DOT/FAA/AR-03/63 Development And Evaluation Of The V .

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DOT/FAA/AR-03/63Office of Aviation ResearchWashington, D.C. 20591Development and Evaluation ofthe V-Notched Rail Shear Testfor Composite LaminatesSeptember 2003Final ReportThis document is available to the U.S. publicthrough the National Technical InformationService (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161.U.S. Department of TransportationFederal Aviation Administration

NOTICEThis document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S.Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. TheUnited States Government assumes no liability for the contents or usethereof. The United States Government does not endorse products ormanufacturers. Trade or manufacturer's names appear herein solelybecause they are considered essential to the objective of this report. Thisdocument does not constitute FAA certification policy. Consult your localFAA aircraft certification office as to its use.This report is available at the Federal Aviation Administration William J.Hughes Technical Center's Full-Text Technical Reports page:actlibrary.tc.faa.gov in Adobe Acrobat portable document format (PDF).

Technical Report Documentation Page1. Report No.2. Government Accession No.3. Recipient's Catalog No.DOT/FAA/AR-03/634. Title and Subtitle5. Report DateDEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE V-NOTCHED RAIL SHEARTEST FOR COMPOSITE LAMINATESSeptember 20037. Author(s)8. Performing Organization Report No.6. Performing Organization CodeDaniel O. Adams*, Joseph M. Moriarty*, Adam M. Gallegos*, and Donald F.Adams**9. Performing Organization Name and Address*Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City, UT 8410910. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)**Wyoming Test Fixtures, Inc.421 S. 19th StreetLaramie, WY 8207012. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address11. Contract or Grant No.13. Type of Report and Period CoveredU.S. Department of TransportationFederal Aviation AdministrationOffice of Aviation ResearchWashington, DC 20591Final Report14. Sponsoring Agency CodeAIR-12015. Supplementary NotesThe FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center Technical Monitor was Peter Shyprykevich.16. AbstractThe V-notched rail shear test developed in this investigation appears to be well-suited for measuring the in-plane shear modulusand shear strength of unidirectional and multidirectional composite laminates. This test method incorporates attractive featuresfrom both the Iosipescu V-notched shear test and the standard two-rail shear test. The proposed V-notched specimen provides alarger gage section than the standard Iosipescu shear specimen and enhanced loading capability compared to either existing testmethod. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate several notched and tabbed rail shear specimen configurations. A 90 notch-angle V-notched specimen configuration, with notch depths that were 22.7 percent of the gage section height, was found toproduce a desirable stress state in the gage section. Extensive rail shear testing was performed on a series of 16-ply carbon/epoxylaminates ranging from 0% 45 plies to 100% 45 plies consisting of [0]16, [0/90]4S, [(0/90)2/ 45/0/90]S, [0/ 45/90]2S, and[ 45/90/ 45/0/ 45]S. Both a tabbed rectangular specimen and the V-notched specimen produced significantly higher shearstrengths than the baseline rectangular specimen. The V-notched specimen configuration was selected over the tabbedrectangular configuration based on the higher shear strengths obtained, acceptable gage section failures produced, ease andeconomy of specimen preparation, and accuracy of shear modulus measurements. The proposed 90 notch-angle V-notchedspecimen was shown to produce accurate measures of shear modulus as predicted by finite element analysis. A new rail shear testfixture was developed to accommodate the V-notched rail shear specimen.17. Key Words18. Distribution StatementShear testing, Rail shear, Composite materials, Test methodsThis document is available to the public through the NationalTechnical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia22161.19. Security Classif. (of this report)UnclassifiedForm DOT F1700.7 (8-72)20. Security Classif. (of this page)UnclassifiedReproduction of completed page authorized21. No. of Pages10222. Price

TABLE OF CONTENTSPageEXECUTIVE SUMMARYxi1.INTRODUCTION12.LITERATURE REVIEW22.12.2253.FINITE ELEMENT MODELING73.13.23.37793.44.Historical Development of the Rail Shear Test MethodSpecimen Configurations for Composite Shear TestsIntroductionAnalysis MethodologySpecimen Geometries Modeled3.3.1 Original Rectangular and Trapezoidal Specimens3.3.2 Tabbed Original Rectangular Specimen Geometries3.3.3 Original Rectangular Notched Specimens3.3.4 Modified Rectangular V-Notched Specimen3.3.5 Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimen911111517Test Fixture Geometry19FINITE ELEMENT RESULTS204.14.24.3202121IntroductionData ProcessingOriginal Rectangular and Trapezoidal Specimen Configurations4.3.14.3.24.3.34.4Shear Stresses for Original Rectangular and Trapezoidal SpecimenConfigurations22Normal Stresses for Original Rectangular and Trapezoidal SpecimenConfigurations23Concepts for Reducing Axial and Transverse Normal Stresses27Tabbed Original Rectangular Specimen Configurations4.4.1Shear Stresses for Standard Tab, Extended Tab, and Tapered TabSpecimen Configurationsiii3030

4.4.24.54.64.85.6.32Original Rectangular Notched Specimen Configurations344.5.14.5.23537Original Rectangular V-Notched Specimen ConfigurationsOriginal Rectangular U-Notched Specimen ConfigurationsModified Rectangular V-Notched Specimen Configurations394.6.1Effects of NDR for the Modified Rectangular V-Notched Specimen414.6.2Effects of Notch Angle for the Modified Rectangular V-NotchedSpecimen43Effects of Notch Tip Radius for the Modified RectangularV-Notched Specimen464.6.34.7Axial and Transverse Normal Stresses for Standard Tab, ExtendedTab, and Tapered Tab Specimen ConfigurationsModified Rectangular U-Notched Specimen Configurations484.7.1Effects of NDR for the Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimen504.7.2Effects of Notch Width for the Modified Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimen52Shear Modulus Determination53SPECIMEN FABRICATION AND TESTING ductionMaterial Systems TestedPanel FabricationSpecimen FabricationModified Two-Rail Shear Test FixtureTesting ProcedureEXPERIMENTAL RESULTS646.16.26.3IntroductionPreliminary EvaluationPrimary Evaluation6465666.3.1 Rail Shear Fixture Evaluation6.3.2 Specimen Evaluation6.3.3 New Rail Shear Test Fixture667282Comparison of the V-Notched Rail Shear Test With Other Shear Tests846.4iv

6.4.16.4.2Comparison of Shear StrengthsComparison of Shear Moduli84867.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS878.REFERENCES89LIST OF FIGURESFigurePage1Modified Two-Rail Shear Fixture of Hussain and Adams22ASTM D 2719 Large Panel Shear Test33ASTM D 2719 Two-Rail Shear Test for Structural Panels34ASTM D 4255 Two-Rail Shear Test45ASTM D 4255 Three-Rail Shear Test56Iosipescu (V-Notched) Shear Test Fixture and Specimen67Compact Shear Test Fixture and Specimen68Orientation of Finite Element Model89Initial Rectangular Specimen Investigated1010Initial Trapezoidal Specimen Investigated1011Standard Tab Specimen Configuration1212Extended Tab Specimen Configuration1213Tapered Tab Specimen Configuration1314V-Notched Specimen Dimensions1415U-Notched Specimen Dimensions1416Modified Rectangular V-Notched Specimen Geometry for NDR Investigation1517(a) 70 and (b) 110 Notch Angles Modeled Using Variable Width Method1618(a) 70 and (b) 110 Notch Angles Modeled Using Constant Width Method17v

19Rounded V-Notched Specimen Dimensions1720Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimen Geometry for NDR Investigation1821Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimen Geometries for Notch WidthInvestigation1922Actual Test Fixture Dimensions1923Simulated Test Fixture Dimensions2024Shear Stress Distributions for the Original Rectangular Specimen (Normalized)2225Shear Stress Distributions for the Original Trapezoidal Specimen (Normalized)2226Axial Stresses for Original Rectangular Specimen (Normalized)2427Transverse Stresses for Original Rectangular Specimen (Normalized)2528Axial Stresses for Original Trapezoidal Specimen (Normalized)2629Transverse Stresses for Original Trapezoidal Specimen (Normalized)2630Connecting Members Producing a Four-Bar Linkage2831Effect of Constraint Concepts on Axial Stresses for [0/ 45/90]2S RectangularSpecimen (Normalized)28Effect of Constraint Concepts on Transverse Stresses for [0/ 45/90]2S RectangularSpecimen (Normalized)29Effect of Constraint Concepts on Shear Stresses for [0/ 45/90]2S RectangularSpecimen (Normalized)2934Shear Stress Distributions for the Standard Tab Specimen (Normalized)3035Shear Stress Distributions for the Extended Tab Specimen (Normalized)3136Shear Stress Distributions for the Tapered Tab Specimen (Normalized)3137Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the Standard Tab Specimens (Normalized)3238Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the Standard Tab Specimens(Normalized)3239Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the Extended Tab Specimens (Normalized)3340Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the Extended Tab Specimens(Normalized)333233vi

41Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the Tapered Tab Specimens (Normalized)3442Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the Tapered Tab Specimens(Normalized)34Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original Rectangular V-NotchedSpecimen Configurations (Normalized)35Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original RectangularV-Notched Specimens (Normalized)36Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original RectangularV-Notched Specimens (Normalized)36Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimen Configurations (Normalized)37Axial Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimen Configurations (Normalized)38Transverse Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Original RectangularU-Notched Specimen Configurations (Normalized)39Shear Stress Distributions for the Baseline V-Notched Specimen Configuration(Normalized)40Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the Baseline V-Notched SpecimenConfiguration (Normalized)40Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the Baseline V-Notched SpecimenConfiguration (Normalized)41Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified Rectangular V-NotchedSpecimen With Varying NDR (Normalized)42Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularV-Notched Specimen With Varying NDR (Normalized)42Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularV-Notched Specimen With Varying NDR (Normalized)43Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 Notch AnglesModeled Using a Variable Notch Width (Normalized)44Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 Notch AnglesModeled Using a Constant Notch Width (Normalized)444344454647484950515253545556vii

57585960616263646566676869707172Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 NotchAngles Modeled Using a Variable Notch Width (Normalized)45Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 NotchAngles Modeled Using a Constant Notch Width (Normalized)45Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 NotchAngles Modeled Using a Variable Notch Width (Normalized)45Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S 70 and 110 NotchAngles Modeled Using a Constant Notch Width (Normalized)46Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Laminate With 0.025- and0.050-in. Notch Radii (Normalized)47Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Laminate With 0.025- and0.050-in. Notch Radii (Normalized)47Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Laminate With0.025- and 0.050-in. Notch Radii (Normalized)48Shear Stress Distributions in Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimens(Normalized)49Axial Normal Stress Distributions in Modified Rectangular U-Notched Specimens(Normalized)49Transverse Normal Stress Distributions in Modified Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimens (Normalized)50Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimens of Varying NDR (Normalized)51Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularU-Notched Specimens of Varying NDR (Normalized)51Transverse Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularU-Notched Specimens of Varying NDR (Normalized)51Shear Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified Rectangular U-NotchedSpecimens With Various Notch Widths (Normalized)52Axial Normal Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularU-Notched Specimens With Various Notch Widths (Normalized)52Transverse Stress Distributions for the [0/ 45/90]2S Modified RectangularU-Notched Specimens With Various Notch Widths (Normalized)53viii

73Nondimensionalized Shear Moduli Calculated for Various Strain Gage Lengths5474Rectangular V-Notched Specimen Geometries5775U-Notched Specimen Geometry5876Modified V-Notched Specimen Geometry5977Compact V-Notched Specimen Geometry5978Modified Two-Rail Shear Test Fixture6079Drawings of Modified Fixture Side Rails6180Drawings of Modified Fixture Loading and Gripping Plates6181Redesigned Loading Plate6282Effect of Clamping Bolt Torque on Shear Strength6783Strain-Gaged Aluminum Specimen6784Compression-Loaded Rail Shear Fixture6885Constraining of Compression-Loaded Fixture6986Linkage Bars Applied to Rail Shear Fixture6987Normalized Shear Strains for the Four Fixture Configurations7088Normalized Axial Strains for the Four Fixture Configurations7189Normalized Transverse Strains for the Four Fixture Configurations7190Typical Failures of the Rectangular Specimens7391Effect of Percentage of 45 Plies on Untabbed and Tabbed Laminates7692Typical Failures of the Tapered Tab Specimens7693Typical Delamination of Tabbed Specimens7694Typical Failures of the V-Notched

4 ASTM D 4255 Two-Rail Shear Test 4 5 ASTM D 4255 Three-Rail Shear Test 5 6 Iosipescu (V-Notched) Shear Test Fixture and Specimen 6 7 Compact Shear Test Fixture and Specimen 6 8 Orientation of Finite Element Model 8 9 Initial Rectangular Specimen Investigated 10 10 Initial Trapezoidal Specimen Investigated 10 11 Standard Tab Specimen Configuration 12 12 Extended Tab Specimen Configuration 12 .

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