Adding Stainless Quality Pocket Guide To Life

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Pocket GuideAdding Stainless Qualityto

ContentsChemical compositionMechanical propertiesPhysical propertiesProperties at elevated temperatureEquivalent specificationsWeldingTypical applicationsTolerancesIdentification of surface finishCorrosionConversion factorsHardness ess steels are iron based (ferrous) materials, containing atleast 11% chromium. Other alloy additions are made such asnickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, vanadium and nitrogen.Stainless steels are classified according to their internal crystal(micro) structure which results from the various alloy contents.Columbus Stainless produces the three main classifications ofstainless steel, namely:AUSTENITIC: Contain chromium and nickel with low to verylow carbon contents, identified by the AISI 300 & 200 series,excellent corrosion and high temperature oxidation resistance good strength - strength and hardness can be increased by coldwork - excellent weldability and formability - high hygiene factor- excellent cryogenic properties - non-magnetic in the annealedcondition.FERRITIC: Plain chromium alloys of low carbon content, alsoidentified by the AISI 400 series - good corrosion resistance- good strength - cannot be hardened by heat treatment - fairweldability in thin gauges - magnetic.DUPLEX: Contain chromium, molybdenum, a small amount ofnickel and very low carbon contents, not identified by the AISIseries - have a duplex (mixed) crystal structure of austenite/ferrite - excellent corrosion resistance, particularly to pitting,crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking - very goodstrength - good weldability and formability - magnetic.23

.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.110.110.1019.0-21.022.0-24.016.5-18.00.045 0.015 0.12-0.16 16.5-18.00.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.005-0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.0150.045 0.015 0.07-0.20 16.5-18.00.045 0.01522.0 - 23.022.0 - 24.01.8-2.517.5 - 60.8-1.2516.0 - 18.017.5 - 18.5Nb5xC to 9.83xC 0.3 to 4.5 - 6.53.5 - 5.51.0 - 3.0Ti: 5x(C N) to 0.7Ti: 5x(C N) to 0.7Cu: 2.0 maxOtherCu: 0.1 to 0.6Cu: 1.0 maxTi: 4x(C N) 0.2 to 7.5Ti: 0.1 to 0.6Al: 0.30 maxTi: 4x(C N) 0.2 to 7.5Ti: 8x(C N) to 0.5Ti: 6x(C N) to 0.517.0 - 19.00.7516.0 - 18.0OtherTi: 4x(C N) to 0.616.0 - - 0.015 0.05-0.200.030 0.015 0.14-0.20Ni0.3 - 1.510.5 - 11.70.35Nb10.5 - 11.711.5 - 13.510.5 -12.510.5 -12.5CompositionCrMo19.5 - 0.015 0.05-0.170.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.0150.040 0.030P2.00.045 0.0150.1124.0-26.0*Compositions are maximum values, unless otherwise Si1.* Stabilisation may be by use of titanium or niobium or zirconium. For ASTM A240, Ti Nb 4(C N) 0.20. For EN10088-2, according to the atomicmass of these elements and the content of carbon and nitrogen, the equivalence shall be the following: Nb (% by mass) Zr (% by mass) 7/4 Ti(% by mass) i.e. when replacing titanium with niobium nearly double (1.75) the niobium is needed.310S/310H-1.4845 C350Heat309S Si-1.4828 C530430DDQ0.081.0C555 lassificationChemical CompositionFERRITICSduplexesAUSTENTICS4

20( 1.27), 22( 9592901001009931*32*25*90898889898988Very GoodGoodModerateExcellentVery GoodGoodModerateFairVery good oxidation resistanceVery good oxidation resistanceVery GoodGoodModerateExcellentVery GoodGoodVery GoodModerateFairMinimum values, unless maximum or range is indicated. ( ) - Applicable gauge range. HR - Hot rolled. CR - Cold rolled.* HRC. This table assumes certification to both ASTM & EN 10088-2 or 10095, where 5-700(HR)Heat309S 640444301304DQ304/304HCr-Ni 0280(CR), 260(HR)Standard25220380-56040910409208920( 1.27), 22( 1.27)2059595HRB General Corrosion Pitting CorrosionmaxPropertiesProperties1818415280( 3), 300( 3)410S280( 3), 300( 3)460Elongation(% in 50mm)4600.2% ProofStress (MPa)TensileStrenght (MPa)3CR12TypeUtility 3CR12LClassificationVery GoodExcellentDeep DrawingExcellentDeep DrawingDrawingExcellentGoodVery GoodGoodVery GoodGoodFairFormabilityPropertiesVery GoodExcellentVery GoodLowFairGoodToughnessGoodExcellentVery GoodRestrictedGoodWeldingPropertiesMechanical properties / General information (properties for annealed condition in transverse direction)FERRITICSduplexesAUSTENTICS6

Unit430439Nb430DDQ 16L316TiAll309S310STemperature 444200123042205All 304 typesAll 304L types321All 316L types316TiAll 309S 380705010090130125135900(3)(3)(3)(2)(1)Values given below are typical of Columbus products and should not be used for designpurposes.Short-time elevated temperature strength: tensile strength in MPa at indicated temperature.Properties at elevated temperatures9Creep strength: stress in MPa required for a creep rate of 1% in 10 000hr.Temperature C4005006007008003CR12/3CR12L/410S 270561330.6430/430DDQ272923140.7All 304 types23310850233211315120316Ti1476329All 309S types14172298310S14584369Maximum recommended service temperature: in oxidising conditions.Max Temperature CContinuous 4/2205300300202780750All 304/304L/321 types830800All 316L/316Ti types920870All 309S 86078007800800079007900DensityModulus of elasticityGPain tension200200200210220200200193193193200200in 00500500500Specific heat capacity J/kg KW/m KThermal .215.614.2at 100 t 500 C1x10-8Ωm676160635780747272727878Electrical resistivityCoefficient of thermal µm/m 15.915.90-100 -300 -500 C1430-1510 1480-1530 1425-1510 1390-1460 1405-1495 1410-1460 1400-1450 1400-1450 1390-1430 1430-1510 1400-1450 1400-1450Melting range 12409103CR12L40920410SPhysical properties (properties at room temperature, unless otherwise stated)(1)Do not exceed 800oC as a phase transformation occurs.(2)Do not use in temperature range of 450oC to 500oC.(3) Do not use in temperature range of 300oC to 1 000oC.8

1011310S-1.4845309S 00123042205Equivalent EN 3EN nameX2CrNi12-Common name and AISI3CR12410SS43000UNSS41003S41008S40910S40920

1213Welding For TIG welding use pure Argon. For MIG welding use Argon plus 1-2% Oxygen.SHIELDING GASES Electrodes must be kept and used in prime condition. Avoidexposure to dampness or contamination of the coating. Electrode coatings are specially formulated. Never use anelectrode if the coating is damaged. Never strip an electrode ofits coating and use it as a filler wire. Filler wires are specially produced to closely controlledcompositions. Never use ordinary stainless steel wire nor sheettrimmings as filler material. Avoid contamination and mix-up of filler wires. Electrodes ofbasic, basic rutile, acid rutile, high efficiency and metal powder(synthetic) types are utilised. Basic type requires highest level of welder skill. Gives highintegrity welds. Acid rutile type easiest to use, general purpose welding for lesscritical applications.CONSUMABLES Passivate with nitric acid formulation if weld is mechanicallyde-scaled, application is critical or marginal or general surfacecontamination of the fabrication by carbon (mild) steel hasoccurred. Wash thoroughly after passivation. Post-weld heat treatment is generally not required. Ensure a clean and uncontaminated weld area - free of carbon(mild) steel, paint, oil, grease, crayons etc. Tack correctly to ensure correct and consistent gap widths. Avoid positional welding if possible. Avoid arc strikes on the fabrication. Use a striker pad of scrapstainless steel. Use run-on and run-off tabs. Any temporary attachment must be of equivalent stainlesssteel and tacked in position with an electrode of equivalentgrade. Such attachment must be carefully ground off. Maintain a short arc and adequate gas shielding. Take specialcare when welding in the open or under draughty conditions. Use stainless steel wire brushes to remove slag/scale. Allgrinding discs and abrasives must be iron free and used onlyon stainless steel. Restore passivity/corrosion resistance of the weld area. Remove scale either mechanically or chemically. Mechanicallyby use of dedicated abrasive/ discs. Chemically by picklingwith nitric/hydrofluric acid formulations. Do not useformulations of hydrochloric acid. Wash thoroughly after pickling.GENERAL WELDING REQUIREMENTSDC electrode positiveDC electrode negativeDC electrode positiveDC electrode positive301LN use 308L304L use 308L, 347310/310S use 310L316L use 316L, 316Nb321 use 347 Weldability good. Virtually all welding processes, except foroxyacetylene, due to carbon contamination, are suitable. Heat input and inter-pass temperatures must be controlled (0.5 to2.0kJ/mm and 150oC respectively). Consumables: 2209 is generally recommended although 309Lelectrodes can be used to weld to austenitic or ferritic stainless steels.DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS Weldability good. Welding processes most commonly applied areMMA, MIG and TIG. SAW is not recommended. Consumables: Fabricator experience has led to a preference for 309L.308, 316L and 309LMo can also be used. Heat input and inter-pass temperature must be controlled (0.5 to1.5kJ/mm and 150oC respectively). Use stringer beads for multipass welding. Avoid weaving. Avoid positional welding as far aspossible. Avoid cross-over and adjacent welds where possible.UTILITY FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS Weldability poor. Welding generally limited to thin gauges only. Welding process most commonly used is TIG. Autogenous weldingfor thinner gauges. Filler wire is used for thicker gauges. 309L isoften used on Standard Ferritics and 316L on Moly Ferritics.FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS Nb (niobium) is used in consumables because Ti (titanium) sufferslosses in the arc. Autogenous TIG can be used for welding thin gauges. Heat input: Limit the heat input and inter-pass temperatures.202 use 308L304 use 308L309/309S use 309L306 use 316L, 318316Ti use 316Nb Weldability excellent for all welding processes. Welding processes most commonly used are MMA, MIG, TIG and SAW. Parent metal and consumable combinations are:AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELSRefer to manufacturer’s instructions for welding parameters.MMATIGMIGSAW Direct Current (DC) recommended for the welding of stainless steel.POWER SUPPLYThe following is a brief outline of the significant welding par ameters. Additional details are available on request

4316L1.4435316LN316Ti309S1.4833309S Nb3CR123CR12L410S4091040920430430DDQTypical ApplicationsFurnace parts, muffles, radiant tubes, ammonia converters, etc.Furnace parts, high temperature containers, catalytic converters, exhaust systems etc. Si grade gives superior oxidation resistance.Same applications as U-316L-1.4404, where high strength is required.Furnace components, equipment exposed to elevated temperature and/or aqueous cycles.Environments containing chlorides and in polluted marine environments, desalination, pipe work, tanks, process vessels for more aggressive corrosive liquids and conditions in chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper, pollution control, hydrometallurgical and petroleum industries.Furnace components, equipment exposed to elevated temperature and/or aqueous cycles.Cookware, sinks, cutlery, catering equipment, hospitals, food and beverage, abattoirs, pharmaceutical, oil and gas, cryogenic as well as pipework, tanks and process vessels for a large variety of corrosive liquids. H grades have superior high temperature creep resistance. DQ (drawing quality) and DDQ (Deep Drawing Quality) have superior drawing characteristics. U-304LS has superior machinability.Cookware, sinks, cutlery, catering equipment, abattoirs, strapping, clamps and cable racking.Primarily used as temper rolled for strength in structural applications such as railway carriages, aircraft components, conveyor belts, slat chain,springs, wiper blades, clips. It is also used for utensils and tableware; automobile trim.Sinks, wash troughs, urinals, toilets, trim for domestic equipment, kitchen and cafeteria utensils and cutlery, roofing and cladding.Difficult to form components, where U-430 is normally used, and coinage.Difficult to form components eg. exhaust system components, evaporator tube in the sugar industry, domestic appliances, geysers and heatexchanger tubing.Catalytic converters for more arduous conditions than 409 (near exhaust manifold), heat exchangers, tubes, geysers, burners and evaporatortube in the sugar industry.Automotive exhausts with superior corrosion resistance to U-441. Automotive trim.Marine environments for roofing and cladding, hand railing, balustrading, walkways, outdoor furniture, cable racks, heat exchangers, tubes,geysers, solar panels, water tanks, food processing, brewery and wine making equipment.Pulp and paper, food and drink and architecture. Process and storage tanks, ducting and structural applications. Pipe supports, guttering,walkways, cable racking, strapping, clamps, etc. in aggressive environments.Environments containing chlorides and in polluted marine environments, desalination, pipe work, tanks, process vessels for more aggressive corrosive liquids and conditions in chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper, pollution control, hydrometallurgical and petroleum industries.Marine environments in the oil and gas extraction and processing industries, the chemical industry, the pulp and paper industry and the miningindustry (mineral beneficiation plants). Also used for heat exchangers where chloride bearing water or brackish water is used as the coolingmedium.Automotive exhaust pipes, silencers and catalytic converters. Coated electrification boxes.Ore cars, coal wagons, freight cars, rail cars, bus chassis, bus frames, chutes, conveyor equipment, tanks, x-grid in cooling towers, reefer isocontainers. Also in material handling equipment (chutes and liners), particularly in wet sliding abrasion conditions and structural applicationsin corrosive industries, ladders, walkways, cable racks, roofing, cladding and palisade fencing, etc.

16175063.5 25 tol (mm)2ENo 1No 2DNo 2BNo 2BNo 3No 4TRNo 6-Bright Annealed 2RFinish-No 12D2B2ENo 3No 00.0900.0800.0700.0600.0500.0450.0400.030 tol (mm)DescriptionCold rolled, bright annealed finish, retained by final annealing in a controlled atmosphere furnace (maybe skin passed). Smooth, bright, reflective finish.Columbus 2B cold rolled, but final anneal in a controlled atmosphere furnace.Superior ScotchBrite finish, one or both sides, with a transverse Ra 0.25 µm.ScotchBrite finish, one or both sides, with a transverse Ra 0.5 µm.Finish obtained by CR A P TRA linearly textured polished finish, one or both sides, with a typical surface roughness (Ra) of about 1.2 µm.Cold rolled, heat treated and mechanically descaled, may be followed by pickling. Rough and dull finish.Cold rolled, heat treated and pickled. Bright and smoother finish than 2D (obtained by skin passing or tension levelling).Cold rolled, heat treated and pickled. Dull, smooth finish. Suitable for forming applications.Hot rolled, heat treated and descaled. Suitable when smoothness and uniformity of finish are not important.Hot rolled and heat treated (not descaled). Suitable for industrial heat resisting and materials handling applications.Hot rolled (not heat treated, not descaled). Suitable for products which are to be further worked (e.g. re-rolling).Slabs with grinding.-1U-HRDINSlabs with no grinding.Columbus ASTM/ASME ENUngroundGround 5.0 0400.030- tol (mm)Tolerances are according to ASTM A480M and EN ISO 9445-2.3.0 3.02.5 2.01.5 0.50.3Max gauge (mm)3.0 2.52.0 1.51.2 1.0 0.8 0.50.5 0.3Min gauge (mm)Tolerances - Cold RolledIdentification of surface finishesTolerances are according to ASTM A480M, ISO 9444-2 and ISO 18286.25 200.300.301020 8 tol (mm)8 868 5 43 63 2.552.52.5 3.5Max gauge (mm)Min gauge (mm)Tolerances - Hot Rolled


For ASTM A240, Ti Nb 4(C N) 0.20. For EN10088-2, according to the atomic mass of these elements and the content of carbon and nitrogen, the equivalence shall be the following: Nb (% by mass) Zr (% by mass) 7/4 Ti (% by mass) i.e. when replacing titanium with niobium nearly double (1.75) the niobium is needed.

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