Comparison Between High-Velocity-Air-Fuel- (HVAF) And Cold .

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Comparison between High-Velocity-Air-Fuel- (HVAF)and Cold-Gas-Spray (CGS) by evaluating mechanicalproperties of Ti-6-4- and INCONEL718-coatingsNicolaie Markocsan*, Christophe Lyphout*, Lars G. Östergren**, Max Sieger**** Production Technology Center PTC, Department of University West, Trollhättan/Uddevala, Sweden** Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden*** Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, GermanFor

abstractTalking on thermal spraying a lot of different techniques like Plasma Spray, Powder Flame Spray,Wire Flame Spray as well as High-Velocity-Oxy-Fuel- (HVOF) and High-Velocity-Air-Fuel-(HVAF)spray[1]can be found to apply metals, oxides, ceramics, cermets, nitrides, carbides and also polymers [1] forwear and corrosion applications[1]. Every member of the thermal spray family propels more or lessmolten feedstock-particles towards a prepared surface where the so-called splats quench and rapidlysolidify with a lamellar structure. The thermal energy is generated either by a chemical process or anelectrical heating. Sprayed metals are usually harder than the accordant wrought metal due to theinclusion of dispersed oxides, but have limits in porosity, thickness and relatively low bond strength.Also the line-of-sight process is not able to coat every kind of shape.The latest invention is the Cold-Gas-Spray-Process (CGS)[2] also called “kinetic energy metallization”or “high-velocity powder deposition”, taking a unique role in thermal spraying by using lowtemperature and rapidly high velocities to form dense and adherent coatings by a high pressurecompressed gas propelling the powder particles to supersonic speed through a convergent-divergentDeLaval-Noozle.By operating in a solid state the CGS gives the opportunity of spraying titanium without the risk ofoxidation by exceeding a critical temperature of 880:C and keeping a clean surface. Due to a lowerspecific weight compared to other metals like nickel, while giving good mechanical properties, theapplication of titanium is favored to save weight in aero planes.Using a powder instead of rods and wires increases the degree of melting respectively decreases thenecessary heat-input and produces thereby finer droplets and smoother coatings.HVAF uses as mixture of combustible and air instead for pure oxygen (HVOF) for accelerating thepowder stream trough the nozzle. This gives advantages in cost and the process is easier applicable.The flame temperature reaches 1000-1500 C depending on the combustible, achieving the samerange of velocity like CGS. The process can be described as “warm kinetic spraying”, positioned inbetween HVOF and Cold Gas-Dynamic Spraying.The following paper presents the results of a prestudy on cold-sprayed and HVAF-sprayed coatings ofTi6-4 on Ti-6-4 and Inconel718 on Inconel, including microstructure analysis, surface roughness,Vickers- and Rockwellhardness, adhesionstesting by Glue- and Braze-Adhesion-Test and 4-PointBending, to find out if CGS is applicable for the repair of airplane assemblies in comparison to theestablished HVAF-Process.Key-findingsBoth materials and both techniques are able to reach high values in hardness, adhesion strength andfavorable low values in the Young s Modulus when being applied as a coating. A profound substratepreparation by grit-blasting and optimal spray parameters are needed to generate a low porosity andoptimal anchorage of the splats to the surface, which seem to be a key to all mechanical valuesmentioned.In comparison to HVAF-sprayed samples it could be revealed that CGS still needs to be improved byadjusting spraying parameters to get to the same level of performance. Still CGS seems a promisingtechnique to spray oxidation-sensitive materials.1

Keywords:HVOF, HVAF, CGS, Thermal Spraying, Inconel718, Titanium-6Al-4V, Adhesion Strength, ResidualStress, Rockwell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Surface Roughness, Modified Layer Removal Method,Glue-Adhesion-Strength-Test, Braze-Adhesion-Strength-Test, 4-point-bendinguses cheap oxygen with unlimited supply froman air compressor. Compressed air enters thegun as a cooling medium before it is mixedwith a gaseous fuel. The spray powdertemperature can be controlled by thecombustion parameters or by addinghydrogen to the process. A secondarycombustion for fine-tuning is in use.IntroductionFirst applied in the 1980s by A. Papyrin at theInstitute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanicsof the Russian Academy of Science inNovosibirsk, the solid-state deposition ofmetallic and non-metallic powders by coldspraying uses high-velocity particles(supersonic: Mach 2 till Mach 4, 300 up to1200 m/s), propelled by a gas stream througha De Laval-nozzle, and process-temperaturesbetween 0 and 700 C to form a dense andadherent coating on the substrate material viaplastic deformation of the powder particles atthe high-kinetic impact (fig. 1).The Activated Combustion (AC)-HVAF [3] waspatented by Dr. Baranovski in the 1990's. Itopened a second era of HVAF-basedequipment with higher Deposition Efficiencies.Main advantages of the HVAF-process arebeing compatible with a wide range of fuels(propane, butane, propylene, ecofriendlynatural or MAPP-gases), independency of aseparate cooling unit, no nozzle-clogging, andinducing lower stress levels.Using Nitrogen or Helium as process gases alow oxide content as well as a high depositionefficiency (20-80% [1, p.78]), high density, lowresidual stress, minimal heat input on thesubstrate (minimal grain growth) can berealized at powder feed rates up to 8 kg/h [1].Ti-6Al-4V is a so-called Grade-5-(α β)Titanium alloy (tab. 1), first specified in1954[4], with aluminum stabilizing the α-caseand Vanadium stabilizing the β-case. Due to ahigh tensile strength and toughness even atextreme temperatures and an extraordinarycorrosion resistance at a light weightcompared to most other metals the material isused in airplanes and spacecraft applicationsas well as premium sports equipment. A lowoxidationresistance, a low Young s Modulusand high price for mining and processing eventhough high occurrence, are problematicwhen dealing with Titanium. A growing use inmedical applications such as artificial bonesdue to the low Young s modulus should bementioned.Influenced by interconnected parameters likestandoff distance, powder feed velocity,particle velocity (above critical velocity toform a bond without particle-reflection, butbelow a value leading to solid particle erosionof the existing coat), particle and substratetemperature, nozzle geometry and theparticle diameter (related to the criticalvelocity), the CGS is expected to fulfill therequirements for coatings with high wear-,heat-, corrosion-, oxidationresistance, specificelectrical properties (semiconductors),gradient-materials, or metal compositeswithout chemical reaction at lowtemperatures. Applications in aerospace,automotive, chemical industry as well asbiomedical and electronic tasks can behandled by the unique microstructure of CGScoats.The nickel-based super alloy Inconel718 (tab.1) is in widespread use in aerospace industryfor its combination of high-temperaturestability, ductility, easy treatment and wear tocorrosion and oxidation especially at hightemperatures, reaching already 85% of themelting temperature in application[4].Being located in-between HVOF and CGS by itsparameters particle velocity and temperaturethe HVAF-process is simpler in use because it2

[2]fig. 1: schematic diagram of thermal spray processesFig. 2: temperature/velocity regimes for common thermal spray processes compared to CGS[2]tab.1: chemical composition (wt-%) Ti6-4, IN718[4][5][6]Ti6-4In718Al: 6, Fe: 0,25, O: 0,2, Ti: 90, V: 4Ni ( Co [1% max]): 50,00-55,00, Cr: 17,00-21,00, Fe: Balance, Nb ( Ta): 4,75-5,50,Mo: 2,80-3,30, Ti: 0,65-1,15, Al: 0,20-0,80, C: 0,08, Mn : 0,35, Si : 0,35, P: 0,015,S: 0,015, B: 0,006, Cu: 0,30tab.2: specific values of Ti6-4 and IN718[4][5][6]3density [g/cm ]meltingpoint (solidus – liquidus)ß-transus-temperature *:C .specific heat capacity [J/(kg K)].CTE [µm/m K , linear (20 :C)electrical resistivity *Ω/cm .thermal conductivity [W/m K]yield tensile strength Rp0,2 [MPa]ultimate tensile strength [MPa]elongation at break [%]Young s Modulus (20 :C) *GPa Ti6-44,431604 - 1660 C8825268,60,0001786,710301150141103IN7188,19 (annealed)1260-1336 C43513,00,00012511,21036124025200

materials and experimental methodssamples:The samples used in the experiments weresprayed at four different locations:Location BLocation ALocation CLocation Dtab.4: locations and samples - overview(CGS)(CGS)(SAF M3 gun)(HVAF AK-07 gun)The experiments on adhesion (glue and brazetesting), hardness (Vickers and Rockwell),microstructure, residual stress (MLRM),surface roughness and 4-point-bending(extraction of Young’s Modulus) wereconducted at the Production TechnologyCenter (PTC) as well as at the Volvo AeroCorporation (VAC) in Trollhättan.Substrate MaterialLocationprocessTiAl6V4Location BIN718Location CTiAl6V4Location CIN718Location ATiAl6V4Location AIN718Location DCGSSAFSAFCGSCGSHVAFThree different sets of samples where used:coupons for adhesion, hardness,microstructure, residual stress measurementsquare plates for hardness, microstructurerectangular plates for 4-point-bendingsubstrate preparation:Location B: grit-blasting (Al2O3, Grit 24, 60psi, 70 ), aceton air-cleanedLocation C: grit-blasting (Al2O3, Grit 22)Location D -1,-2:grit-blasting at Location DLocation D -3: grit-blasting at VACpowder:Fig. 3: coupon, square, rectangularcommercially available powderstab.3: powders usedLocationPowdertab.5: sample specificationsRunSize [µm]BAP&C Rayma EliPowder Ti6-41- 45 00CDynamet Inco 7181?2, 3?AMDRY 1781IN718CAP&C Rayma EliPowder Ti6-41- 45 00AMOGUL MTS 2433HVOF SprayPowders “TypeInconel 718”1- 45 15AAP&C Rayma EliPowder Ti6-41- 45 00D?1,2,3?Substrate Material4IN718Ti6Al4VGeometryCouponsDimension (mm)Ø25.4 x 6.35AMS5662VAC141767AMS4928VAC141760Sq. Plate25.4x25.4x1.655961561344911156130Rect. Plate55 x 8 x 1.655961.60 mm49111.83 mm

sample preparation:sprayed state. From those values a minimalcoating thickness after grinding wascalculated.cutting:The coupons were cutted by using a Struersmachine with a diamond-cutting wheel with2000 rpm under constant water-cooling. [7]After preparation by grinding of 50µm of thecoating in two steps (grind-papers 120 and320, without water; 300rpm), and grinding thebottom side to a parallel surface (papers 120,500, 1000; 300 rpm) with a Struers Planopolmachine, the samples were cleaned in Ethanoland Acetone and dried with hot air. [10]mounting:Round samples of each location werecold/hot-mounted under vacuum by using aPTFE-mesh to avoid shrinkage-cracks.The Rockwell Superficial Hardness HR15N wasmeasured with a INDENTEC 8150K with 15 kgf(147N) force with a diamond-indenter.Grinding and polishing:The samples were prepared on a StruersPrepamatic machine by using a predefinedprogram.According to VAC-standard procedure [11](dependent on ASTM E18-08b [12]) twentyindents in evenly spaced positions over thewhole surface were placed.microstructureAccording to ASTM E562-08 [8] a manual pointcount on 30 evenly distributed fields with a100-point-layer each on a Olympus BX60Mwith a JVC TK-C181 Color-video-camera, usingthe Piscara 9.4-software was conducted, fromwhich the porosity could be calculated.VickersVickershardness HV0,3 (300g force) wasmeasured on a Micromet 2101 (Buehler)machine (Omnimet MHT software-package,magnification x400) according to VACstandard procedure [13] (dependent on ASTME-384 [14]) by twenty indents each on cold/hotmounted, grinded and polished samples.adhesion (glue and braze testing)According to ASTM C633 [9] a tensile-strengthtest on glued and brazed coatings with asurface-diameter between 23 and 25mm ofthe suitable bond agent FM1000(Polytetrafluorethylene, Cytec Fiberite,Winona, MN) between coated sample and acounter-metal-coupon respectively a brazing,was conducted on a ZWICK Z100-tensile-testmachine at a tensile-speed of 0,1 mm/min.All tests were performed at room temperatureuntil rupture occurredsurface roughnessThe surface roughness was tested with aMitutoyo SJ301 equipped with a 5µm radiusdiamond tip (ISO 1997 GAUSS, λc 0.8mm X5Range (Auto)). It was calibrated using acalibration surface (Ra 3 µm) and drawn at0,05 mm/s. All samples were air-sprayed forcleaning; different directions of testing wereused, as well as different areas.hardness10 tests were conducted on each sample, theroughness values Ra and Rz have beenevaluated. [15]RockwellTo get an insight on the approximate hardnessof the coating materials one sample of Ti6-4and IN718 each were measured in an as-5

4-point-bending test:The Young s Moduli of the coatings werecalculated by using formula (1) [16]Three rectangular samples of each examinedcoating were bend in a ZWICK Z100-machineat room temperature using a 4-point-bendingfixture and the testXport Radek Series 5 –software until rupture or reaching themachine-limits.The tests were conducted in tension-mode at10N pre-force with a bending-velocity of0,1mm/min, no significant difference betweentension and compression-mode could beexamined in preliminary tests.(1)EI F . g3 / (2 . f*)(2)I d3 . b / 12(3) E 6 . F . g3 / (d3 . b . f*)Stresses induced by cutting and grit-blastingwere analyzed in a separate test series onAlmen Strips [5][6], bending them in the lineararea of the stress-strain-curve.h: coatings: substrateb: sample-widthd: sample-thicknessE: Young s Modulus I: bending stiffnessF: force(OBS! Force applied on oneholder! ½ full force)a g l 10 mmg: distance between outer clipsf*: deflection measured using a 3-pointclip-on-deviceThe Young s Moduli of the substrate materialswere examined on rectangular samples of thesame dimensions and conditions.6(4)

Results and DiscussionMicrostructure:Fig. 4: porosity by manual point-countPoint count analysis on the prepared samplecross-sections gave an insight on porosity, gritresidues, oxides and particle-deformation.Using the same metal-alloy-powders forspraying at all locations, the different resultsare related to the processes themselves(temperature, velocity) as well as the sprayingparameters used at the different facilities.Inconel718 showed higher densities than Ti64, as well as the HVAF-process couldaccomplish higher values compared to CGS.7

Using higher temperatures the HVAF-processis providing a fillup of voids by higher plasticaldeformation of the single powderparticles(droplet-forming). Therefore the HVAFsamples sprayed at higher velocities showedthe highest densities but also had the highestamount of grit-residues apparently belongingto a excessive extanded Al2O3-grit-blastingprocess-time.HVAF-samples which were sprayed with alower particlevelocity showed a higherporosity as well as more big cracks could befound in them (see fig. 7). A lower particlevelocity and therefore a slowercoatingformation leads to cracks duringparticleshrinkage.HVAF-sprayed Titanium (fig. 11) showedclearly higher oxid-content related to the highprocess temperature exceeding the criticaltemperature of 880:C when a chemicalreaction Ti O2 TiO2 starts. Also theporosity-content was quite high, as well as alot of half-molten particles could be found.Highest porosity could be found on CGS-Ti6-4from location B, which had problems whilespraying. Clogging issues at the noozle and amalfunction of the rotational speed are clearlythe reasons for the observed microstructure.For industrial applications a lot of factors haveto be considered: Porosity is detrimental withrespect to corrosion, macrohardness,strength, wear characteristics, but also can beimportant with resect to lubrication, shockresisting properties, reducing stress levels,increasing thickness limitations and adrabilityin clearance control coatings.Also a comparison fig. 7 and 8 points out thedifferences in surfacepreparation. Theadvanced surfacepreparation by Grit-Blastingenables a better mechanical interlocking atthe interface, also leaving less residues.Fig. 5: HVAF-sprayed IN718 Location C (higher velocity)(x100)Fig. 7: HVAF-sprayed IN718 Location D (lower velocity)(x50)Fig. 6: CGS-sprayed IN718 Location A (x200)Fig. 8: HVAF-sprayed IN718 Location D-3 (lower velocity,advanced Grit-blasting) (x50)8

Fig. 9: CGS-sprayed Ti6-4, location A (x100)Fig. 11: HVAF-sprayed Ti6-4 Location C (x100)tab.6: coating thicknessesCGS-IN718HVAF-IN718, location C, Run1,2HVAF-IN718, location C, Run3HVAF-IN718, location D, Run1HVAF-IN718, location D, Run2HVAF-IN718, location D, Run3CGS-Ti6-4, location ACGS-Ti6-4, location BHVAF-Ti6-4Fig. 10: CGS-sprayed Ti6-4, location B (x100)coating thickness[µm]1504501000600500450390350500Fig. 12: comparison hardness/porosity for Ti6-4Fig. 12 shows the clear relationship between porosity and hardness. The effectPorosity Hardness is pointed out just for Ti6-4 with the higher differences in porosity between the different sets, butwas found for IN718 as well.9

adhesion testing (by glue and braze testing)HVAF excels CGS again as Inconel718 shows higher adhesion values than Ti6-4.Fig. 13: adhesionstrength IN718-sets by glue-testFig. 14: adhesionstrength Ti6-4-sets by glue-testFig. 15: adhesionstrength In718-sets by brazing-testE – Epoxy; TC – Topcoat; I – Interface; PM – Parent Metal10

Fig. 16: failure at the substrate-coating-interface (I)Fig. 18: coating-failure (TC/PM-I)Fig. 17: glue-failure (E)Fig. 19: draft of a surface with two distribution by 2step-grit-blasting; S,s: spacing; H,h: height(mechanical interlocking around the hills and in thevalleys is given at best for this roughnessdistribution)In accordance with the lowest porosity and ahigh interlocking the HVAF-Inconel718 showsthe highest adhesion, even higher than thevalue of the used gluing agent (gluefailure),what makes a brazing-test ( 80 MPa)acquired to find out the real value of 189,15MPa.interface region fig. 7) respectively a crack(also fig. 7) through the coating propagatingalong the interface. The spraying conditionsleading to those cracks were already discussedabove.Although being very porous CGS-Ti6-4 fromlocation B (fig. 10) also broke in the interfaceregion at values that could have exceeded theglue as well. A penetration of the high porouscoating (9,00%) is possible in this case.Different failure-modes occurred:Having a high adhesion strength HVAF-IN718sprayed with higher velocities exceeded theglue and broke inside the gluing-region.HVAF-sprayed Ti6-4 showed a lot of oxides(fig. 11). Oxidation during spraying is the causefor failure in the coating (fig. 18). Cracks arepropagating along the imbedded hard oxides.HVAF-IN718 sprayed with lower velocitiesbroke all in the interface-region caused byinappropriate surface-preparation (see11

Not being grit-blasted before the CGS-Ti6-4from location A showed a clear failure at thesubstrate-coating-interface. The lack ofrequired surface roughness and thereforemechanical anchorage between substrate andcoat leads to a predictable interface-failure(fig. 16) and the low adhesionstrength.Grit-residue-contaminations affect theadhesion as well as the low-cycle-fatigue(LCF)-properties ( crack-initiation and growth at residues), the diffusion betweencoating and substrate ( chemical interlock),the wetting properties of impacting powderdroplets ( Young s law) and the residualstresses ( mismatch of CTE [coefficient ofthermal expansion]) in a negative way, whatgives the necessity of as little grit-residues aspossible.As can be seen a high quality of surfacepreparation is of high influence for theadhesion strength.According to Babhou et al. [17] a surfacepreparation by grit-blasting is still state-of-theart excelling other methods like hydrodynamicprofiling, ice-blasting, electric dischargetexturing, acid pickling and laser ablation. Amaximum of adhesion strength is given at aspraying angle of close to 90:, grit-residueshave th

According to ASTM E562-08 [8] a manual point-count on 30 evenly distributed fields with a 100-point-layer each on a Olympus BX60M with a JVC TK-C181 Color-video-camera, using the Piscara 9.4-software was conducted, from which the porosity could be calculated. adhesion (glue and braze testing) According to ASTM C633 [9] a tensile-strength-test on glued and brazed coatings with a surface .

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