source. 8 1% 9 1% 10 1% 11 1% 12 1% 13 1% 14 1% 15 1% 16 1% 17 1% 18 1% 19 Internet Source Internet Source . Internet Source Internet Source 30 1 % 31 1% 32 1% 33 1% 34 1% 35 1% 36 1% 37 1% 38 1% Internet Source Internet Source Internet . Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source Internet Source. 9 1% 10 1% 11 1% 12 1% 13 1% 14 1% 15 1% 16 1% 17 1%

MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes 1 Internet GIS and Geospatial Web Services Introduction Section 1 -- What is Internet GIS? Section 2 -- Internet GIS: state of practice Section 3 -- Future development of Internet GIS Section 4 -- Function comparisons of current Internet GIS programs Section 5 -- Internet GIS applications Section 6 – I

CSCA0101 Computing Basics 22 The Internet Internet Applications An Internet application is an interactive, compiled application that can be accessed through a corporate or through the Internet. Internet applications can perform complex business processes on either the client or the server. The application uses the Internet protocol .

The Internet Environment The Internet Environment Page 1 1. The Internet - An Introduction In recent years there has been a significant move towards using computers as entrances to the vast world of the Internet. A day hasn't gone by without some public discussion of the Internet and its user-friendly offshoot - the World Wide Web (WWW ).

a. Information Internet of things b. Industrial Internet of things c. innovative Internet of things d. none of above. 19.who invented the term internet of things. a. Bill gates b. kevin ashton c. steve jobs d.McDonald 20. the huge number of devices connected to the internet of things have to communicate automatically,

- Computer network hardware and software - Data transmission media - Types of computer networks - Advantages and limitations of networking 4.10 The Internet - Applications of Internet Using search engines E-mails Electronic communication - Introduction to the Internet - Internet services – e –mails, www, instant messaging - Searching for information on the Internet - Internet .